Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-PM (current)


4,375 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollution-induced placental epigenetic alterations in early life: A candidate miRNA approach

Authors: Tsamou, M; Vrijens, K; Madhloum, N; Lefebvre, W; Vanpoucke, C; Nawrot, TS (In Press) Epigenetics. HERO ID: 3359719

[Less] Particulate matter (PM) exposure during in utero life may entail adverse health outcomes in later-life. . . . [More] Particulate matter (PM) exposure during in utero life may entail adverse health outcomes in later-life. Air pollution's adverse effects are known to alter gene expression profiles, which can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). We investigate the potential influence of air pollution exposure in prenatal life on placental miRNA expression. Within the framework of the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, we measured the expression of six candidate miRNAs in placental tissue from 210 mother-newborn pairs by qRT-PCR. Trimester-specific PM2.5 exposure levels were estimated for each mother's home address using a spatiotemporal model. Multiple regression models were used to study miRNA expression and in utero exposure to PM2.5 over various time windows during pregnancy. The placental expression of miR-21 (-33.7%, 95% CI: -53.2 to -6.2, P=0.022), miR-146a (-30.9%, 95% CI: -48.0 to -8.1, P=0.012) and miR-222 (-25.4%, 95% CI: -43.0 to -2.4, P=0.034) was inversely associated with PM2.5 exposure during the 2(nd) trimester of pregnancy, while placental expression of miR-20a and miR-21 was positively associated with 1(st) trimester exposure. Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was identified as a common target of the miRNAs significantly associated with PM exposure. Placental PTEN expression was strongly and positively associated (+59.6% per 5 μg/m³ increment, 95% CI: 26.9 to 100.7, P<0.0001) with 3(rd) trimester PM2.5 exposure. Further research is required to establish the role these early miRNA and mRNA expression changes might play in PM-induced health effects. We provide molecular evidence showing that in utero PM2.5 exposure affects miRNAs expression as well as its downstream target PTEN.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Short term exposure to fine particulate matter and hospital admission risks and costs in the Medicare population: time stratified, case crossover study

Authors: Wei, Y; Wang, Y; Di, Q; Choirat, C; Wang, Y; Koutrakis, P; Zanobetti, A; Dominici, F; Schwartz, JD (2019) HERO ID: 6306536

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To assess risks and costs of hospital admission associated with short term . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To assess risks and costs of hospital admission associated with short term exposure to fine particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) for 214 mutually exclusive disease groups.

DESIGN: Time stratified, case crossover analyses with conditional logistic regressions adjusted for non-linear confounding effects of meteorological variables.

SETTING: Medicare inpatient hospital claims in the United States, 2000-12 (n=95 277 169).

PARTICIPANTS: All Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 or older admitted to hospital.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of hospital admission, number of admissions, days in hospital, inpatient and post-acute care costs, and value of statistical life (that is, the economic value used to measure the cost of avoiding a death) due to the lives lost at discharge for 214 disease groups.

RESULTS: Positive associations between short term exposure to PM2.5 and risk of hospital admission were found for several prevalent but rarely studied diseases, such as septicemia, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and acute and unspecified renal failure. Positive associations were also found between risk of hospital admission and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, and thromboembolism, confirming previously published results. These associations remained consistent when restricted to days with a daily PM2.5 concentration below the WHO air quality guideline for the 24 hour average exposure to PM2.5. For the rarely studied diseases, each 1 µg/m3 increase in short term PM2.5 was associated with an annual increase of 2050 hospital admissions (95% confidence interval 1914 to 2187 admissions), 12 216 days in hospital (11 358 to 13 075), US$31m (£24m, €28m; $29m to $34m) in inpatient and post-acute care costs, and $2.5bn ($2.0bn to $2.9bn) in value of statistical life. For diseases with a previously known association, each 1 µg/m3 increase in short term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an annual increase of 3642 hospital admissions (3434 to 3851), 20 098 days in hospital (18 950 to 21 247), $69m ($65m to $73m) in inpatient and post-acute care costs, and $4.1bn ($3.5bn to $4.7bn) in value of statistical life.

CONCLUSIONS: New causes and previously identified causes of hospital admission associated with short term exposure to PM2.5 were found. These associations remained even at a daily PM2.5 concentration below the WHO 24 hour guideline. Substantial economic costs were linked to a small increase in short term PM2.5.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Long-term effect of fine particulate matter on hospitalization with dementia

Authors: Lee, M; Schwartz, J; Wang, Y; Dominici, F; Zanobetti, A (2019) HERO ID: 6306534

[Less] BACKGROUND: New evidence suggests that particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter . . . [More] BACKGROUND: New evidence suggests that particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) is associated with late-onset dementia (LOD). However, epidemiological studies for the entire population are lacking.

METHODS: We analyzed approximately 94 million follow-up records from fee-for-service Medicare records for 13 million Medicare beneficiaries residing in the southeastern United States (U.S.) from 2000 to 2013. We used spatially and temporally continuous PM2.5 exposure data. To account for time-varying PM2.5 levels, we applied an Andersen-Gill counting process proportional hazard model; we stratified our analyses by subtype of dementia and level of urbanization of residence.

RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 6 years, 1,409,599 hospitalizations with dementia occurred. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of hospitalization with dementia was 1.049 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.048 to 1.051) per 1 μg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5. The hazard ratio for vascular dementia was higher (HR, 1.086; 95% CI, 1.082 to 1.090). In large, the magnitude of the effect grew as the level of urbanization increased (HR, 1.036; 95% CI, 1.031 to 1.041 in rural areas versus HR, 1.052; 95% CI, 1.050 to 1.054 in metropolitan areas).

CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to higher PM2.5 was associated with increased hospitalizations with dementia.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fine particulate matters: The impact of air quality standards on cardiovascular mortality

Authors: Corrigan, AE; Becker, MM; Neas, LM; Cascio, WE; Rappold, AG (2018) HERO ID: 4165868

[Less] BACKGROUND: In 1997 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set the first annual National . . . [More] BACKGROUND: In 1997 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set the first annual National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Although the weight of scientific evidence has determined that a causal relationship exists between PM2.5 exposures and cardiovascular effects, few studies have concluded whether NAAQS-related reductions in PM2.5 led to improvements in public health.

METHODS: We examined the change in cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate and the association between change in PM2.5 and change in CV-mortality rate before (2000-2004) and after implementation of the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS (2005-2010) among U.S. counties. We further examined how the association varied with respect to two factors related to NAAQS compliance: attainment status and design values (DV). We used difference-in-differences and linear regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders.

FINDINGS: Across 619 counties, there were 1.10 (95% CI: 0.37, 1.82) fewer CV-deaths per year per 100,000 people for each 1µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5. Nonattainment counties had a twofold larger reduction in mean annual PM2.5, 2.1µg/m3, compared to attainment counties, 0.97µg/m3. CV-mortality rate decreased by 0.59 (95% CI: -0.54, 1.71) in nonattainment and 1.96 (95% CI: 0.77, 3.15) deaths per 100,000 people for each 1µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5 in attainment counties. When stratifying counties by DV, results were similar: counties with DV greater than 15µg/m3 experienced the greatest decrease in mean annual PM2.5 (2.29µg/m3) but the smallest decrease in CV-mortality rate per unit decrease in PM2.5, 0.73 (95% CI: -0.57, 2.02).

INTERPRETATION: We report a significant association between the change in PM2.5 and the change in CV-mortality rate before and after the implementation of NAAQS and note that the health benefits per 1µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5 persist at levels below the current national standard.

FUNDING: US EPA intermural research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A county-level estimate of PM2.5 related chronic mortality risk in China based on multi-model exposure data

Authors: Wang, Q; Wang, J; He, MZ; Kinney, PL; Li, T (2018) Environment International 110:105-112. HERO ID: 4166581

[Less] BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a serious . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a serious environmental problem in China, but evidence of health effects with higher resolution and spatial coverage is insufficient.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a better overall understanding of long-term mortality effects of PM2.5 pollution in China and a county-level spatial map for estimating PM2.5 related premature deaths of the entire country.

METHOD: Using four sets of satellite-derived PM2.5 concentration data and the integrated exposure-response model which has been employed by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) to estimate global mortality of ambient and household air pollution in 2010, we estimated PM2.5 related premature mortality for five endpoints across China in 2010.

RESULT: Premature deaths attributed to PM2.5 nationwide amounted to 1.27million in total, and 119,167, 83,976, 390,266, 670,906 for adult chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, respectively; 3995 deaths for acute lower respiratory infections were estimated in children under the age of 5. About half of the premature deaths were from counties with annual average PM2.5 concentrations above 63.61μg/m3, which cover 16.97% of the Chinese territory. These counties were largely located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the North China Plain. High population density and high pollution areas exhibited the highest health risks attributed to air pollution. On a per capita basis, the highest values were mostly located in heavily polluted industrial regions.

CONCLUSION: PM2.5-attributable health risk is closely associated with high population density and high levels of pollution in China. Further estimates using long-term historical exposure data and concentration-response (C-R) relationships should be completed in the future to investigate longer-term trends in the effects of PM2.5.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Supplement: Disparities in Distribution of Particulate Matter Emission Sources by Race and Poverty Status

Authors: Mikati, I; Benson, AF; Luben, TJ; Sacks, JD; Richmond-Bryant, J (2018) American Journal of Public Health 1:e1-e6. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 4241047

[Less] OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter (PM)-emitting facilities by the characteristics of the surrounding residential population and to illustrate various spatial scales at which to consider such disparities.

METHODS: We assigned facilities emitting PM in the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to nearby block groups across the 2009 to 2013 American Community Survey population. We calculated the burden from these emissions for racial/ethnic groups and by poverty status. We quantified disparities nationally and for each state and county in the country.

RESULTS: For PM of 2.5 micrometers in diameter or less, those in poverty had 1.35 times higher burden than did the overall population, and non-Whites had 1.28 times higher burden. Blacks, specifically, had 1.54 times higher burden than did the overall population. These patterns were relatively unaffected by sensitivity analyses, and disparities held not only nationally but within most states and counties as well.

CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in burden from PM-emitting facilities exist at multiple geographic scales. Disparities for Blacks are more pronounced than are disparities on the basis of poverty status. Strictly socioeconomic considerations may be insufficient to reduce PM burdens equitably across populations. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print February 22, 2018: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304297).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Geospatial hot spot analysis of lung cancer patients correlated to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and industrial wind in Eastern Thailand

Authors: Zhang, H; Tripathi, NK (2018) HERO ID: 4165060

[Less] Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer and is the major cause of death first among males and . . . [More] Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer and is the major cause of death first among males and second among females in Thailand. Lung cancer is highly related to particulate matter (PM)-especially fine particulates with a diameter of 2.5 mu m or less (PM2.5). Recent studies have indicated a strong correlation between fine particulate matter (PM25) and lung function diseases. Therefore, this study aims to investigate and explore the phenomenon of lung cancer and its spatial correlation to mortality and PM2.5 in Eastern Thailand from 2008 to 2012 using multidisciplinary techniques. The cancer registry was utilized as data inventory and geographical information system (GIS), Global Moran's I, Getis-Ord G statistics, Average Nearest Neighbor (ANN) tool, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Local Indicators of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA), and ordinary least square (OLS) methods to generate the PM2.5 maps to create hot spots in Eastern Thailand. The results visualize and analyze lung cancer hot spots and are adjusted for known factors such as sex and age of lung cancer patients. Choropleth maps of lung cancer incidence and mortality rates, generated for the first time, revealed that the number of male cancer patients is higher than that of females in Eastern Thailand. Global autocorrelation demonstrated considerable spatial clustering of lung cancer incidence and mortality. 91.56% of the lung cancer patients belonged to the age group of above 50 in both sexes. Significant relationships were found between the PM2.5 variable and the spatial patterns of lung cancer incidence and mortality. The Chonburi and Chanthaburi provinces were found to be the major hot spots for lung cancer incidence, which are close to industrial areas. These findings are useful in identifying the cancer registry information globally as well as locally. This study also provides a useful set of tools to identify and create hot spots in the developing countries where data and resources are major limitations. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between mortality and prolonged exposure to elevated particulate matter concentrations in East Asia

Authors: Kim, SE; Bell, ML; Hashizume, M; Honda, Y; Kan, H; Kim, H (2018) Environment International 110:88-94. HERO ID: 4165913

[Less] Previous epidemiological studies regarding mortality and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter . . . [More] Previous epidemiological studies regarding mortality and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10μm (PM10) have considered only absolute concentrations of PM10 as a risk factor. However, none have evaluated the durational effect of multi-day periods with high PM10 concentrations. To evaluate the durational effect (i.e., number of days) of high PM10 concentrations on mortality, we collected data regarding 3,662,749 deaths from 28 cities in Japan, South Korea, and China (1993-2009). Exposure was defined as consecutive days with daily PM10 concentrations ≥75μg/m3. A Poisson model was used with duration as the variable of interest, while controlling for daily PM10 concentrations, meteorological variables, seasonal trends, and day of the week. The increase in mortality risk for each additional consecutive day with PM10 concentrations ≥75μg/m3 was 0.68% in Japan (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35-1.01%), 0.48% in South Korea (95% CI: 0.30-0.66%), and 0.24% in China (95% CI: 0.14-0.33%). The annual average maximum number of consecutive days with high PM10 in Japan (2.40days), South Korea (6.96days), and China (42.26days) was associated with non-accidental death increases of 1.64% (95% CI: 1.31-1.98%), 3.37% (95% CI: 3.19-3.56%), and 10.43% (95% CI: 10.33-10.54%), respectively. These findings may facilitate the planning of public health interventions to minimize the health burden of air pollution.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Pilot study on coarse PM monitoring

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) HERO ID: 4445486

[Less] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted this field study in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate . . . [More] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted this field study in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate the challenges in sampling and analyzing coarse aerosol, the precision of coarse PM (PMc) mass species measurements using dichotomous (dichot) samplers, and mass balance of PMc. The study database is publicly available through the EPA Air Quality System (AQS) to EPA personnel, atmospheric scientists, and others concerned with the science of PM air pollution, related health effects, and human exposure to the coarse PM fraction of particulate matter. Additional samplers—including paired PM10 and PM2.5 Federal Reference Method (FRM) samplers to calculate PM10-2.5 mass and species concentrations by the difference method, and semi-continuous monitors—were operated to further characterize coarse PM and aid in the interpretation of any differences between dichot data and difference method data. The results of this study may be used to establish routine field operating procedures and laboratory standard operating procedures (SOPs) for use in PMc speciation monitoring.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Modeling NH4NO3 over the San Joaquin Valley during the 2013 DISCOVER‐AQ Campaign

Authors: Kelly, JT; Parworth, CL; Zhang, Q; Miller, DJ; Sun, K; Zondlo, MA; Baker, KR; Wisthaler, A; Nowak, JB; Pusede, SE; Cohen, RC; Weinheimer, AJ; Beyersdorf, AJ; Tonnesen, GS; Bash, JO; Valin, LC; Crawford, JH; Fried, A; Walega, JG (2018) Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123:4727-4745. HERO ID: 4449281

[Less] The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California experiences high concentrations of particulate matter NH4NO3 . . . [More] The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California experiences high concentrations of particulate matter NH4NO3 during episodes of meteorological stagnation in winter. A rich data set of observations related to NH4NO3 formation was acquired during multiple periods of elevated NH4NO3 during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER‐AQ) field campaign in SJV in January and February 2013. Here NH4NO3 is simulated during the SJV DISCOVER‐AQ study period with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, diagnostic model evaluation is performed using the DISCOVER‐AQ data set, and integrated reaction rate analysis is used to quantify HNO3 production rates. Simulated NO3− generally agrees well with routine monitoring of 24‐hr average NO3−, but comparisons with hourly average NO3− measurements in Fresno revealed differences at higher time resolution. Predictions of gas‐particle partitioning of total nitrate (HNO3 + NO3−) and NHx (NH3 + NH4+) generally agree well with measurements in Fresno, although partitioning of total nitrate to HNO3 is sometimes overestimated at low relative humidity in afternoon. Gas‐particle partitioning results indicate that NH4NO3 formation is limited by HNO3 availability in both the model and ambient. NH3 mixing ratios are underestimated, particularly in areas with large agricultural activity, and additional work on the spatial allocation of NH3 emissions is warranted. During a period of elevated NH4NO3, the model predicted that the OH + NO2 pathway contributed 46% to total HNO3 production in SJV and the N2O5 heterogeneous hydrolysis pathway contributed 54%. The relative importance of the OH + NO2 pathway for HNO3 production is predicted to increase as NOx emissions decrease.