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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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1,848 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diethyl phthalate enhances apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in PC12 cells

Authors: Sun, Y; Takahashi, K; Hosokawa, T; Saito, T; Kurasaki, M (In Press) Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology Online Pharmacology Online. HERO ID: 1249973

[Less] In this study, to examine the mechanism of diethyl phthalate toxicity to cells, the effects of diethyl . . . [More] In this study, to examine the mechanism of diethyl phthalate toxicity to cells, the effects of diethyl phthalate on apoptosis in a PC12 cell system were investigated by assaying apoptotic factors such as caspase-3, Bax, cytochrome c and DNA damage. Diethyl phthalate was shown to enhance the apoptosis induced by serum deprivation according to the results of DNA electrophoresis and TUNEL signal assays, although it could not induce apoptosis itself in the cells. This enhancement was thought to be because of an increase in caspase-3-like activity. In addition, the expression of bax and contents of cytochrome c in the cytosol showed a tendency to increase the cells exposed to diethyl phthalate. These results indicated that diethyl phthalate, a potential endocrine disrupter, affects the apoptotic system in PC12 cells. Diethyl phthalate may enhance oxidative stress such as that induced by reactive oxygen species in PC12 cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparative antioxidant responses in liver of Carassius auratus exposed to phthalates: An integrated biomarker approach

Authors: Zheng, Q; Feng, M; Dai, Y (In Press) Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. HERO ID: 1987640

[Less] Phthalates (PAEs) are chemical agents typically used as plasticizers in numerous industrial products. . . . [More] Phthalates (PAEs) are chemical agents typically used as plasticizers in numerous industrial products. They have become ubiquitous contaminants due to their tendency to release into the environment. The present study was conducted to investigate the comparative antioxidant responses in liver of freshwater goldfish Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with 17 different PAEs at a concentration of 10mg/kg for 10 days. The results indicated that these PAEs can adversely affect the antioxidant status, confirmed by the significantly inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). Especially, the latter two enzymes constituted the most affected antioxidant enzymes after the exposure, and the lowest values were recorded for the catalase activity. The toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response, with dicyclohexyl phthalate the most toxic and diethyl phthalate the least. Overall, these findings may contribute to the risk assessments of these chemicals on aquatic species.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of cooking at home on the levels of eight phthalates in foods

Authors: Fierens, T; Vanermen, G; Van Holderbeke, M; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I (In Press) Food and Chemical Toxicology 4428-4435. HERO ID: 1311695

[Less] Food products can be contaminated with toxic compounds via the environment. Another possibility of food . . . [More] Food products can be contaminated with toxic compounds via the environment. Another possibility of food contamination is that toxicants are generated in foods or that chemicals migrate from food contact materials into foods during processing. In this study, the effect of cooking at home on the levels of phthalates - world's most used group of plasticisers - in various food types (starchy products, vegetables and meat and fish) was examined. Eight compounds were considered, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Food products were analysed before as well as after cooking (boiling, steaming, (deep-)frying or grilling). In general, phthalate concentrations in foods declined after cooking, except in vegetables, where almost no effect was seen. Several factors influenced the degree of this decline (e.g. weight difference, fat uptake, etc.). Of all phthalates, DEHP, DiBP and BBP were affected the most. In conclusion, cooking at home definitely affected phthalate concentrations in foods and thus needs to be considered in order to correctly assess humans' dietary exposure to these contaminants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate-induced oxidative stress and association with asthma-related airway inflammation in adolescents

Authors: Franken, C; Lambrechts, N; Govarts, E; Koppen, G; Den Hond, E; Ooms, D; Voorspoels, S; Bruckers, L; Loots, I; Nelen, V; Sioen, I; Nawrot, TS; Baeyens, W; Van Larebeke, N; Schoeters, G (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:468-477. HERO ID: 3859027

[Less] BACKGROUND: In Belgium, around 8.5% of the children have asthmatic symptoms. Increased . . . [More] BACKGROUND: In Belgium, around 8.5% of the children have asthmatic symptoms. Increased asthma risk in children has been reported in relation to exposure to phthalate plasticizers but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown.

AIM: The aim of this study was to identify if oxidative stress, assessed by excision of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) from damaged DNA, is an intermediate marker for the association between phthalate exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 418 14-15-year-old youngsters, recruited as a representative sample of residents of Flanders (Belgium), personal exposure to phthalates was assessed by measuring phthalate metabolites in urine: mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP). Analysis of 8-OHdG in urine was used as a sensitive biomarker of oxidative stress at the level of DNA. The presence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was elicited by a self-administered questionnaire. Associations were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Mediation was tested using Baron and Kenny's regression approach.

RESULTS: A significant increased risk of a youngster being diagnosed with asthma was found for both urinary MnBP (metabolite of dibutyl phthalate (DBP)) and the sum of the three di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHP=MEHP+MEHHP+MEOHP), with respective odds ratio of 1.84 [95% CI: 1.02, 3.32] for MnBP and 1.94 [95% CI: 1.07, 3.51] for ΣDEHP. In addition, we observed significant associations between all urinary phthalate metabolites and increased urinary levels of 8-OHdG. The associations were stronger in girls than in boys. We did not found evidence that 8-OHdG was associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma.

CONCLUSION: The results of our study are in line with other findings from epidemiological surveys and raise further concern about DEHP and DBP as risk factors for asthma, however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet well understood.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and visual recognition memory among infants at 27 weeks

Authors: Ipapo, KN; Factor-Litvak, P; Whyatt, RM; Calafat, AM; Diaz, D; Perera, F; Rauh, V; Herbstman, JB (2017) Environmental Research 155:7-14. HERO ID: 3859030

[Less] BACKGROUND: Prior research has demonstrated inverse associations between maternal prenatal . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Prior research has demonstrated inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and cognitive development assessed in preschool and school-aged children. While there are a limited number of studies that evaluated these associations during infancy, no study has evaluated whether these associations exist when using the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII), which captures novelty preference as a function of visual recognition memory.

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated associations between phthalate metabolite concentrations in maternal prenatal urine and cognition in infancy using the FTII at 27 weeks and determine if these associations are sex-specific.

METHODS: Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) and four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (DEHP) were quantified in urine samples collected from 168 minority women living in urban neighborhoods during their third trimester of pregnancy. The FTII was administered to infants at 27 weeks to measure visual recognition memory and was recorded as the novelty preference score.

RESULTS: There were no associations between prenatal phthalate metabolite concentrations and novelty preference score in the full sample. However, there was evidence of effect modification by infant sex. Sex-stratified models demonstrated that compared to girls in the lowest tertile of MBzP concentrations, girls in tertiles 2 and 3 had, on average, 3.98 and 4.65 points lower novelty preference scores (p-value=0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The relationship was similar for ΣDEHP, MiBP, and MEP. Effects among boys were inconsistent and generally not significant.

CONCLUSION: Maternal prenatal exposure to some phthalates was negatively associated with visual recognition memory as measured by the FTII among girls at age 27 weeks.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate release in leachate from municipal landfills of central Poland

Authors: Wowkonowicz, P; Kijeńska, M (2017) PLoS ONE 12:e0174986. HERO ID: 3859036

[Less] Phthalate diesters (PAEs) are used as plasticizer additives to polymer chains to make the material more . . . [More] Phthalate diesters (PAEs) are used as plasticizer additives to polymer chains to make the material more flexible and malleable. PAEs are bonded physically, not chemically, to the polymeric matrix and can migrate to and leach from the product surface, posing a serious danger to the environment and human health. There have been a number of studies on PAE concentrations in landfill leachate conducted in the EU and around the world, though few in Poland. In the present study, the leachate of five municipal landfills was analyzed for the presence of PAEs. Raw leachate was sampled four times over the period of one year in 2015/16. It was the first large study on this subject in Poland. PAEs were detected in the leachate samples on all of the landfills, thereby indicating that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The following PAEs were detected in at least one sample: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Di-isobutylphthalate (DIBP). Out of all ten PAEs, DEHP was the most predominant, with concentrations up to 73.9 μg/L. DEHP was present in 65% of analyzed samples (in 100% of samples in spring, 80% in winter, and 40% in summer and autumn). In only 25% of all samples DEHP was below the acceptable UE limit for surface water (1.3 μg/L), while 75% was from 1.7 to 56 times higher than that value. On the two largest landfills DEHP concentrations were observed during samples from all four seasons, including on a landfill which has been remediated and closed for the last 5 years.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Population Exposure to Phthalate-containing Drugs

Authors: Broe, A; Ennis, ZN; Pottegård, A; Hallas, J; Ahern, T; Damkier, P (2017) Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology Online Pharmacology Online 121:153-158. HERO ID: 3859044

[Less] Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors. Not commonly recognized, phthalates are used as excipients . . . [More] Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors. Not commonly recognized, phthalates are used as excipients in a number of drug formulations. We aimed to describe the sale of phthalate-containing drugs in Denmark from 2004 to 2015. National data on annual sale of medications (tablets only) were accessed from medstat.dk. Data from the Danish Medicines Agency on phthalate content per tablet were merged with data on total sale for each active substance and drug formulation. We used the 'defined daily dose' (DDD) as the unit of sale and calculated the total amount of phthalate (mg) dispensed per 1000 inhabitants. Specific tablet content was compared with the maximum daily exposure limits defined by regulatory agencies for diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) of 4.0 and 0.01 mg/kg/day, respectively. Use of phthalate-containing drugs in Denmark was common. We found 154 drug products containing five different phthalates. Two low-molecular-weight phthalates and three high-molecular-weight phthalates were identified, with a total sale of 59.4 and 112 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day during the study period, respectively. The highest amount of DBP was found in multi-enzymes (24.6-32.8 mg per DDD) and mesalazine (12.5-26.4 mg per DDD). Budesonide, lithium and bisacodyl also exceeded the DBP exposure limit of 0.01 mg/kg/day. Other drugs had high levels of DEP, although not exceeding the exposure limit. Sales of phthalate-containing drugs in Denmark from 2004 to 2015 were substantial, and phthalate exposure from several products exceeded the regulatory exposure limit introduced in 2014.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal and childhood exposure to phthalate diesters and sex steroid hormones in 2-, 5-, 8-, and 11-year-old children: A pilot study of the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

Authors: Wen, HJ; Sie, L; Su, PH; Chuang, CJ; Chen, HY; Sun, CW; Huang, LH; Hsiung, CA; Julie Wang, SL (2017) Journal of Epidemiology 27:516-523. HERO ID: 3859045

[Less] BACKGROUND: Phthalate diesters are commonly used and have been well established as . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Phthalate diesters are commonly used and have been well established as environmental endocrine disruptors. However, few studies have examined their effects on sex steroid hormones in children. We followed children over time to examine the association between pre- and post-natal phthalate exposure and sex steroid hormone levels at 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age.

METHODS: We recruited 430 pregnant women from central Taiwan from 2000 to 2001 and assessed their children at birth, 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. We studies children with at least one measurement for both phthalate and hormone levels during each any of the follow-up time point (n = 193). Estradiol, free testosterone, testosterone, and progesterone were measured from venous blood. Three monoesters of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, and mono-methyl phthalate were measured in maternal urine collected during the 3rd trimester and child urine collected at each follow-up point. The sum of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (∑MEHP) was calculated by summing the concentrations of the three DEHP monoesters. Generalized estimating equation regression analysis with repeated measures was used to estimate associations between phthalate metabolites and hormone levels.

RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, maternal ∑MEHP level was associated with decreased levels of progesterone in girls (β = -0.309 p = 0.001). The child ∑MEHP concentration was associated with decreased levels of progesterone for girls (β = -0.194, p = 0.003) and with decreased levels of free testosterone for boys (β = -0.124, p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS: Early-life DEHP exposure may alter sex steroid hormones of children over time, which may pose potential reproductive health risks.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of estrogenic and androgenic activity of phthalates by the XenoScreen YES/YAS in vitro assay

Authors: Czernych, R; Chraniuk, M; Zagożdżon, P; Wolska, L (2017) Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 53:95-104. HERO ID: 3859051

[Less] The presented study investigates and compares the estrogenic and androgenic activities of commonly used . . . [More] The presented study investigates and compares the estrogenic and androgenic activities of commonly used diesters of phthalic acid (phthalates) using the XenoScreen YES/YAS assay. Phthalates are commonly used plasticizers in polymers dedicated for i.e. food and drug containers. Since phthalates are not chemically bonded to the polymer, they can leach or migrate from the polymer. Therefore, phthalates are identified as contaminants in a variety of consumer products. Investigation of estrogenic and androgenic activities of phthalates (DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DINP) showed no significant effect of tested substances either on hERα or hAR receptors. Phthalates exhibited strong anti-estrogenic (IC50 for BBP=8.66μM, IC50 for DEHP=3.61μM and IC50 for DINP=0.065μM) and anti-androgenic (IC50 for BBP=5.30μM, IC50 for DEHP=2.87μM and IC50 for DINP=0.068μM) activities.