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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diethyl phthalate enhances apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in PC12 cells

Authors: Sun, Y; Takahashi, K; Hosokawa, T; Saito, T; Kurasaki, M (In Press) Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology Online Pharmacology Online. HERO ID: 1249973

[Less] In this study, to examine the mechanism of diethyl phthalate toxicity to cells, the effects of diethyl . . . [More] In this study, to examine the mechanism of diethyl phthalate toxicity to cells, the effects of diethyl phthalate on apoptosis in a PC12 cell system were investigated by assaying apoptotic factors such as caspase-3, Bax, cytochrome c and DNA damage. Diethyl phthalate was shown to enhance the apoptosis induced by serum deprivation according to the results of DNA electrophoresis and TUNEL signal assays, although it could not induce apoptosis itself in the cells. This enhancement was thought to be because of an increase in caspase-3-like activity. In addition, the expression of bax and contents of cytochrome c in the cytosol showed a tendency to increase the cells exposed to diethyl phthalate. These results indicated that diethyl phthalate, a potential endocrine disrupter, affects the apoptotic system in PC12 cells. Diethyl phthalate may enhance oxidative stress such as that induced by reactive oxygen species in PC12 cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

Journal Article
Journal Article

The evaluation of inhalation studies for exposure quality: A case study with formaldehyde

Authors: Whalan, JE; Stanek, J; Woodall, G; Reinhart, P; Galizia, A; Glenn, B; Kraft, A; Makris SL; Jarabek, AM (2019) 312:167-172. HERO ID: 5432689

[Less] The inherent complexity of generating and monitoring a test article in an inhalation chamber can make . . . [More] The inherent complexity of generating and monitoring a test article in an inhalation chamber can make inhalation toxicity testing challenging. Poor study design, human error, and electrical and mechanical problems can adversely affect an inhalation exposure and undermine a study’s results. We have developed a process for evaluating seven key elements of exposure quality in inhalation chamber studies: 1) test article characterization, 2) generation method, 3) chamber sampling and analytical method, 4) chamber concentrations, 5) particle size characteristics, 6) chamber type, and 7) controls. For each study evaluated, exposure deficiencies are documented, and a study is given an overall rating (Robust, Adequate, or Poor) for the quality of its exposure characterization and documentation. In combination with the systematic consideration of experimental features other than exposure, these ratings can inform the utility of a study for use in hazard identification and/or exposure-response analysis. Exposure quality evaluations of 204 formaldehyde inhalation studies are presented as a case study. Of these, 34% were rated Robust because they had comprehensive exposure documentation and no serious deficiencies in the key elements of exposure quality. Another 19% of studies with minor uncertainties or limitations were rated Adequate. Conversely, 47% of the studies were rated Poor due to multiple serious exposure deficiencies. This formaldehyde case study illustrates the need to carefully consider the exposure quality of inhalation toxicity studies when their results are used to support hazard and risk assessments.

Archival Material
Archival Material

[Email to Erin Yost- Re : Follow up: Questions about your manuscripts (Kwack et al. 2009 and 2010)

(2019) [Personal Communication] HERO ID: 5432103


Archival Material
Archival Material

[Email to Earl Gray Re: Quick question about your DIBP studies (Howdeshell et al. 2008, Hannas et al. 2011, Hannas et al. 2012, Furr et al. 2014)]

Author: Yost, E (2018) [Personal Communication] HERO ID: 4241061


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater

Authors: Ahmadi, E; Yousefzadeh, S; Ansari, M; Ghaffari, HR; Azari, A; Miri, M; Mesdaghinia, A; Nabizadeh, R; Kakavandi, B; Ahmadi, P; Badi, MY; Gholami, M; Sharafi, K; Karimaei, M; Ghoochani, M; Brahmand, MB; Mohseni, SM; Sarkhosh, M; Rezaei, S; Asgharnia, H; Dehghanifard, E; Jafari, B; Mortezapour, A; Moghaddam, VK; Mahmoudi, MM; Taghipour, N (2017) Scientific Reports 7:41020. HERO ID: 3859178

[Less] Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent . . . [More] Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The insect repellents: A silent environmental chemical toxicant to the health

Authors: Roy, DN; Goswami, R; Pal, A (2017) Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 50:91-102. [Review] HERO ID: 3859187

[Less] In recent years, a large number of insect repellents have been developed with the idea of consumer benefits. . . . [More] In recent years, a large number of insect repellents have been developed with the idea of consumer benefits. In addition to already known advantageous application of insect repellents, there is increasing concern about the potential toxicity in environment leading to health caused by random use of these compounds. An increasing number of evidence suggests that insect repellents may trigger undesirable hazardous interactions with biological systems with a potential to generate harmful effects including intermediate metabolites. Biotransformation followed by bioaccumulation (vice e versa) may be an important phenomenon for toxic response of this chemicals. In this review, we have summarized the current state of knowledge on the insect repellent toxicity, including biochemical pathway alteration under in vitro and in vivo conditions considering different classes of organisms, from lower to higher vertebrate. Furthermore, we have tried to incorporate the effects of insect repellent in light of some clinical reports. We hope this review would provide useful information on potential side effects of uncontrolled use of insect repellents.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Female exposure to phthalates and time to pregnancy: a first pregnancy planner study

Authors: Thomsen, AM; Riis, AH; Olsen, J; Jönsson, BA; Lindh, CH; Hjollund, NH; Jensen, TK; Bonde, JP; Toft, G (2017) Human Reproduction 32:232-238. HERO ID: 3469242

[Less] STUDY QUESTION: Is female exposure to phthalate metabolites associated with reduced . . . [More] STUDY QUESTION: Is female exposure to phthalate metabolites associated with reduced fecundity, as estimated by prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP)?

SUMMARY ANSWER: Female exposure to monoethyl phthalate (MEP) but not monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was associated with a longer TTP.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Male exposure to phthalates is potentially associated with adverse effects on human fecundity in epidemiological studies, but little is known about the potential effects on female reproduction.

STUDY DESIGN SIZE AND DURATION: A cohort study with prospective data based on 229 women from a Danish cohort of 430 first pregnancy planning couples enrolled in 1992-1994. In 2009, urinary analyses of phthalate metabolites were performed on stored urine samples from this cohort.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODS: We analyzed MEP, MBP, MBzP and MEHP in female morning spot urine samples collected daily during the first 10 days of menstrual cycles after discontinuation of contraception. The exposure assessment was based on the mean of two measurements from each woman collected in a period of 6 menstrual cycles. We used Cox regression with discrete time to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% CI in relation to the average urine metabolite concentration exposure level, controlled for age and BMI, and the time-varying variables smoking and alcohol.

MAIN RESULT AND ROLE OF CHANCE: Urinary concentration of MEP was associated with a decreased fecundity (adjusted FR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63; 0.99) corresponding to a 21% decreased probability of conception for each natural log (ln) unit increase in MEP. No significant association with TTP was found for MBP, MBzP and MEHP.

LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: Subfertile women were overrepresented in the study population due to exclusion of 77 high fertile women who became pregnant in the first cycle when urine collection began.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our results suggest that female exposure to MEP may have an adverse effect on female fecundity, but these findings need to be replicated in a larger and newer cohort study with sufficient exposure contrast if the use of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and thereby MEP in the future potentially should be regulated in cosmetics and industrial consumer products.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: The original data collected were founded by Aarhus University Research Foundation, the Danish Medical Research Council and the Danish Medical Health Insurance Foundation. There are no conflicts of interest to be declared.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Personal care product use among adults in NHANES: Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and phenols and use of mouthwash and sunscreen

Authors: Ferguson, KK; Colacino, JA; Lewis, RC; Meeker, JD (2017) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27:326-332. HERO ID: 3230216

[Less] Personal care product use is a well-established pathway of exposure for notable endocrine disrupting . . . [More] Personal care product use is a well-established pathway of exposure for notable endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including phthalates, parabens, triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP3), and bisphenol-A. We utilized questionnaire data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012 cycles to examine the associations between use of sunscreen and mouthwash and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and phenols in a nationally representative population of US adults (n=3529). Compared with individuals who reported "Never" using mouthwash, individuals who reported daily use had significantly elevated urinary concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate, methyl and propyl parabens, and BP3 (28%, 30%, 39%, and 42% higher, respectively). Individuals who reported "Always" using sunscreen had significantly higher urinary concentrations of triclosan, methyl, ethyl, and propyl parabens, and BP3 (59%, 92%, 102%, 151%, and 510% higher, respectively) compared with "Never" users of sunscreen. Associations between exposure biomarkers and sunscreen use were stronger in women compared with men, and associations with mouthwash use were generally stronger in men compared with women. These results suggest that sunscreen and mouthwash may be important exposure sources for EDCs.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 11 May 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.27.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous analysis of bisphenol A based compounds and other monomers leaching from resin-based dental materials by UHPLC-MS/MS

Authors: Putzeys, E; Cokic, SM; Chong, H; Smet, M; Vanoirbeek, J; Godderis, L; Van Meerbeek, B; Van Landuyt, KL; Duca, RC (2017) Journal of Separation Science 40:1063-1075. HERO ID: 3494370

[Less] Resin-based dental materials have raised debates concerning their safety and biocompatibility, resulting . . . [More] Resin-based dental materials have raised debates concerning their safety and biocompatibility, resulting in a growing necessity of profound knowledge on the quantity of released compounds into the oral cavity. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive and reliable procedure based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the simultaneous analysis of various leached compounds (including bisphenol A based compounds) in samples from in vitro experiments. Different experiments were performed to determine the optimal analytical parameters, comprising mass spectrometry parameters, chromatographic separation conditions and sample preparation. Four internal standards were used: deuterated diethyl phthalate and bisphenol A (commercially available), and deuterated analogues of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and urethane dimethacrylate (custom-made). The optimized method was validated for linearity of the calibration curves and the associated correlation coefficient, lower limit of quantification, higher limit of quantification, and intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision. Additionally, the developed liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was applied to the analysis of leaching compounds from four resin-based dental materials. The results indicated that this method is suitable for the analysis of different target compounds leaching from dental materials. This method might serve as a valuable basis for quick and accurate quantification of leached compounds from resin-based dental materials in biological samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.