Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

Show Project Details Hide Project Details
3,218 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diethyl phthalate enhances apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in PC12 cells

Authors: Sun, Y; Takahashi, K; Hosokawa, T; Saito, T; Kurasaki, M (In Press) Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology Online Pharmacology Online. HERO ID: 1249973

[Less] In this study, to examine the mechanism of diethyl phthalate toxicity to cells, the effects of diethyl . . . [More] In this study, to examine the mechanism of diethyl phthalate toxicity to cells, the effects of diethyl phthalate on apoptosis in a PC12 cell system were investigated by assaying apoptotic factors such as caspase-3, Bax, cytochrome c and DNA damage. Diethyl phthalate was shown to enhance the apoptosis induced by serum deprivation according to the results of DNA electrophoresis and TUNEL signal assays, although it could not induce apoptosis itself in the cells. This enhancement was thought to be because of an increase in caspase-3-like activity. In addition, the expression of bax and contents of cytochrome c in the cytosol showed a tendency to increase the cells exposed to diethyl phthalate. These results indicated that diethyl phthalate, a potential endocrine disrupter, affects the apoptotic system in PC12 cells. Diethyl phthalate may enhance oxidative stress such as that induced by reactive oxygen species in PC12 cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Selective removal and persulfate catalytic decomposition of diethyl phthalate from contaminated water on modified MIL100 through surface molecular imprinting

Authors: Li, X; Wan, J; Wang, Y; Chi, H; Yan, Z; Ding, S (2020) Chemosphere 240:124875. HERO ID: 5932887

[Less] Adsorptive removal of phthalate esters from wastewater combined with their persulfate (PS) catalytic . . . [More] Adsorptive removal of phthalate esters from wastewater combined with their persulfate (PS) catalytic degradation has attracted the attention of many researchers. In this study, the adsorptive and catalytic properties of an MIL100 material obtained by a green synthetic route have been optimized by a surface molecular imprinting technique. Results have shown that there are two steps in the molecular imprinting process. A polymerization is first carried out in the internal channels of the material and the imprinting layer is then formed on the surface. The relative proportions of the starting materials for the synthesis have been optimized through the design of a three-dimensional response surface. The amount of pollutant adsorbed was increased fourfold after surface imprinting, reaching 13.6 mg g-1. The homogeneity of the recognition sites has been evaluated by dynamics calculations and the Freundlich equation. The selective adsorption ability of the material for diethyl phthalate was improved, and the process involved chemical adsorption. The catalytic properties of the material after imprinting were increased about 1.5-fold, indicating that selective adsorption is important. Such molecularly imprinted polymers may potentially serve as good functional materials for the removal of phthalate esters from wastewater.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biomonitoring of phthalate esters in breast-milk and urine samples as biomarkers for neonates' exposure, using modified quechers method with agricultural biochar as dispersive solid-phase extraction absorbent

Authors: Adenuga, AA; Ayinuola, O; Adejuyigbe, EA; Ogunfowokan, AO (2020) HERO ID: 5933611

[Less] Phthalates are known hepatotoxins and carcinogens besides being endocrine disruptors with a possible . . . [More] Phthalates are known hepatotoxins and carcinogens besides being endocrine disruptors with a possible link to adverse reproductive and neuro-developmental outcomes. Their use in diverse industrial, consumer and personal care products resulted in widespread exposure of the human population, particularly vulnerable groups including pregnant women and infants. This study focused on the assessment of the levels of phthalates in the breast-milk and urine samples of lactating mothers using a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) technique. The extracts obtained with acetonitrile solvent were purified using agricultural materials (spent seedcake of Calophyllum inophyllum, coconut husk (Cocos nucCfera) and Moringa oleifera seeds) as dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) absorbents before gas chromatography analyses. The method's performance in terms of purification efficiency and recovery were evaluated before applying the method for the extraction of phthalates from breast-milk and urine samples. Calibration curves for all the phthalates determined showed correlation coefficients better than 0.99 with detection limits ranging from 0.012 to 0.020 mu g/L. The proposed method showed satisfactory recoveries at two fortification levels (5 mu g/L & 100 mu g/L) with the least recovery being 83% with good precision indicated by relative standard deviations < 20%. The results showed significant correlations between bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) levels in Breast-milk and medication use, intravenous transfusion and caesarean mode of delivery. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) in urine correlated significantly with the use of cosmetics and personal care products. The high concentration of phthalates in nursing mothers' breast-milk may be an indication of neonates exposure to the chemical.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biochemical and molecular changes mediated by plasticizer diethyl phthalate in Chironomus circumdatus (bloodworms)

Authors: Shaha, CM; Pandit, RS (2020) HERO ID: 5933830

[Less] Plasticizers are used as additives in making plastics. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is one of the majorly . . . [More] Plasticizers are used as additives in making plastics. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is one of the majorly used plasticizers in various products. When plastic materials are dumped in an aquatic system, there is an increase in chances of DEP leaching out and getting deposited in water. Thus the current work focuses on studying the effect of DEP on the larval stages of Chironomus circumdatus. In this study it was found that there was an increase in lipid peroxidation levels indicating imposition of oxidative stress on these larvae due to the exposure of DEP. Changes in the levels of carbohydrates and lipids were also seen. To reduce these effects antioxidant defense system may get activated. Thus investigations showed an increase in enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterases (AchE) and decrease in the activity of glutathione reductase (GR). Nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione levels were also increased during the post-recovery exposure period. Thus this indicates that both enzymatic, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants, play a certain role in reducing the stress mediated by DEP. Up-regulation of gene expression of heat shock protein70 (hsp70) was observed, which is one of the conserved protein produced during stress response in many dipterans. Changes in the level of expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene were also seen in DEP exposed larvae. Thus the insights give us a preliminary indication that physiological and developmental adaptations may take place in these organisms to persist in the DEP contaminated environment. CAPSULE: DEP mediated stress imposes changes in the metabolites and thus activation of antioxidant defense system in aquatic midges of Chironomus circumdatus. Changes in the expression of heat shock protein70 and ecdysone receptor was also seen indicating that DEP mediated stress affects at the molecular level also of the organism. These changes may help them to tolerate and live in DEP polluted water.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Pilot Biomonitoring Study of Cumulative Phthalates Exposure among Vietnamese American Nail Salon Workers

Authors: Varshavsky, JR; Morello-Frosch, R; Harwani, S; Snider, M; Petropoulou, SE; Park, JS; Petreas, M; Reynolds, P; Nguyen, T; Quach, T (2020) HERO ID: 5932872

[Less] Many California nail salon workers are low-income Vietnamese women of reproductive age who use nail . . . [More] Many California nail salon workers are low-income Vietnamese women of reproductive age who use nail products daily that contain androgen-disrupting phthalates, which may increase risk of male reproductive tract abnormalities during pregnancy. Yet, few studies have characterized phthalate exposures among this workforce. To characterize individual metabolites and cumulative phthalates exposure among a potentially vulnerable occupational group of nail salon workers, we collected 17 post-shift urine samples from Vietnamese workers at six San Francisco Bay Area nail salons in 2011, which were analyzed for four primary phthalate metabolites: mono-n-butyl-, mono-isobutyl-, mono(2-Ethylhexyl)-, and monoethyl phthalates (MnBP, MiBP, MEHP, and MEP, respectively; μg/L). Phthalate metabolite concentrations and a potency-weighted sum of parent compound daily intake (Σandrogen-disruptor, μg/kg/day) were compared to 203 Asian Americans from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) using Student's t-test and Wilcoxin signed rank test. Creatinine-corrected MnBP, MiBP, MEHP (μg/g), and cumulative phthalates exposure (Σandrogen-disruptor, μg/kg/day) levels were 2.9 (p < 0.0001), 1.6 (p = 0.015), 2.6 (p < 0.0001), and 2.0 (p < 0.0001) times higher, respectively, in our nail salon worker population compared to NHANES Asian Americans. Levels exceeded the NHANES 95th or 75th percentiles among some workers. This pilot study suggests that nail salon workers are disproportionately exposed to multiple phthalates, a finding that warrants further investigation to assess their potential health significance.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Distribution Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of Phthalate Esters in Surface Sediments of the Songhua River]

Authors: Wang, H; Yang, YZ; Wang, HY; Dong, WY; Yan, GK; Chang, Y; Li, ZW; Zhao, YZ; Ling, Y (2020) HERO ID: 5932876

[Less] This study assesses the spatial distribution characteristics and ecological risk of phthalate esters . . . [More] This study assesses the spatial distribution characteristics and ecological risk of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface sediments of the mainstream and tributaries of the Songhua River, China, using concentrations and composition of six PAEs, which were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (GC-MS). We assess the ∑6PAEs ecological risk using the hazard quotient (HQ) method and environmental risk levels (ERL). The results were as follows. ① It was found that the total concentrations of ∑6PAEs ranged from 6832.5 to 36298.9 ng·g-1 dry weight (average 18388.6 ng·g-1), with the main contributions coming from di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). The difference between the main stream ∑6PAEs (6832.5-36298.9 ng·g-1, average 18616.9 ng·g-1) and the tributary ∑6PAEs (10367.6-26593.3 ng·g-1, average 18264.1 ng·g-1) was not significant (P >0.05). The mean concentrations of individual PAEs in the tributary stream differed little from that of the main stream. The ∑6PAEs concentration of the Songhua River decreased initially but then increased from the upstream to the downstream. The average ∑6PAEs concentration in natural agricultural areas (18677.5 ng·g-1) was similar to that found in urban industrial areas (18063.7 ng·g-1), and DBP and DEHP contributed 98% of ∑6PAEs. ② The main sources of ∑6PAEs were domestic, agricultural production, and industrial production using plasticizers. ③ The ecological risk assessment indicated that DMP and BBP in the surface sediments of the Songhua River did not pose an ecological risk for aquatic organisms, and that DEP was associated with a low ecological risk, whereas DEHP and DBP posed a high ecological risk for aquatic organisms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Feminine Hygiene Products-A Neglected Source of Phthalate Exposure in Women

Authors: Gao, CJ; Wang, F; Shen, HM; Kannan, K; Guo, Y (2020) HERO ID: 5932884

[Less] Phthalates have been associated with reproductive toxicity and precocious puberty in females, but the . . . [More] Phthalates have been associated with reproductive toxicity and precocious puberty in females, but the occurrence of these toxicants in feminine hygiene products is rarely reported. In this study, eight phthalates were determined in 120 feminine hygiene products (56 feminine care products and 64 sanitary napkins) collected from China. Phthalates were found in 86% and 98% of feminine care products and sanitary napkins, respectively, with the total concentrations varying between not detectable and 813 μg/g (median: 0.26 μg/g) and 0.25 and 8.76 μg/g (1.43 μg/g), respectively. Diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were the major compounds, accounting for >60% of the total concentrations. The plastic materials used on the top and bottom layers and the hot melt adhesive used during the manufacturing process are the potential sources of phthalates in sanitary napkins. The range of daily exposure doses of phthalates in women from the use of feminine care products and sanitary napkins was <0.001-0.156 μg/kg-bw/day and <0.001-0.731 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. Sanitary napkins contributed to 8.2% of the total exposure, and the levels of exposure to several phthalates from sanitary napkins were much higher than those reported from indoor dust ingestion but were lower than those of dietary intakes. Our study confirmed a new source of women's exposure to phthalates, sanitary napkins.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with the intermediate and pregnancy outcomes of women receiving IVF/ICSI treatments: A prospective single-center study

Authors: Deng, T; Du, Y; Wang, Y; Teng, X; Hua, X; Yuan, X; Yao, Y; Guo, N; Li, Y (2020) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 188:109884. HERO ID: 5932890

[Less] BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure was reported to induce defects in ovarian function, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure was reported to induce defects in ovarian function, and further influence embryo development and pregnancy outcomes. However, the data about the associations of phthalates with intermediate and pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles are scarce in the Chinese population.

METHODS: A total of 663 women receiving IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments in our center were enrolled in this analysis. They provided one urine sample on the day of oocyte retrieval. We measured urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites. Generalized linear models were used to analyze the associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with ovarian response, fertilization, early embryo development, and pregnancy outcomes.

RESULTS: Among all the phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) had the highest urinary concentration with a median level of 101.51 μg/g creatinine (Cr). MBP concentration was inversely associated with normal fertilization odds (overall P-trend < 0.01). There was a significant correlation of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) with decreased odds of normal fertilization in medium-concentration group compared to low-concentration group (overall P-trend = 0.02). No significant associations of metabolite concentrations with the odds of good-quality embryos on day 3 or blastocyst formation were found. Monomethyl phthalate (MMP) and MEP in medium-concentration group reduced 22.4% (95% CI: 0.64-0.94, overall P-trend = 0.04) and 21.9% (95% CI: 0.64-0.95, overall P-trend = 0.05) of the odds to gain good-quality blastocyst compared to low-concentration group. The eight phthalate metabolites were not correlated to clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, or early miscarriage rate. There was no significant association of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites observed with any clinical outcomes in the total population. After excluding male infertility, mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) in medium-concentration group turned to be associated with a higher number of retrieved oocytes (overall P-trend = 0.04), whereas mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) in medium-concentration group was associated with a lower odds of normal fertilization compared to low-concentration group (overall P-trend = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: Urinary MBP concentration was much higher compared to other phthalate metabolites in this cohort of Chinese IVF/ICSI women, and also higher than it was reported by studies in other countries. MBP showed adverse impacts on fertilization. MMP and MEP could affect blastocyst quality, but not embryo quality on day 3. DEHP metabolites didn't show consistent reproductive toxicities as demonstrated in previous studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Rapid removal of tetrabromobisphenol A by alpha-Fe2O3-x@Graphene@Montmorillonite catalyst with oxygen vacancies through peroxymonosulfate activation: Role of halogen and alpha-hydroxyalkyl radicals

Authors: Yang, S; Huang, Z; Wu, P; Li, Y; Dong, X; Li, C; Zhu, N; Duan, X; Dionysiou, DD (2020) HERO ID: 5933444

[Less] We employed hydrolyzed iron-pillared montmorillonite/tetracycline complex (FeOOH-Mt-TC) as precursor . . . [More] We employed hydrolyzed iron-pillared montmorillonite/tetracycline complex (FeOOH-Mt-TC) as precursor to prepare iron oxide@Graphene@Montmorillonite composite (alpha-Fe2O3-x@Graphene@Mt) through pyrolysis strategy under nitrogen atmosphere. During the pyrolysis process, the involvement of hydrolyzed iron (FeOOH) and TC made the alpha-Fe2O3-x@Graphene@Mt composite have superior conductivity, higher percent of structural Fe(II) and abundant oxygen vacancies, resulting in highly-efficient degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in the presence of PMS. Meanwhile, O-2(center dot-) played the leading role in the oxidation process when compared with (OH)-O-center dot, SO4 center dot- and O-1(2). In addition, the released Br- from TBBPA and the addition of alcohol led to the formation of reactive halogen and alpha-hydroxyalkyl radicals, which contributed to the rapid removal of TBBPA. This study not only provided a novel strategy to prepare excellent iron-based catalysts for PMS activation, but also evaluated the application of reactive halogen and alpha-hydroxyalkyl radicals in the treatment of halogenated organic pollutants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Co0.59Fe0.41P nanocubes derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks for removal of diethyl phthalate by activation of peroxymonosulfate

Authors: Lin, X; Ma, Y; Wan, J; Wang, Yan; Li, Y (2020) HERO ID: 5933452

[Less] In this study, Co0.59Fe0.41P nanocubes were derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks to activate . . . [More] In this study, Co0.59Fe0.41P nanocubes were derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the diethyl phthalate (DEP) removal in water. The structure, morphology, and physicochemical properties of the fresh and used materials were comprehensively studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy. Degradation tests were performed and an excellent degradation performance was observed. The achieved DEP removal rate within a 60 min period was approximately 95%. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis and quenching tests showed that both sulfate and hydroxyl radicals contributed to the removal of the pollutant. The degradation products were detected by GC-MS and UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the proposed degradation pathways were concluded. The study showed that the cobalt elements in the materials were the primary contributors for the activation of PMS for the removal of DEP. The reduction ability of PMS could assist in the recycling of Co3+/Co2+.