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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Selective removal and persulfate catalytic decomposition of diethyl phthalate from contaminated water on modified MIL100 through surface molecular imprinting

Authors: Li, X; Wan, J; Wang, Y; Chi, H; Yan, Z; Ding, S (2020) Chemosphere 240:124875. HERO ID: 5932887

[Less] Adsorptive removal of phthalate esters from wastewater combined with their persulfate (PS) catalytic . . . [More] Adsorptive removal of phthalate esters from wastewater combined with their persulfate (PS) catalytic degradation has attracted the attention of many researchers. In this study, the adsorptive and catalytic properties of an MIL100 material obtained by a green synthetic route have been optimized by a surface molecular imprinting technique. Results have shown that there are two steps in the molecular imprinting process. A polymerization is first carried out in the internal channels of the material and the imprinting layer is then formed on the surface. The relative proportions of the starting materials for the synthesis have been optimized through the design of a three-dimensional response surface. The amount of pollutant adsorbed was increased fourfold after surface imprinting, reaching 13.6 mg g-1. The homogeneity of the recognition sites has been evaluated by dynamics calculations and the Freundlich equation. The selective adsorption ability of the material for diethyl phthalate was improved, and the process involved chemical adsorption. The catalytic properties of the material after imprinting were increased about 1.5-fold, indicating that selective adsorption is important. Such molecularly imprinted polymers may potentially serve as good functional materials for the removal of phthalate esters from wastewater.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biomonitoring of phthalate esters in breast-milk and urine samples as biomarkers for neonates' exposure, using modified quechers method with agricultural biochar as dispersive solid-phase extraction absorbent

Authors: Adenuga, AA; Ayinuola, O; Adejuyigbe, EA; Ogunfowokan, AO (2020) HERO ID: 5933611

[Less] Phthalates are known hepatotoxins and carcinogens besides being endocrine disruptors with a possible . . . [More] Phthalates are known hepatotoxins and carcinogens besides being endocrine disruptors with a possible link to adverse reproductive and neuro-developmental outcomes. Their use in diverse industrial, consumer and personal care products resulted in widespread exposure of the human population, particularly vulnerable groups including pregnant women and infants. This study focused on the assessment of the levels of phthalates in the breast-milk and urine samples of lactating mothers using a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) technique. The extracts obtained with acetonitrile solvent were purified using agricultural materials (spent seedcake of Calophyllum inophyllum, coconut husk (Cocos nucCfera) and Moringa oleifera seeds) as dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) absorbents before gas chromatography analyses. The method's performance in terms of purification efficiency and recovery were evaluated before applying the method for the extraction of phthalates from breast-milk and urine samples. Calibration curves for all the phthalates determined showed correlation coefficients better than 0.99 with detection limits ranging from 0.012 to 0.020 mu g/L. The proposed method showed satisfactory recoveries at two fortification levels (5 mu g/L & 100 mu g/L) with the least recovery being 83% with good precision indicated by relative standard deviations < 20%. The results showed significant correlations between bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) levels in Breast-milk and medication use, intravenous transfusion and caesarean mode of delivery. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) in urine correlated significantly with the use of cosmetics and personal care products. The high concentration of phthalates in nursing mothers' breast-milk may be an indication of neonates exposure to the chemical.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biochemical and molecular changes mediated by plasticizer diethyl phthalate in Chironomus circumdatus (bloodworms)

Authors: Shaha, CM; Pandit, RS (2020) HERO ID: 5933830

[Less] Plasticizers are used as additives in making plastics. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is one of the majorly . . . [More] Plasticizers are used as additives in making plastics. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is one of the majorly used plasticizers in various products. When plastic materials are dumped in an aquatic system, there is an increase in chances of DEP leaching out and getting deposited in water. Thus the current work focuses on studying the effect of DEP on the larval stages of Chironomus circumdatus. In this study it was found that there was an increase in lipid peroxidation levels indicating imposition of oxidative stress on these larvae due to the exposure of DEP. Changes in the levels of carbohydrates and lipids were also seen. To reduce these effects antioxidant defense system may get activated. Thus investigations showed an increase in enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterases (AchE) and decrease in the activity of glutathione reductase (GR). Nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione levels were also increased during the post-recovery exposure period. Thus this indicates that both enzymatic, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants, play a certain role in reducing the stress mediated by DEP. Up-regulation of gene expression of heat shock protein70 (hsp70) was observed, which is one of the conserved protein produced during stress response in many dipterans. Changes in the level of expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene were also seen in DEP exposed larvae. Thus the insights give us a preliminary indication that physiological and developmental adaptations may take place in these organisms to persist in the DEP contaminated environment. CAPSULE: DEP mediated stress imposes changes in the metabolites and thus activation of antioxidant defense system in aquatic midges of Chironomus circumdatus. Changes in the expression of heat shock protein70 and ecdysone receptor was also seen indicating that DEP mediated stress affects at the molecular level also of the organism. These changes may help them to tolerate and live in DEP polluted water.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Distribution Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of Phthalate Esters in Surface Sediments of the Songhua River]

Authors: Wang, H; Yang, YZ; Wang, HY; Dong, WY; Yan, GK; Chang, Y; Li, ZW; Zhao, YZ; Ling, Y (2020) HERO ID: 5932876

[Less] This study assesses the spatial distribution characteristics and ecological risk of phthalate esters . . . [More] This study assesses the spatial distribution characteristics and ecological risk of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface sediments of the mainstream and tributaries of the Songhua River, China, using concentrations and composition of six PAEs, which were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (GC-MS). We assess the ∑6PAEs ecological risk using the hazard quotient (HQ) method and environmental risk levels (ERL). The results were as follows. ① It was found that the total concentrations of ∑6PAEs ranged from 6832.5 to 36298.9 ng·g-1 dry weight (average 18388.6 ng·g-1), with the main contributions coming from di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). The difference between the main stream ∑6PAEs (6832.5-36298.9 ng·g-1, average 18616.9 ng·g-1) and the tributary ∑6PAEs (10367.6-26593.3 ng·g-1, average 18264.1 ng·g-1) was not significant (P >0.05). The mean concentrations of individual PAEs in the tributary stream differed little from that of the main stream. The ∑6PAEs concentration of the Songhua River decreased initially but then increased from the upstream to the downstream. The average ∑6PAEs concentration in natural agricultural areas (18677.5 ng·g-1) was similar to that found in urban industrial areas (18063.7 ng·g-1), and DBP and DEHP contributed 98% of ∑6PAEs. ② The main sources of ∑6PAEs were domestic, agricultural production, and industrial production using plasticizers. ③ The ecological risk assessment indicated that DMP and BBP in the surface sediments of the Songhua River did not pose an ecological risk for aquatic organisms, and that DEP was associated with a low ecological risk, whereas DEHP and DBP posed a high ecological risk for aquatic organisms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with the intermediate and pregnancy outcomes of women receiving IVF/ICSI treatments: A prospective single-center study

Authors: Deng, T; Du, Y; Wang, Y; Teng, X; Hua, X; Yuan, X; Yao, Y; Guo, N; Li, Y (2020) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 188:109884. HERO ID: 5932890

[Less] BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure was reported to induce defects in ovarian function, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure was reported to induce defects in ovarian function, and further influence embryo development and pregnancy outcomes. However, the data about the associations of phthalates with intermediate and pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles are scarce in the Chinese population.

METHODS: A total of 663 women receiving IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments in our center were enrolled in this analysis. They provided one urine sample on the day of oocyte retrieval. We measured urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites. Generalized linear models were used to analyze the associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with ovarian response, fertilization, early embryo development, and pregnancy outcomes.

RESULTS: Among all the phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) had the highest urinary concentration with a median level of 101.51 μg/g creatinine (Cr). MBP concentration was inversely associated with normal fertilization odds (overall P-trend < 0.01). There was a significant correlation of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) with decreased odds of normal fertilization in medium-concentration group compared to low-concentration group (overall P-trend = 0.02). No significant associations of metabolite concentrations with the odds of good-quality embryos on day 3 or blastocyst formation were found. Monomethyl phthalate (MMP) and MEP in medium-concentration group reduced 22.4% (95% CI: 0.64-0.94, overall P-trend = 0.04) and 21.9% (95% CI: 0.64-0.95, overall P-trend = 0.05) of the odds to gain good-quality blastocyst compared to low-concentration group. The eight phthalate metabolites were not correlated to clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, or early miscarriage rate. There was no significant association of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites observed with any clinical outcomes in the total population. After excluding male infertility, mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) in medium-concentration group turned to be associated with a higher number of retrieved oocytes (overall P-trend = 0.04), whereas mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) in medium-concentration group was associated with a lower odds of normal fertilization compared to low-concentration group (overall P-trend = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: Urinary MBP concentration was much higher compared to other phthalate metabolites in this cohort of Chinese IVF/ICSI women, and also higher than it was reported by studies in other countries. MBP showed adverse impacts on fertilization. MMP and MEP could affect blastocyst quality, but not embryo quality on day 3. DEHP metabolites didn't show consistent reproductive toxicities as demonstrated in previous studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Rapid removal of tetrabromobisphenol A by alpha-Fe2O3-x@Graphene@Montmorillonite catalyst with oxygen vacancies through peroxymonosulfate activation: Role of halogen and alpha-hydroxyalkyl radicals

Authors: Yang, S; Huang, Z; Wu, P; Li, Y; Dong, X; Li, C; Zhu, N; Duan, X; Dionysiou, DD (2020) HERO ID: 5933444

[Less] We employed hydrolyzed iron-pillared montmorillonite/tetracycline complex (FeOOH-Mt-TC) as precursor . . . [More] We employed hydrolyzed iron-pillared montmorillonite/tetracycline complex (FeOOH-Mt-TC) as precursor to prepare iron oxide@Graphene@Montmorillonite composite (alpha-Fe2O3-x@Graphene@Mt) through pyrolysis strategy under nitrogen atmosphere. During the pyrolysis process, the involvement of hydrolyzed iron (FeOOH) and TC made the alpha-Fe2O3-x@Graphene@Mt composite have superior conductivity, higher percent of structural Fe(II) and abundant oxygen vacancies, resulting in highly-efficient degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in the presence of PMS. Meanwhile, O-2(center dot-) played the leading role in the oxidation process when compared with (OH)-O-center dot, SO4 center dot- and O-1(2). In addition, the released Br- from TBBPA and the addition of alcohol led to the formation of reactive halogen and alpha-hydroxyalkyl radicals, which contributed to the rapid removal of TBBPA. This study not only provided a novel strategy to prepare excellent iron-based catalysts for PMS activation, but also evaluated the application of reactive halogen and alpha-hydroxyalkyl radicals in the treatment of halogenated organic pollutants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Co0.59Fe0.41P nanocubes derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks for removal of diethyl phthalate by activation of peroxymonosulfate

Authors: Lin, X; Ma, Y; Wan, J; Wang, Yan; Li, Y (2020) HERO ID: 5933452

[Less] In this study, Co0.59Fe0.41P nanocubes were derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks to activate . . . [More] In this study, Co0.59Fe0.41P nanocubes were derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the diethyl phthalate (DEP) removal in water. The structure, morphology, and physicochemical properties of the fresh and used materials were comprehensively studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy. Degradation tests were performed and an excellent degradation performance was observed. The achieved DEP removal rate within a 60 min period was approximately 95%. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis and quenching tests showed that both sulfate and hydroxyl radicals contributed to the removal of the pollutant. The degradation products were detected by GC-MS and UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the proposed degradation pathways were concluded. The study showed that the cobalt elements in the materials were the primary contributors for the activation of PMS for the removal of DEP. The reduction ability of PMS could assist in the recycling of Co3+/Co2+.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

DFT studies on the reaction mechanism and kinetics of dibutyl phthalate initiated by hydroxyl and sulfate radicals: Prediction of the most reactive sites

Authors: Li, H; Miao, X; Zhang, J; Du, Jia; Xu, S; Tang, J; Zhang, Y (2020) HERO ID: 5933507

[Less] In this study, the reaction mechanism and kinetics of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) initiated by hydroxyl . . . [More] In this study, the reaction mechanism and kinetics of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) initiated by hydroxyl ((OH)-O-center dot) and sulfate radicals (SO4 center dot-) were investigated at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level through Density Functional Theory (DFT), where the preferred reaction sites of DBP were determined. The calculation results revealed that the reactions of SO4 center dot- with DBP exhibited considerably higher energy barriers than that with (OH)-O-center dot because of the steric hindrance. For (OH)-O-center dot, the addition of (OH)-O-center dot to unsaturated carbons of phenyl ring was kinetically favored with respect to the direct H abstraction from the phenyl ring. In contrast, the reactions of SO4(center dot)- triggering formal hydrogen atom transfer from the phenyl ring of DBP were more likely to occur. Interestingly, all SO4 center dot-initiated reactions were not thermodynamically favorable in the gas phase, but the additions of SO4 center dot- to C2, C3, and C4 of the phenyl ring preferred to take place in water. The C2 and C3 were the most reactive sites by SO4 center dot- and (OH)-O-center dot attacks with energy barriers of 86.5 and 20.1 kJ mol(-1), respectively in the gas phase, and the corresponding rate constants were 4.33x10(-3) and 1.86x10(9) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). In addition, obtained results indicated that both free radicals preferred to attack the butyl chains rather than phenyl ring, which was in good agreement with our previous experimental data. The present work could provide supplementary information on the dual-radicals dependent PAEs degradation.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activity of the Essential Oils from Orobanche cernua Loefling Whole Plant

Authors: Qu, Zyi; Jin, YinP; Cui, Lili; Li, Yali; Ren, Yan; Wang, HeC; Wang, YP (2020) HERO ID: 5933713

[Less] Orobanche cernua is one of the species of Orobanche in Orobanchaceae family, which has been used in . . . [More] Orobanche cernua is one of the species of Orobanche in Orobanchaceae family, which has been used in folk medicines for boost immunity and relieve swelling. The present study aimed to analyse the chemical constituents of the essential oils (EO) from O. cernua by GC/MS and evaluate the cytotoxic activity in vitro. Twenty-eight compounds, representing 83.41 % of the total EO were identified and the major volatile components were diethylhexyl adipate (35.34 %), followed by 2-methylheptane (12.65 %), alpha-cadinol (7.25 %), diethylphthalate (5.17 %), dibutyl phthalate (4.07 %), 3-methylheptane (3.51 %) and 1-tetradecanol (3.39 %). The EO cytotoxicity on the tumor cell lines (SH-SY5Y and BV-2) was determined by MTT assay and cell imaging, the results indicated that the potent cytotoxic effects with the IC50 values (55.89 mu g/mL) in SH-SY5Y cells but weak in BV-2 cells with the IC50 (482.1 mu g/mL) for 24 h, respectively. This paper is the first report of the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of EO from O. cernua.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Radical chemistry of diethyl phthalate oxidation via UV/peroxymonosulfate process: Roles of primary and secondary radicals

Authors: Lei, Yu; Lu, Jun; Zhu, M; Xie, J; Peng, S; Zhu, C (2020) HERO ID: 5933500

[Less] The UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) process forms hydroxyl radicals ((OH)-O-center dot) and sulfate radicals . . . [More] The UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) process forms hydroxyl radicals ((OH)-O-center dot) and sulfate radicals (SO4 center dot-) to degrade micro-pollutants. Both these two radicals can be converted to secondary radicals (e.g. Cl-2(center dot-), CO3 center dot- and Cl-center dot) by effects of water matrix components. By using laser flash photolysis, the second-order rate constants for reactions of three PAEs with (OH)-O-center dot, SO4 center dot-, Cl-2(center dot-), Cl-center dot and CO3 center dot- were determined as (3.5-4.4) x 10(9), (4.9-5.6) x 10(8), (1.1-1.3) x 10(7), (1.8-2.0) x 10(10) and < 1 x 10(6) M-1 s(-1), respectively. Then diethyl phthalate (DEP) was selected as the target compound to investigate the radical chemistry of its degradation during the 254 nm UV/PMS process. Multiple effects of water matrix components in DEP degradation were investigated. Alkaline condition, chloride, bicarbonate and natural organic matter (NOM) inhibited DEP degradation while their effects were radical specific. SO4 center dot- could better withstand the negative effect of alkaline condition, bi- carbonate and NOM than (OH)-O-center dot, while (OH)-O-center dot was less affected by chloride than SO4 center dot-. Cl-center dot accounted for 12% of DEP degradation in the presence of 1 mM chloride. Cl-2(center dot-), CO3 center dot- and O-1(2) hardly contributed to DEP oxidation but they might be involved in the further oxidation of transformation intermediates. Transient-state intermediates and steady-state products were identified by time-resolved spectroscopy and GC-MS, respectively, from which the degradation pathways of DEP in different water matrices were proposed.