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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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331 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diethyl phthalate enhances apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in PC12 cells

Authors: Sun, Y; Takahashi, K; Hosokawa, T; Saito, T; Kurasaki, M (In Press) Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology Online Pharmacology Online. HERO ID: 1249973

[Less] In this study, to examine the mechanism of diethyl phthalate toxicity to cells, the effects of diethyl . . . [More] In this study, to examine the mechanism of diethyl phthalate toxicity to cells, the effects of diethyl phthalate on apoptosis in a PC12 cell system were investigated by assaying apoptotic factors such as caspase-3, Bax, cytochrome c and DNA damage. Diethyl phthalate was shown to enhance the apoptosis induced by serum deprivation according to the results of DNA electrophoresis and TUNEL signal assays, although it could not induce apoptosis itself in the cells. This enhancement was thought to be because of an increase in caspase-3-like activity. In addition, the expression of bax and contents of cytochrome c in the cytosol showed a tendency to increase the cells exposed to diethyl phthalate. These results indicated that diethyl phthalate, a potential endocrine disrupter, affects the apoptotic system in PC12 cells. Diethyl phthalate may enhance oxidative stress such as that induced by reactive oxygen species in PC12 cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Immobilization of cholesterol esterase in mesoporous silica materials and its hydrolytic activity toward diethyl phthalate

Authors: Orita, T; Tomita, M; Saito, T; Nishida, N; Kato, K (2012) HERO ID: 1322266

[Less] Cholesterol esterase (CE, cholesteryl ester hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.13) from porcine pancreas (molecular . . . [More] Cholesterol esterase (CE, cholesteryl ester hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.13) from porcine pancreas (molecular weight 400-500 kDa) exhibits hydrolytic activity toward various toxic organic phthalate esters. CE was confined in the nanospace (diameter 3-30 nm) of five types of mesoporous silica (MPS) that differ in structural properties such as pore diameter, pore volume, and particle morphology. These structural properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray diffraction, N-2 adsorption-desorption experiments, solid-state C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and solid-state Si-29 NMR. Catalytic activities of immobilized and free CE were evaluated by the hydrolysis of diethyl phthalate in phosphate buffer solutions containing an organic cosolvent. Optimal activity recovery was achieved when CE was immobilized in n-decane-functionalized MPS, which had a large pore size (22.5 nm). The immobilization also protected against effects of temperature within the range 30 degrees C-60 degrees C; CE immobilized in n-decyl-functionalized MPS exhibited better thermal stability than in non-functionalized MPS or free CE Moreover, it retained approximately 60% of its catalytic activity even after six catalytic cycles. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Electrogeneration of disinfection byproducts at a boron-doped diamond anode with resorcinol as a model substance

Authors: Li, H; Ni, J (2012) HERO ID: 1322063

[Less] Electrochemical disinfection in chloride electrolyte with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode has . . . [More] Electrochemical disinfection in chloride electrolyte with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode has unique advantages due to the high oxidizing ability of active chlorine and reactive oxygen species produced under certain conditions in the electrolysis. However, the electrogeneration of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in the presence of organics in the system has rarely been reported. In this study, the discontinuous formation of DBPs (chloroform, chlorate and perchlorate) was investigated in model water containing chloride electrolyte (10 mM) with a BDD anode in the presence of resorcinol (0.5 mM) at a current density of 20 mA cm(-2). We found that the formation of chloroform and chlorate increased with the free available chlorine production at the beginning and reached peaks at 2 h (0.01 mM), 4 h (1.67 mM), respectively. When the free available chlorine started to decrease, chloroform was gradually mineralized and chlorate was oxidized to perchlorate due to the strong and non-selective oxidizing ability of the BDD. After electrolysis for 25h. only perchlorate was left (3.84 mM). So inorganic DBPs should be carefully watched in the BDD system. The chloride concentration in the electrolyte affected the production of all three DBPs, due to its influence on the active chlorine production. Organic was not involved in the chlorate and perchlorate formation, and thus the resorcinol concentration had little impact on inorganic DBPs. DBPs formation at acidic pH was lower than that in the basic condition, mainly due to the different forms of resorcinol and chlorine existing at different pH values. Compared with other endocrine disruptors (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and bisphenol-A), resorcinol with high active structure showed the greatest reactivity in DBPs production. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison and understanding of the different simulated sunlight photocatalytic activity between the saturated and monovacant Keggin unit functionalized titania materials

Authors: Ma, F; Shi, T; Gao, Jie; Chen, L; Guo, Wan; Guo, Y; Wang, S (2012) HERO ID: 1322149

[Less] The saturated and monovacant Keggin unit functionalized titania materials, H3PW12O40/TiO2 and K7PW11O39/TiO2, . . . [More] The saturated and monovacant Keggin unit functionalized titania materials, H3PW12O40/TiO2 and K7PW11O39/TiO2, were prepared by one step sol-gel co- condensation followed by solvothermal treatment. The structure, optical absorption properties, morphology, and porosity of the materials were well characterized. Subsequently, their simulated sunlight photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the degradation and mineralization of dye rhodamine B (RB) and endocrine-disrupting chemical diethyl phthalate (DEP). Special attention was paid to provide direct evidences for the explanation of the different photoexcited electron-hole pair separation rates of the H3PW12O40/TiO2, K7PW11O39/TiO2, and pure TiO2 by the photoelectrochemical experiment: simultaneously, the target active species yielded in the K7PW11O39/TiO2- and H3PW12O40/TiO2-catalyzed DEP degradation systems were also investigated by the free radical and hole scavenging experiment. Accordingly, reasons for the photocatalytic activity difference between the K7PW11O39/TiO2 and H3PW12O40/TiO2 as well as pure TiO2 were revealed. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Oxidative effects and metabolic changes following exposure of greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) to diethyl phthalate

Authors: Cheng, LJ; Cheng, TS (2012) Aquatic Toxicology 109:166-175. HERO ID: 1249820

[Less] The toxicity and effects of diethyl phthalate (DEP), a potent allelochemical, on the growth of greater . . . [More] The toxicity and effects of diethyl phthalate (DEP), a potent allelochemical, on the growth of greater duckweed were studied. Biochemical analyses and physiological methods were combined to investigate oxidative stress, adverse effects and their mechanisms in greater duckweeds grown in 0-2 mM of diethyl phthalate (DEP) after cultivation for 7 days. The results showed that J-shaped concentration response curves were displayed in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (ASA) and dehydroascorbate (DHA) levels, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and gualacol peroxidase (POD) activities, indicating reduced oxidative stress and toxic effect. The inverted U-shaped curves were exhibited in relative growth rate (RGR), fresh weight/dry weight (FW/DW) ratio, total chlorophyll content, total soluble thiols, and glutathione reductase (GR) activity, revealing beneficial effect in plant growth. The inverted U-shaped curves were also found in malondialdehyde (MAD) and superoxide radical (O2-) contents with the increasing concentration of DEP, indicative of enhanced oxidative stress. The results suggest that DEP is toxic to the greater duckweed by inducing oxidative stress and antioxidative enzymes may play important roles in the defense strategy against DEP toxicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Enhanced Controlled Transdermal Delivery of Mexazolam Using Ethylene-vinyl Acetate

Authors: Cho, CW; Shin, SC (2012) HERO ID: 1322048

[Less] Repeated oral administration of mexazolam, an anti-anxiety agent, may cause adverse effects such as . . . [More] Repeated oral administration of mexazolam, an anti-anxiety agent, may cause adverse effects such as gastric disturbance, drowsiness, and ataxia due to transiently high blood levels. Transdermal administration would avoid the systemic side effects and gastric disorders after oral administration. We have developed a matrix using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), a heat-processible and flexible material, for transdermal delivery of mexazolam. Drug solubility was highest at 40% PEG-400 volume fraction. The release and permeation profiles through the rat skin were determined for 24 h using a modified Keshary-Chien diffusion cell. The drug release was increased by increasing the concentration with a linear relationship between the release rate and the square root of loading dose. Increasing temperature increased drug release from the EVA matrix. The activation energy (E-a), which was measured from a slope of log P versus 1000/T plot, was 8.64 Kcal/mol for a 1.5% loading dose. To reduce the brittleness and increase the pore of the EVA matrix, diffrent plasticizers were used. Among the plasticizers, including the citrates or the phthalate groups, diethyl phthalate showed the highest effect on the release of mexazolam. To increase the skin permeation of mexazolam from the EVA matrix, enhancers such as the fatty acids, the pyrrolidones, the propylene glycol derivatives, the glycerides, and the non-ionic surfactants were added to the EVA matrix, respectively, and skin permeation was evaluated using a modified Keshary-Chien diffusion cell fitted with intact excised rat skin. Among the several enhancers used, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone showed the best enhancement factor. In conclusion, enhanced transdermal delivery of mexazolam through an EVA matrix containing plasticizer and a permeation enhancer could be useful in the development of a transdermal drug delivery system.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and excretion of 14C-monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and 14C-diethyl phthalate (DEP) after single oral and IV administration in the juvenile dog

Authors: Kao, ML; Ruoff, B; Bower, N; Aoki, T; Smart, C; Mannens, G (2012) Xenobiotica 42:389-397. HERO ID: 1249846

[Less] The pharmacokinetics, metabolism and excretion of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) . . . [More] The pharmacokinetics, metabolism and excretion of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were compared after intravenous or oral administration of [(14)C]MEP or [(14)C]DEP in juvenile beagle dogs. Four male juvenile beagle dogs were treated with a single oral or bolus intravenous dose of either [(14)C]MEP or [(14)C]DEP (164 μg/kg). The absorption, metabolism, excretion and pharmacokinetics of [(14)C]MEP and [(14)C]DEP were nearly identical. [(14)C]DEP was rapidly and nearly completely metabolized to [(14)C]MEP following either intravenous or oral administration. [(14)C]MEP and[(14)C]DEP were rapidly absorbed, the elimination half-life was estimated to be 1 hour. Approximately 90%-96% of the dose was excreted in urine with 2%-3% of the dose in faeces. MEP accounted for the majority of the dose in plasma and urine; in addition, three minor metabolites (M1, M2 and M3) were detected. The minor metabolites were neither phthalic acid nor glucuronide/sulfate conjugates. The nearly identical metabolism and pharmacokinetics of MEP and DEP in juvenile dogs justifies the use of DEP toxicity data in the risk assessment of MEP exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cosmetics as a potential source of environmental contamination in the UK

Authors: Dhanirama, D; Gronow, J; Voulvoulis, N (2012) Environmental Technology 33:1597-1608. HERO ID: 1315299

[Less] Chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) are frequently used in cosmetic formulations and can potentially . . . [More] Chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) are frequently used in cosmetic formulations and can potentially reach the environment at concentrations that may cause harm. A methodology was developed to assess over 120 chemicals assembled from product ingredient listings to identify and validate potential CECs in cosmetics, based on Annex XIII of REACH legislation. Ten potential CECs were identified: polydimethylsiloxane, butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene, triclosan, nano titanium dioxide, nano zinc oxide, butylparaben, diethyl phthalate, octinoxate methoxycinnamate and benzophenone. These chemicals were quantified based on their consumption and concentrations in cosmetics and percentage market penetration. The initial predicted environmental concentrations (PEC initial) were estimated to determine their exposure to the environment. With the exception of BHA, the PEC initial highlighted levels of exposure to the environment that triggered the need for further investigation of the chemicals. These chemicals were linked to cosmetics to highlight products with the potential to cause environmental harm. Skin care products had the highest quantities of CECs, with titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanomaterials being dominant potential contaminants. Further research is required to assess the exposure pathways and fate of these chemicals to determine environmental risks associated with their use and disposal.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Do Environmental Toxicants Contribute to Allergy and Asthma?

Author: Crinnion, WJ (2012) Alternative Medicine Review 17:6-18. [Review] HERO ID: 1322006

[Less] The rates of asthma and allergy (Type 1 hypersensitivity disorders) have been increasing worldwide for . . . [More] The rates of asthma and allergy (Type 1 hypersensitivity disorders) have been increasing worldwide for the last few decades. Various theories have been proposed to account for this alarming trend. One of these is the impact of environmental toxicants. Epidemiological research has correlated exposure to environmental chemicals (such as pesticides, solvents, and air pollutants) with increasing rates of both asthma and allergies. Research has documented chemicals as causal agents capable of producing immune system imbalances characteristic of type 1 hypersensitivity. In vitro studies and in vivo animal models have demonstrated that many of the environmental chemicals and pollutants that have been epidemiologically associated with increased allergic tendency have been shown to enhance Type 2 helper T cell (Th2) dominance, which is consistent with the T-helper cell pattern found in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other Type 1 hypersensitivity disorders. Depletion of glutathione is one possible mechanism for this T-helper cell imbalance. Preliminary evidence suggests the possibility that repletion of glutathione levels (with oral supplementation of N-acetylcysteine), and enhancement of glutathione transferase function (using sulforaphanes), might be therapeutic options for countering type 1 hypersensitivity disorders caused by environmental chemicals.