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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diethyl phthalate enhances apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in PC12 cells

Authors: Sun, Y; Takahashi, K; Hosokawa, T; Saito, T; Kurasaki, M (In Press) Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology Online Pharmacology Online. HERO ID: 1249973

[Less] In this study, to examine the mechanism of diethyl phthalate toxicity to cells, the effects of diethyl . . . [More] In this study, to examine the mechanism of diethyl phthalate toxicity to cells, the effects of diethyl phthalate on apoptosis in a PC12 cell system were investigated by assaying apoptotic factors such as caspase-3, Bax, cytochrome c and DNA damage. Diethyl phthalate was shown to enhance the apoptosis induced by serum deprivation according to the results of DNA electrophoresis and TUNEL signal assays, although it could not induce apoptosis itself in the cells. This enhancement was thought to be because of an increase in caspase-3-like activity. In addition, the expression of bax and contents of cytochrome c in the cytosol showed a tendency to increase the cells exposed to diethyl phthalate. These results indicated that diethyl phthalate, a potential endocrine disrupter, affects the apoptotic system in PC12 cells. Diethyl phthalate may enhance oxidative stress such as that induced by reactive oxygen species in PC12 cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diethyl phthalate enhances expression of SIRT1 and DNMT3a during apoptosis in PC12 cells

Authors: Sun, Y; Guo, Z; Iku, S; Saito, T; Kurasaki, M (2013) Journal of Applied Toxicology 33:1484-1492. HERO ID: 1315301

[Less] Diethyl phthalate (DEP) works as a phthalate plasticizer and is ubiquitously used in personal care products, . . . [More] Diethyl phthalate (DEP) works as a phthalate plasticizer and is ubiquitously used in personal care products, cosmetics, medical equipment and pharmaceutical coating. DEP is considered a potential endocrine disruptor. Previously we found DEP-enhanced apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in PC12 cells. However, the relationship between DEP and longevity-related factors, sirtuins and epigenetic factors (e.g. DNA methyltransferases) remains unclear, because genome modification caused by chemical toxicity, sirtuins and epigenetic factors have played key roles in abnormal metabolism and development. Here, we investigate whether DEP affects sirtuins (SIRT1 and SIRT2) and methyltranferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3a) on the apoptosis of PC12 cells. We found that DNMT3a was significantly decreased by serum deprivation. However, DNMT3a, DNMT3b and SIRT1 were significantly increased under the enhancement of apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. These results suggest that SIRT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b play multiple and complex roles in different apoptotic stages. Our results showed DEP triggered epigenetic factors on PC12 cells apoptosis under nutrition stress. Finally, our results suggest that monitoring epigenetic factors such as DNMT3a, DNMT3b and SIRT1 could be a useful tool for chemical toxicity risk assessment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Pathway of diethyl phthalate photolysis in sea-water determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compound-specific isotope analysis

Authors: Peng, X; Feng, L; Li, X (2013) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1315303

[Less] The degradation mechanism of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in natural seawater under UV irradiation was investigated . . . [More] The degradation mechanism of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in natural seawater under UV irradiation was investigated using a combination of intermediates detection and determination of stable carbon isotopic fractionation. Typical intermediates identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and phthalic anhydride. Stable carbon isotope signature was determined by gas chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry through a combustion interface (GC-C-IRMS). A profound (13)C enrichment, with a δ(13)C isotope shift of 12.3±0.3‰ (f=0.09) in residual DEP molecule, was clearly an indicator to its photolysis. The reactive position isotope enrichment factor (ε(reactive position)) and apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) were -35.25±2.26‰ and 1.075, respectively, indicating that the initial reaction step was cleavage of a CO bond in DEP photolysis. Based on these observations, a degradation pathway was proposed. First, a CO bond in DEP molecule was broken to form MEP. Then, MEP was further degraded to phthalic anhydride. Our work demonstrates that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), when combined with intermediates analysis, is a reliable measure to deduce the mechanism of DEP photolysis. This approach might be extended as a reference for mechanism investigation in complicated environment systems.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of gliclazide push-pull osmotic pump coated with aqueous colloidal polymer dispersions

Authors: Tang, X; Tai, LY; Yang, XG; Chen, F; Xu, HM; Pan, WS (2013) Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. HERO ID: 1249977

[Less] The objective of present work was to design and evaluate gliclazide push-pull osmotic pump (PPOP) coated . . . [More] The objective of present work was to design and evaluate gliclazide push-pull osmotic pump (PPOP) coated with aqueous colloidal polymer dispersions-Eudragit(®) RL 30D and Eudragit(®) RS 30D. The influence of diacetin, diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl sebacate (DBS) and triethyl citrate (TEC) on the free Eudragit(®) RL 30D and Eudragit(®) RS 30D films as plasticizers on drug release were studied. Among these four plasticizers, diacetin offered the smoothest surface of the cast films, and it displayed greatest water vapor transmission coefficient. Free RL and RS films with diacetin also exhibited greatest erosion compared with the other three plasticizers. On the other hand, TEC, DEP and DBS showed greater water absorption. When compared with CA-coated gliclazide PPOP, Eudragit-coated ones showed a f(2) factor of 71.7, indicating the similarity between the release profile of the two formulations. The prepared Eudragit-coated gliclazide PPOP showed typical Zero-order release characteristics, with R being 0.9953. In the in vivo evaluation, the mean relative oral bioavailability of Eudragit-coated PPOP compared to CA-coated ones was 106.9%, demonstrating good bioequivalence. Both of their in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) showed linear relationship, with R(2) being 0.9955 (Eudragit-coated PPOP) and 0.9987 (CA-coated PPOP), respectively. These results suggested that PPOP coated with Eudragit(®) RL 30D and RS 30D could overcome drawbacks of organic solution coating and promote the development of PPOP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of Adult Human Exposure to Phthalate Esters in the Urban Centre of Paris (France)

Authors: Martine, B; Marie-Jeanne, T; Cendrine, D; Fabrice, A; Marc, C (2013) Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 90:91-96. HERO ID: 1315297

[Less] Human exposure to phthalates was assessed through digestive and respiratory intakes. Six phthalates . . . [More] Human exposure to phthalates was assessed through digestive and respiratory intakes. Six phthalates (DMP, DEP, DnBP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP) were investigated in drinking water, in current foodstuff and in ambient air. Digestive intake was prevailing (92 %) with a major contribution of food (95.5 %). Phthalate intake from water was mainly due to bottled water (60 %) in spite of the minor volume absorbed daily. From the respiratory tract, it was dominated by DEP: 30.3 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) and the part played by indoor air prevailed. Total intake were as ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), for DEHP: 1458, DnBP: 191.8, BBP: 164.3, DEP: 107.7, DMP: 79.1.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Penetration of Diesel Exhaust Particles Through Commercially Available Dust Half Masks

Authors: Penconek, A; Drazyk, P; Moskal, A (2013) Annals of Occupational Hygiene 57:360-373. HERO ID: 1315296

[Less] Half masks are certified by the competent, national institutions-National Institute for Occupational . . . [More] Half masks are certified by the competent, national institutions-National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the respective European national institutions applying common European regulations. However, certification testing is conducted with particles of NaCl, paraffin oil, or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and at the constant flow rate, whereas particles commonly found in workplaces may differ in size, shape, and morphology from these particles. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate filtration efficiency of commercially available filtering facepiece half masks under the condition of exposure to diesel fumes. In this study, we focused on the particulate phase [diesel exhaust particles (DEP)] of three (petroleum diesel, ecodiesel, and biodiesel) diesel fuel combustion types. Two types of European standard-certified half masks, FFP2 and FFP - Filtering Facepiece, and three types of popular diesel fuels were tested. The study showed that the filtration efficiencies for each examined half mask and for each of diesel exhaust fumes were lower than the minimum filtration efficiency required for the standard test aerosols by the European standards. For FFP2 and FFP3 particulate half masks, standard minimum filtration efficiency is 94 and 99%, respectively, whereas 84-89% of mass of DEP from various fuels were filtered by the tested FFP2 and only 75-86% by the FFP3. The study indicated that DEP is more penetrating for these filters than the standard salt or paraffin oil test aerosols. The study also showed that the most penetrating DEP are probably in the 30- to 300-nm size range, regardless of the fuel type and the half-mask model. Finally, the pressure drops across both half masks during the 80-min tests remained below an acceptable maximum of breathing resistance-regardless of the fuel types. The respiratory system, during 40-min test exposures, may be exposed to 12-16mg of DEP if a FFP2 or FFP3 particulate half mask is used. To conclude, commercially available half masks may not ensure a sufficient level of protection of the respiratory tract against diesel exhaust fumes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants

Authors: Carlstedt, F; Jönsson, BA; Bornehag, CG (2013) Indoor Air 23:32-39. HERO ID: 1315309

[Less] Abstract  Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring material contains phthalates, and it has been shown that . . . [More] Abstract  Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring material contains phthalates, and it has been shown that such materials are important sources for phthalates in indoor dust. Phthalates are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Consecutive infants between 2 and 6 months old and their mothers were invited. A questionnaire about indoor environmental factors and family lifestyle was used. Urinary metabolites of the phthalates diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), and dietylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were measured in the urine of the children. Of 209 invited children, 110 (52%) participated. Urine samples were obtained from 83 of these. Urine levels of the BBzP metabolite monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) was significantly higher in infants with PVC flooring in their bedrooms (P < 0.007) and related to the body area of the infant. Levels of the DEHP metabolites MEHHP (P < 0.01) and MEOHP (P < 0.04) were higher in the 2-month-old infants who were not exclusively breast-fed when compared with breast-fed children. The findings indicate that the use of soft PVC as flooring material may increase the human uptake of phthalates in infants. Urinary levels of phthalate metabolites during early life are associated with the use of PVC flooring in the bedroom, body area, and the use of infant formula. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study shows that the uptake of phthalates is not only related to oral uptake from, for example, food but also to environmental factors such as building materials. This new information should be considered when designing indoor environment, especially for children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Immobilization of cholesterol esterase in mesoporous silica materials and its hydrolytic activity toward diethyl phthalate

Authors: Orita, T; Tomita, M; Saito, T; Nishida, N; Kato, K (2012) HERO ID: 1322266

[Less] Cholesterol esterase (CE, cholesteryl ester hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.13) from porcine pancreas (molecular . . . [More] Cholesterol esterase (CE, cholesteryl ester hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.13) from porcine pancreas (molecular weight 400-500 kDa) exhibits hydrolytic activity toward various toxic organic phthalate esters. CE was confined in the nanospace (diameter 3-30 nm) of five types of mesoporous silica (MPS) that differ in structural properties such as pore diameter, pore volume, and particle morphology. These structural properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray diffraction, N-2 adsorption-desorption experiments, solid-state C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and solid-state Si-29 NMR. Catalytic activities of immobilized and free CE were evaluated by the hydrolysis of diethyl phthalate in phosphate buffer solutions containing an organic cosolvent. Optimal activity recovery was achieved when CE was immobilized in n-decane-functionalized MPS, which had a large pore size (22.5 nm). The immobilization also protected against effects of temperature within the range 30 degrees C-60 degrees C; CE immobilized in n-decyl-functionalized MPS exhibited better thermal stability than in non-functionalized MPS or free CE Moreover, it retained approximately 60% of its catalytic activity even after six catalytic cycles. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The toxic effects of diethyl phthalate on the activity of glutamine synthetase in greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.)

Author: Cheng, TS (2012) Aquatic Toxicology 124-125:171-178. HERO ID: 1315300

[Less] The toxic effects of diethyl phthalate (DEP), a potent allelochemical, on the enzyme activity and polypeptide . . . [More] The toxic effects of diethyl phthalate (DEP), a potent allelochemical, on the enzyme activity and polypeptide accumulation of glutamine synthetase (GS) in greater duckweed were investigated. In our previous studies, DEP induced oxidative responses at concentrations from 0.5 to 2mM in greater duckweed and the antioxidant enzymes played important roles in the defense strategy against DEP stress. In this study, DAB-H(2)O(2) and NBT stain for superoxide radicals (O(2)(.-)), lipid peroxidation, HSP70, and ammonia accumulation in DEP-treated duckweed tissues revealed adverse effect of DEP in plant growth. Biochemical analysis and physiological methods were combined to investigate GS activity and polypeptide accumulation under DEP-induced stress. The results showed that GS activity was reduced with the increasing concentration of DEP, indicative of enhanced toxic effect. Immunoblot analysis with chloroplast soluble fractions indicated that the chloroplastic GS (GS2) polypeptide from greater duckweed was degraded under DEP stress conditions. The response of GS2 to the DEP stress may be modulated by means of redox change in plant tissues, chloroplasts, and chloroplast lysates. The results suggest that DEP is toxic to the greater duckweed by inhibition of the GS isoenzymes in nitrogen assimilation and the GS2 plays important roles in the adaptation strategy against DEP toxicity.