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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Emergent contaminants in sediments and fishes from the Tamsui River (Taiwan): Their spatial-temporal distribution and risk to aquatic ecosystems and human health

Authors: Lee, CC; Hsieh, CY; Chen, CS; Tien, CJ (2019) HERO ID: 5932869

[Less] The occurrence of emergent contaminants, 24 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate . . . [More] The occurrence of emergent contaminants, 24 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP), was investigated in sediments and fishes collected from the Tamsui River system to determine the factors that influence their distribution and their risk to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The concentrations of total PBDEs, DEHP, DBP, BBP, DEP, DMP, DnOP, BPA and NP in sediments were 1-955, ND-23570, <50-411, <50-430, ND-80, ND-<50, ND-<50, 1-144, 3-19624 μg/kg dw, respectively. The spatial-temporal distribution trends of these compounds in sediments could be attributed to urbanization, industrial discharge and effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The PBDE congener distribution patterns (BDE-209 was the dominant congener) in sediments reflected the occurrence of debromination of BDE-209 and the elution of penta-BDE from the treated products. The concentrations of total PBDEs, DEHP, DBP, BBP, DEP, DMP, DnOP, BPA and NP in fish muscles were 2-66, 17-1046, <10-231, <10-66, <30, ND-<30, ND-<30, 0.4-7 and 3-440 μg/kg ww, respectively. The species-specific bioaccumulation of these compounds by fish was found and four species particularly showed high bioaccumulation potential. BDE-47 was the predominant BDE congener in fish muscles, suggesting high bioavailability and bioaccumulation of this compound. The results of biota-sediment accumulation factors showed that BDE-47, 99, 100, 153 and 154 had relatively high bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential for some fish species. The ecological risk assessment showed that the concentrations of BPA and NP in sediments were likely to have adverse effects on aquatic organisms (risk quotients > 1). The human health risk assessment according to hazard quotients (HQs) and carcinogenic risks (CRs) revealed no remarkable risk to human health through consumption of fish contaminated with BDE-47, 99, 100, 154, 209, DEHP, BPA and NP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary phthalate metabolites in primary school starters in Pearl River Delta, China: Occurrences, risks and possible sources

Authors: Yao, Y; Chen, D; Wu, Y; Zhou, L; Cheng, J; Li, Y; Lu, S; Yuan, G; Liu, G (2019) Environmental Research 179:108853. HERO ID: 5932893

[Less] Assessment of children's exposure risks of phthalates before puberty is important, as phthalates are . . . [More] Assessment of children's exposure risks of phthalates before puberty is important, as phthalates are ubiquitous and are associated with reproductive development. However, relevant data in Pearl River Delta, China are scarce. Nineteen phthalate metabolites were analyzed in urine samples from 1490 primary school starters (6-8 years old) recruited in 2016-2017 using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Nine phthalate metabolites were detected more than 80% of the urine samples. Monobutyl phthalate (MnBP) was the highest metabolite (median, 212 μg/g creatinine), followed by two short chained phthalate metabolites, four secondary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and the primary metabolites of DEHP. The MnBP level was the third highest of those reported worldwide while other metabolites were in the lower range compared with previous studies. Significantly positive associations were found between urinary metabolite levels and family income as well as parent education levels (p < 0.05). Duration since the latest interior decoration was inversely associated with phthalate metabolites (p < 0.05). Significantly positive associations had also been found between the frequency of eating takeaway food and four DEHP metabolites (p < 0.01). The geometric mean of estimated daily intake (EDI) of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), DEHP, di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) were 6.24, 2.67, 1.06, 0.64, 0.44, and 0.01 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. Hazard quotient (HQ) was defined as the ratio of EDI and the tolerable daily intake (TDI). Approximately 38% children had HQ DnBP >1 indicating potential reproductive risks caused by DnBP. To evaluate cumulative exposure risks, hazard index (HI) was calculated as the sum of the HQs of DnBP, DiBP, DEHP, and BBzP. Nearly 48% children had HI > 1 suggesting extremely high cumulative risks in children in Pearl River Delta, China. To our best knowledge, this was the largest study on evaluating phthalate exposure among children in China.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Cumulative risk assessment of phthalates exposure in preschool children]

Authors: Gao, H; Huang, K; Wu, XY; Cai, XX; Han, Y; Zhu, P; Hao, JH; Tao, FB (2019) Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi / Chinese Journal of Epidemiology 40:585-589. HERO ID: 5493231

[Less] Objective: The urine concentrations of phthalate metabolites were used to estimate the cumulative risk . . . [More] Objective: The urine concentrations of phthalate metabolites were used to estimate the cumulative risk assessment in preschool children in Ma'anshan of Anhui province. Methods: Based on the China-Anhui Birth Cohort, the demographic information and urine samples of 3 743 children were collected in Ma'anshan from April 2014 to April 2015. The concentrations of 7 metabolites' [monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono (2-ethyl- 5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP)] of 5 phthalates [dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)] in the urine samples of the children were measured by solid-phase extration-triple quadrupole high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-isotope method. In addition, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of 5 phthalates were calculated according to the metabolites' concentrations. Cumulative risk assessment was performed using hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) methods. Results: The M (Q(R)) of seven metabolite concentrations were 29.58 (18.69-48.26), 26.65 (13.44-56.09), 256.86 (150.99-438.51), 0.12 (0.04-0.32), 6.27 (3.71-11.13), 17.94 (11.94-28.42) and 24.80 (16.05-40.32) μg/g creatinine, respectively. For the EDIs of 5 phthalates, DBP ranked first, followed by DEHP, DMP, DEP and BBzP with the M (Q(R)) of 7.54 (4.41-12.85), 3.35 (2.20-5.42), 0.75 (0.47-1.24), 0.71 (0.36-1.52) and 0.003 (0.001-0.009) μg/(kg·d), respectively. The HQ and HI varied with age, gender and sampling season, the differences were significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: These results indicated that risk of cumulative exposure to phthalates was high in preschool children aged 3-6 years in Ma'anshan. Age, gender and sampling season were influencing factors.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determinants of exposure levels, metabolism, and health risks of phthalates among pregnant women in Wuhan, China

Authors: Li, J; Qian, X; Zhao, H; Zhou, Y; Xu, S; Li, Y; Xiang, L; Shi, J; Xia, W; Cai, Z (2019) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 184:109657. HERO ID: 5932892

[Less] Concerns on minimizing health risks of phthalates have been raised due to their widespread exposure . . . [More] Concerns on minimizing health risks of phthalates have been raised due to their widespread exposure and well-documented endocrine disrupting properties, but the determinants of levels, metabolism, and health risks of phthalate exposures have not been thoroughly characterized among the Chinese population, particularly pregnant women. The metabolites of five phthalates were analyzed: diethyl (DEP), diisobutyl (DiBP), di-n-butyl (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) (DEHP), and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP) were analyzed in urine samples collected from 946 mothers in Wuhan during 2014-2015. We applied linear mixed models to investigate the relationships between biomarkers (e.g., urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites, phthalates, and ratios of metabolites) and factors including sampling seasons and epidemiological characteristics. We calculated estimated daily intake (EDI) using average phthalate concentrations over three trimesters and hazard index (HI) by dividing EDI by tolerance daily intake. About 24.9% of participants were at health risks with HI > 1. The largest health risks were driven by one specific phthalate (DnBP or DEHP). We observed lower urinary levels of phthalate metabolites in winter. Elevated levels were found in mothers with higher education levels or those employed. Mothers who got pregnant on purpose had lower phthalate concentrations than those got pregnant by accident. More recent exposure to phthalates was observed among groups of mothers giving birth to girls, or those who got excessive gestational weight gain. Younger mothers were more susceptible to phthalate exposure. This repeated measurement study suggests that the intervention should be taken to limit application and production of DnBP and DEHP, and highlights that typical demographic factors should be taken into account in demographic studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determinants of phthalate exposure and risk assessment in children from Poland

Authors: Garí, M; Koch, HM; Pälmke, C; Jankowska, A; Wesołowska, E; Hanke, W; Nowak, D; Bose-O'Reilly, S; Polańska, K (2019) Environment International 127:742-753. HERO ID: 5540505

[Less] Phthalates are a group of widely used chemicals and humans are exposed to them in their daily life. . . . [More] Phthalates are a group of widely used chemicals and humans are exposed to them in their daily life. Some phthalates may affect the hormonal balance in both children and adults. The aim of this study was to assess the phthalate exposure and its determinants among children at age of 7 years from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL). 250 urine samples collected in 2014-2015 were analysed for 21 metabolites of 11 parent phthalates using on-line high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). This represents the most extensive set of phthalate metabolites ever determined for Poland. Ten metabolites were quantifiable in 100% of the samples, another eight in >90%. The highest median concentrations were found for the primary monoester metabolites of di-iso-butyl (MiBP, 72.4 μg/l), di-n-butyl (MnBP, 56.3 μg/l) and diethyl (MEP, 42.0 μg/l) phthalate, followed by the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl (ΣDEHP, 89.3 μg/l) and di-iso-nonyl (ΣDiNP, 21.9 μg/l) phthalate metabolites. Metabolite concentrations were higher in children at 7 years than in the same children at age 2 or in their mothers during pregnancy. Generally, phthalate exposures in this study were much higher than exposures reported in other European populations. Multivariate regression models showed that body mass index, place of residence, breastfeeding duration, socio-economic status and parental education were associated with the metabolite levels in the 7-year old children. Daily intake and hazard index calculations revealed that a small percentage of children (around 3-10%) exceeded the tolerable daily intakes established by international institutions such as EFSA and U.S. EPA indicating that these children might be at risk of anti-androgenic effects from the individual and cumulative exposure to phthalates. Thus, further monitoring of this population, by educational programs and follow-up interventions, is required.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Distribution, source, and environmental risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in water, suspended particulate matter, and sediment of a typical Yangtze River Delta City, China

Authors: Chen, H; Mao, W; Shen, Y; Feng, W; Mao, G; Zhao, T; Yang, L; Yang, L; Meng, C; Li, Y; Wu, X (2019) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26:24609-24619. HERO ID: 5635050

[Less] Phthalates (PAEs) in drinking water sources such as the Yangtze River in developing countries had aroused . . . [More] Phthalates (PAEs) in drinking water sources such as the Yangtze River in developing countries had aroused widespread concern. Here, the water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediment samples were collected from 15 sites in wet and dry seasons in Zhenjiang, for the determination of six PAEs (DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, DEHP, and DOP) using the solid-phase extraction (SPE) or ultrasonic extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total concentrations of six PAEs (Σ6PAEs) spanned a range of 2.65-39.31 μg L-1 in water, 1.97-34.10 μg g-1 in SPM, and 0.93-34.70 μg g-1 in sediment. The partition coefficients (Kd1) of PAEs in water and SPM phase ranged from 0.004 to 3.36 L g-1 in the wet season and from 0.12 to 2.84 L g-1 in the dry season. Kd2 of PAEs in water and sediment phase was 0.001-9.75 L g-1 in the wet season and 0.006-8.05 L g-1 in the dry season. The dominant PAEs were DIBP, DBP, and DEHP in water and SPM, DIBP, DEHP, and DOP in sediment. The concentration of DBP in water exceeded the China Surface Water Standard. The discharge of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater might be the main potential sources of PAEs. The risk quotient (RQ) method used for the risk assessment revealed that DBP (0.01 < RQ < 1) posed a medium risk, while DIBP and DEHP (RQ > 1) posed a high environmental risk in water, DIBP (RQ > 1) also showed a high risk in sediment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Monitoring and health risk assessment of phthalate esters in household's drinking water of Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Abdolahnejad, A; Gheisari, L; Karimi, M; Norastehfar, N; Ebrahimpour, K; Mohammadi, A; Ghanbari, R; Ebrahimi, A; Jafari, N (2019) HERO ID: 5933614

[Less] This study aimed to determine the presence of phthalates and their concentration in household's drinking . . . [More] This study aimed to determine the presence of phthalates and their concentration in household's drinking water and to examine their potential risk for inhabitants in urban regions of Isfahan, Iran. During the summer and winter of 2017, samples were extracted from 33 private residences via dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with some modifications. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the presence of four major phthalates. According to the results, four phthalates, including dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), diethyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), were present in the samples. The highest contamination with phthalates was attributed to DEHP (606.89 ng/l). Except for BBP, the mean concentrations of other PAE compounds were higher in summer than in winter. The mean concentration of DEHP in sampling points with plastic pipes was higher than that of regions with metal pipes. Based on the health risk assessment, exposure of humans to phthalates in drinking water was acceptable and did not pose carcinogenic effects. Further studies are recommended for adequate monitoring of phthalates in drinking water, food, and air in order to ensure human health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Risk assessment of phthalates in pharmaceuticals

Authors: Chung, BY; Choi, SM; Roh, TH; Lim, DS; Ahn, MY; Kim, YJ; Kim, HS; Lee, BM (2019) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 82:351-360. HERO ID: 5432993

[Less] Phthalates are used for industrial plasticizers to impart flexibility and durability to polyvinyl chloride. . . . [More] Phthalates are used for industrial plasticizers to impart flexibility and durability to polyvinyl chloride. Despite widespread use of phthalates, reported endocrine-disrupting properties raise safety concerns for consumers. Since phthalates are permitted as excipients in controlled-release capsules and enteric coatings, patients taking drugs containing these chemicals may potentially be at some health risk. In this study, 102 distinct pharmaceutical products were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine phthalate content and maximal phthalate exposure rate was calculated. In 102 drug samples, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected in 9.8, 27.45, and 5.88% of cases, respectively. The highest level of DEP was found in extended-release (ER) capsules with concentrations ranging from 935.5 to 1535.37 ppb. The highest levels of DBP (1.32-7.07 ppb) were detected in tablets, whereas highest level (7.07 ppb) of DEHP was found in suspension preparations. The phthalate hazard index (HI) (human exposure tolerable daily intake) was calculated for each sample, but no sample exhibited an HI value exceeding 1; the minimum value taken to indicate a serious health risk. Thus, no apparent serious health risk from phthalate exposure arises from taking these medications. The low HI values suggest that phthalate contamination in pharmaceuticals may not pose an apparent significant risk to humans. However, the sources of phthalate present in pharmaceutical products still needs to be investigated and verified through on-site inspections in manufacturing processes in order to minimize human exposure. It is recommended that measures be taken to prevent phthalate contamination in pharmaceuticals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate exposure and cumulative risk in a Chinese newborn population

Authors: Li, X; Liu, L; Wang, H; Zhang, X; Xiao, T; Shen, H (2019) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26:7763-7771. HERO ID: 5488911

[Less] Phthalates have been attracted as a considerable attention in toxicological research as well as public . . . [More] Phthalates have been attracted as a considerable attention in toxicological research as well as public health context due to their ubiquitous occurrence and potential adverse health effects. Newborns are susceptible to the environmental risk factors; however, data are still limited on newborn phthalate exposure and risk assessment worldwide, especially in China. This study was nested in a cross-sectional retrospective study of 1359 pregnant women recruited in Xiamen Maternity and Child Care Hospital, China, during June to July 2012. All urine samples from newborn were collected using disposal diapers during the first two postnatal days, and seven phthalate metabolites were measured by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Phthalate exposure and accumulation risk were evaluated based on the measured newborn urinary internal doses. The detection rate (96.5%) and the median concentration (17.5 ng/mL) of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) were the highest, while monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) concentration was the lowest with a detection rate (1.50%). By estimating the daily intakes of the parent phthalates, their EDI were 0.04, 0.10, 0.32, 0.00, and 0.12 μg/kg-bw/day for dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP), and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), respectively. The newborns were commonly exposed to phthalates but no one exceeds the regulated tolerable daily intake (TDI) values in this large newborn population.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of PM2.5-bound phthalic acid esters (PAEs) at regional background site in northern China: Long-range transport and risk assessment

Authors: Li, PH; Jia, HY; Wang, Y; Li, T; Wang, L; Li, QQ; Yang, MM; Yue, JJ; Yi, XL; Guo, LQ (2019) Science of the Total Environment 659:140-149. HERO ID: 5041246

[Less] Eleven major phthalic acid esters (PAEs) congeners were analyzed for PM2.5 samples collected at Mount . . . [More] Eleven major phthalic acid esters (PAEs) congeners were analyzed for PM2.5 samples collected at Mount Tai, a high elevation mountain site in northern China from June to August 2015. The results showed that the average concentration of PAEs in PM2.5 was 19.48ngm-3, and bis(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) were the predominant species in particle-phase, whereas diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the prevailing PAEs in gas-phase. PAE concentrations decreased at the beginning of cloud/fog events, while they increased after the cloud/fog events since the liquid-phase PAEs could be absorbed by solid-phase PAEs. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the highest PSCF value of air masses were mainly sourced from southwest of Mount Tai and multiple sources contributed to PAEs. A Monte Carlo simulation was applied to estimate the incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) from inhalation exposure on the basis of DEHP concentrations. The estimated values of ILCR for the general population were lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency threshold, which is 10-6. However, since the local population was exposed to various local emission sources, the actual health risk is undervalued.