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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Personal care product use among adults in NHANES: Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and phenols and use of mouthwash and sunscreen

Authors: Ferguson, KK; Colacino, JA; Lewis, RC; Meeker, JD (2017) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27:326-332. HERO ID: 3230216

[Less] Personal care product use is a well-established pathway of exposure for notable endocrine disrupting . . . [More] Personal care product use is a well-established pathway of exposure for notable endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including phthalates, parabens, triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP3), and bisphenol-A. We utilized questionnaire data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012 cycles to examine the associations between use of sunscreen and mouthwash and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and phenols in a nationally representative population of US adults (n=3529). Compared with individuals who reported "Never" using mouthwash, individuals who reported daily use had significantly elevated urinary concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate, methyl and propyl parabens, and BP3 (28%, 30%, 39%, and 42% higher, respectively). Individuals who reported "Always" using sunscreen had significantly higher urinary concentrations of triclosan, methyl, ethyl, and propyl parabens, and BP3 (59%, 92%, 102%, 151%, and 510% higher, respectively) compared with "Never" users of sunscreen. Associations between exposure biomarkers and sunscreen use were stronger in women compared with men, and associations with mouthwash use were generally stronger in men compared with women. These results suggest that sunscreen and mouthwash may be important exposure sources for EDCs.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 11 May 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.27.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Univariate predictors of maternal concentrations of environmental chemicals: The MIREC study

Authors: Lewin, A; Arbuckle, TE; Fisher, M; Liang, CL; Marro, L; Davis, K; Abdelouahab, N; Fraser, WD (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:77-85. HERO ID: 3494368

[Less] BACKGROUND: The developing fetus and pregnant woman can be exposed to a variety of . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The developing fetus and pregnant woman can be exposed to a variety of environmental chemicals that may adversely affect their health. Moreover, environmental exposure and risk disparities are associated with different social determinants, including socioeconomic status (SES) and demographic indicators. Our aim was to investigate whether and how maternal concentrations of a large panel of persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals vary according to sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics in a large pregnancy and birth cohort.

METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a cohort of pregnant women (N=2001) recruited over four years (2008-2011) in 10 cities across Canada. In all, 1890 urine and 1938 blood samples from the first trimester (1st and 3rd trimester for metals) were analysed and six sociodemographic and lifestyle indicators were assessed: maternal age, household income, parity, smoking status, country of birth and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).

RESULTS: We found these indicators to be significantly associated with many of the chemicals measured in maternal blood and urine. Women born outside Canada had significantly higher concentrations of di-2-ethylhexyl and diethyl phthalate metabolites, higher levels of all metals except cadmium (Cd), as well as higher levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Nulliparity was associated with higher concentrations of dialkyl phosphates (DAPs), arsenic, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and many of the persistent organic pollutants. Smokers had higher levels of bisphenol A, Cd and perfluorohexane sulfonate, while those women who had never smoked had higher levels of triclosan, DMAA, manganese and some OCPs.

CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that inequitable distribution of exposure to chemicals among populations within a country can occur. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors are an important component of a thorough risk assessment as they can impact the degree of exposure and may modify the individual's susceptibility to potential health effects due to differences in lifestyle, cultural diets, and aging.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Population Exposure to Phthalate-containing Drugs

Authors: Broe, A; Ennis, ZN; Pottegård, A; Hallas, J; Ahern, T; Damkier, P (2017) Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology Online Pharmacology Online 121:153-158. HERO ID: 3859044

[Less] Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors. Not commonly recognized, phthalates are used as excipients . . . [More] Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors. Not commonly recognized, phthalates are used as excipients in a number of drug formulations. We aimed to describe the sale of phthalate-containing drugs in Denmark from 2004 to 2015. National data on annual sale of medications (tablets only) were accessed from medstat.dk. Data from the Danish Medicines Agency on phthalate content per tablet were merged with data on total sale for each active substance and drug formulation. We used the 'defined daily dose' (DDD) as the unit of sale and calculated the total amount of phthalate (mg) dispensed per 1000 inhabitants. Specific tablet content was compared with the maximum daily exposure limits defined by regulatory agencies for diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) of 4.0 and 0.01 mg/kg/day, respectively. Use of phthalate-containing drugs in Denmark was common. We found 154 drug products containing five different phthalates. Two low-molecular-weight phthalates and three high-molecular-weight phthalates were identified, with a total sale of 59.4 and 112 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day during the study period, respectively. The highest amount of DBP was found in multi-enzymes (24.6-32.8 mg per DDD) and mesalazine (12.5-26.4 mg per DDD). Budesonide, lithium and bisacodyl also exceeded the DBP exposure limit of 0.01 mg/kg/day. Other drugs had high levels of DEP, although not exceeding the exposure limit. Sales of phthalate-containing drugs in Denmark from 2004 to 2015 were substantial, and phthalate exposure from several products exceeded the regulatory exposure limit introduced in 2014.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure of children to phthalates and the impact of consumer practices in Slovakia

Authors: Šidlovská, M; Petrovičová, I; Kolena, B; Pilka, T; Šovčíková, E; Trnovec, T (2017) Reviews on Environmental Health 32:211-214. HERO ID: 3859080

[Less] Phthalates are environmental pollutants that can enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation and dermal . . . [More] Phthalates are environmental pollutants that can enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption. Food constitutes the most important source of human exposure to these chemicals. The aim of our study was the biological monitoring of exposure to eight phthalate metabolites in children (n=107), 10-12 years of age, living in eastern Slovakia. Additionally, we analysed some associations between anthropometric measures, questionnaire data (i.e. eating and drinking habits, practice of personal care products) and concentrations of phthalate metabolites. Because of the short half-life of phthalates, within 24-48 h, we used 24-h recalls to assess dietary intakes. We used high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of spot urine samples to determine concentrations of phthalate metabolites mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-iso-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-carboxy pentyl and mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). We found statistically significant association between consumer practices and concentration of some phthalate metabolites, concretely consumption of milk and dairy products with MBzP and margarine with MEP (p<0.01 in both cases) and margarine with 5oxo-MEHP, hot beverages with 5OH-MEHP, baguettes and semifinished products with MEP (p<0.05 in all cases). Further, we found relationship between use of cosmetic products and phthalate concentrations, nail polish application and MEP and use of body lotion and MEHP (p<0.05 in both cases). We concluded that consumer practices (including eating and drinking habits and personal care) represent the substantial source of phthalate exposure in Slovak children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence of phthalate esters in over-the-counter medicines from China and its implications for human exposure

Authors: Jia, LL; Lou, XY; Guo, Y; Leung, KS; Zeng, EY (2017) Environment International 98:137-142. HERO ID: 3453729

[Less] Food, air, personal care products and indoor dust have been recognized as the main routes of exposure . . . [More] Food, air, personal care products and indoor dust have been recognized as the main routes of exposure to phthalates in Chinese population, but other sources may have been overlooked, e.g., medicines. To fill the knowledge gap, phthalate esters were measured in 96 over-the-counter medicines made in China, including selected 71 Chinese patented medicines and 25 western medicines. It was found that none of the medicines was free of phthalates. The mean concentrations of individual phthalates ranged from 0.001μg/g (dicyclohexyl phthalate) to 5.85μg/g (diethyl phthalate). Among 9 targeted phthalates, di-n-butyl phthalate was the dominant congener, accounting for >65% of the total phthalates in all medicine samples, followed by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diethyl phthalate. Phthalates in medicines appeared to derive from gastroresistant film coatings, plastic packing materials or phthalate contaminated rural herbal plants (especially for Chinese patented medicines). Daily human exposure to phthalates was estimated for local patients for one treatment cycle (e.g., one week) based on suggested consumption dosage and phthalate concentrations. Almost all exposure levels were below the guidelines suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency or European Food Safety Authority, indicating low health risk with phthalates from consumption of the medicines. In addition, concentration levels of phthalates in patients would increase upon administration but are expected to decrease to the same values as those in patients before they took medicines in several days. Because the number of medicine samples was limited and the concentrations of phthalates varied in a large range, further investigations are needed to acquire more data for better assessment of human health effects for Chinese population. Capsule: Distribution of phthalate esters in over-the-counter medicines and related exposure for Chinese population are examined.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Predicting the gas-phase concentration of semi-volatile organic compounds from airborne particles: Application to a French nationwide survey

Authors: Wei, W; Mandin, C; Blanchard, O; Mercier, F; Pelletier, M; Le Bot, B; Glorennec, P; Ramalho, O (2017) Science of the Total Environment 576:319-325. HERO ID: 3454652

[Less] Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) partition indoors between the gas phase, airborne particles, . . . [More] Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) partition indoors between the gas phase, airborne particles, settled dust, and other surfaces. Unknown concentrations of SVOCs in the gas phase (Cg) can be predicted from their measured concentrations in airborne particles. In previous studies, the prediction of Cg depended largely on choosing a specific equation for the calculation of the particle/gas partition coefficient. Moreover, the prediction of Cg is frequently performed at a reference temperature rather than the real indoor temperature. In this paper, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo simulation was developed to predict the distribution of SVOCs' Cg from their concentrations in airborne particles at the target indoor temperature. Moreover, the distribution of the particle/gas partition coefficient of each SVOC at the target temperature was used. The approach was validated using two measured datasets in the literature: the predicted Cg from concentrations measured in airborne particles and the measured Cg were generally of the same order of magnitude. The distributions of the Cg of 66 SVOCs in the French housing stock were then predicted. The SVOCs with the highest median Cg, ranging from 1ng/m(3) to >100ng/m(3), included 8 phthalates (DEP, DiBP, DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMP, DiNP, and DMEP), 4 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene), 2 alkylphenols (4-tert-butylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol), 2 synthetic musks (galaxolide and tonalide), tributyl phosphate, and heptachlor. The nationwide, representative, predicted Cg values of SVOCs are frequently of the same order of magnitude in Europe and North America, whereas these Cg values in Chinese and Indian dwellings and the Cg of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in U.S. dwellings are generally higher.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Racial and ethnic variations in phthalate metabolite concentration changes across full-term pregnancies

Authors: James-Todd, TM; Meeker, JD; Huang, T; Hauser, R; Seely, EW; Ferguson, KK; Rich-Edwards, JW; Mcelrath, TF (2017) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27:160-166. HERO ID: 3230224

[Less] Higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse reproductive and . . . [More] Higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes, as well as poor infant/child health outcomes. In non-pregnant populations, phthalate metabolite concentrations vary by race/ethnicity. Few studies have documented racial/ethnic differences between phthalate metabolite concentrations at multiple time points across the full-course of pregnancy. The objective of the study was to characterize the change in phthalate metabolite concentrations by race/ethnicity across multiple pregnancy time points. Women were participants in a prospectively collected pregnancy cohort who delivered at term (≥37 weeks) and had available urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations for ≥3 time points across full-term pregnancies (n=350 women). We assessed urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites that were log-transformed and specific gravity-adjusted. We evaluated the potential racial/ethnic differences in phthalate metabolite concentrations at baseline (median 10 weeks gestation) using ANOVA and across pregnancy using linear mixed models to calculate the percent change and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Almost 30% of the population were non-Hispanic black or Hispanic. With the exception of mono-(3-carboxypropyl) (MCPP) and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, baseline levels of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in non-whites (P<0.05). When evaluating patterns by race/ethnicity, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and MCPP had significant percent changes across pregnancy. MEP was higher in Hispanics at baseline and decreased in mid-pregnancy but increased in late pregnancy for non-Hispanic blacks. MCPP was substantially higher in non-Hispanic blacks at baseline but decreased later in pregnancy. Across pregnancy, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women had higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites. These differences may have implications for racial/ethnic differences in adverse pregnancy and child health outcomes.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 10 February 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.2.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessing the concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) and the genotoxic potential of treated wastewater (final effluent) in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Al-Saleh, I; Elkhatib, R; Al-Rajoudi, T; Al-Qudaihi, G (2017) Science of the Total Environment 578:440-451. HERO ID: 3469247

[Less] Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants . . . [More] Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants that tend to bio-accumulate in humans through the soil-plant-animal food chain. Some studies have reported the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in addition to their estrogenic activities. Water resources are scarce in Saudi Arabia, and several wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) have been constructed for agricultural and industrial use. This study was designed to: (1) measure the concentrations of BPA and six PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), in secondary- and tertiary-treated wastewater collected from five WTPs in three Saudi cities for four to five weeks and (2) test their potential genotoxicity. Three genotoxicological parameters were used: % tail DNA (%T), tail moment (TM) and percentage micronuclei (%MN). Both DBP and DEHP were detected in all treated wastewater samples. DMP, DEP, BBP, DOP, and BPA were found in 83.3, 84.2, 79, 73.7 and 97.4% of the samples, respectively. The levels of DMP (p<0.001), DOP (p<0.001) and BPA (p=0.001) were higher in tertiary- treated wastewater than secondary-treated wastewater, perhaps due to the influence of the molecular weight and polarity of the chemicals. Both weekly sampling frequency and WTP locations significantly affected the variability in our data. Treated wastewater from Wadi Al-Araj was able to induce DNA damage (%T and TM) in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells that was statistically higher than wastewater from all other WTPs and in untreated TK6 cells (negative control). %MN in samples from both Wadi Al-Araj and Manfouah did not differ statistically but was significantly higher than in the untreated TK6 cells. This study also showed that the samples of tertiary-treated wastewater had a higher genotoxicological potential to induce DNA damage than the samples of secondary-treated wastewater. BPA and some PAEs in the treated wastewater might have the potential to induce genetic damage, despite their low levels. Genotoxicity, however, may also have been due to the presence of other contaminants. Our preliminary findings should be of concern to Saudi agriculture because long-term irrigation with treated wastewater could lead to the accumulation of PAEs and BPA in the soil and ultimately reach the human and animal food chain. WTPs need to remove pollutants more efficiently. Until then, a cautious use of treated wastewater for irrigation is recommended to avoid serious health impacts on local populations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence of phthalate diesters in indoor air from several Northern cities in Vietnam, and its implication for human exposure

Authors: Tran, TM; Le, HT; Minh, TB; Kannan, K (2017) Science of the Total Environment 601-602:1695-1701. HERO ID: 3859060

[Less] Phthalates are used as plasticizers to impart flexibility of plastics. Because of their toxicity, human . . . [More] Phthalates are used as plasticizers to impart flexibility of plastics. Because of their toxicity, human exposure to phthalates is a concern. Little is known on the occurrence of and inhalation exposure to phthalates in indoor air. In this study, ten phthalates were measured in 97 indoor air samples collected from Northern Vietnam during September 2016 to January 2017. The mean concentrations of total phthalates (i.e., sum of ten phthalates) in particulate and gas phases ranged from 95.2 to 13,100μgg(-1) and from 57.0 to 14,900ngm(-3), respectively. In bulk indoor air samples (i.e., gas plus particulate phase), the mean concentration of total phthalates ranged from 106 to 16,000ngm(-3) (mean: 1040ngm(-3)). Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was found at the highest concentration in indoor air at a concentration range of below the method quantitation limit (MQL) to 12,400ngm(-3) (mean: 376). Among various microenvironments, indoor air collected from hair salons contained the highest concentrations of phthalates (range: 596 to 16,000ngm(-3)). Among the four northern Vietnamese cities studied, the highest concentrations of phthalates were found in indoor air samples from Hanoi. The calculated mean inhalation exposure doses to phthalates for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults were 780, 485, 416, 292, and 213ngkg-bw(-1)d(-1), respectively.