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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalates and Parabens in Personal Care Products From China: Concentrations and Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Wang, L; Kannan, K (2014) Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 66:113-119. HERO ID: 1987638

[Less] Our previous studies showed that populations in China are widely exposed to phthalates and parabens. . . . [More] Our previous studies showed that populations in China are widely exposed to phthalates and parabens. Nevertheless, sources of Chinese exposure to phthalates and parabens are not well understood. In this study, we measured concentrations of nine phthalates and six parabens in five categories of personal care products (PCPs, N = 52) collected from Tianjin, China, and estimated human exposure doses to these compounds. The most frequently detected phthalates and parabens in PCPs were diethyl phthalate (DEP) (detection frequency 54 %), methyl paraben (MeP), and n-propyl paraben (PrP) (~75 %). The concentrations of DEP in PCPs ranged from not detected (ND; <0.1 μg/g) to 937 μg/g. The highest concentrations of MeP and PrP were 2,826 and 1,564 μg/g, respectively. Median exposure dose to parabens through dermal application of PCPs in China was estimated at 18,700 μg/d, which was two orders of magnitude greater than that calculated for phthalates (45.5 μg/d). Hand and body lotions were the major contributors to exposures, and the daily exposure doses for DEP, MeP, and PrP from these products were 38.4, 10,200 and 4,890 μg, respectively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in urine samples from Danish children and correlations with phthalates in dust samples from their homes and daycare centers

Authors: Langer, S; Bekö, G; Weschler, CJ; Brive, LM; Toftum, J; Callesen, M; Clausen, G (2014) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 217:78-87. HERO ID: 1600114

[Less] Around the world humans use products that contain phthalates, and human exposure to certain of these . . . [More] Around the world humans use products that contain phthalates, and human exposure to certain of these phthalates has been associated with various adverse health effects. The aim of the present study has been to determine the concentrations of the metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(iso-butyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in urine samples from 441 Danish children (3-6 years old). These children were subjects in the Danish Indoor Environment and Children's Health study. As part of each child's medical examination, a sample from his or her first morning urination was collected. These samples were subsequently analyzed for metabolites of the targeted phthalates. The measured concentrations of each metabolite were approximately log-normally distributed, and the metabolite concentrations significantly correlated with one another. Additionally, the mass fractions of DEP, DnBP, DiBP and BBzP in dust collected from the children's bedrooms and daycare centers significantly correlated with the concentrations of these phthalates' metabolites (monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), respectively) in the children's urine. Such correlations indicate that indoor exposures meaningfully contributed to the Danish children's intake of DEP, DnBP, DiBP and BBzP. This was not the case for DEHP. The urine concentrations of the phthalate metabolites measured in the present study were remarkably similar to those measured in urine samples from children living in countries distributed over four continents. These similarities reflect the globalization of children's exposure to phthalate containing products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary phthalate metabolites and male reproductive function parameters in Chongqing general population, China

Authors: Han, X; Cui, Z; Zhou, N; Ma, M; Li, L; Li, Y; Lin, H; Ao, L; Shu, W; Liu, J; Cao, J (2014) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 217:271-278. HERO ID: 1987639

[Less] This study was designed to investigate the phthalates exposure levels in general population in Chongqing . . . [More] This study was designed to investigate the phthalates exposure levels in general population in Chongqing City of China, and to determine the possible associations between phthalate exposure and male reproductive function parameters. We recruited 232 general men through Chongqing Family Planning Research Institute and Reproductive Center of Chongqing. In a single spot urine sample from each man, phthalate metabolites, including mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), phthalic acid (PA), and total PA were analyzed using solid phase extraction and coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and detection by tandem mass spectrometry. Semen parameters were dichotomized based on World Health Organization reference values. Sperm DNA damage were analyzed using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Reproductive hormones were determined in serum by the radioimmunoassay kit. We observed a weak association between urinary MBP concentration and sperm concentration in Chongqing general population. MBP levels above the median were 1.97 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-4.04) more likely to have sperm concentration below the reference value. There were no other associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive function parameters after adjusted for potential risk factors. Our study suggested that general population in Chongqing area of China exposure to the environmental level of phthalate have weak or without adverse effects on the reproduction.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of Phthalates Released from Paper Packaging Materials by Solid-Phase Extraction-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Gao, X; Yang, B; Tang, Z; Luo, X; Wang, F; Xu, H; Cai, X (2014) Journal of Chromatographic Science 52:383-389. HERO ID: 1599753

[Less] A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for . . . [More] A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 phthalic acid esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diamyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) released from food paper packaging materials. The use of distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 10% ethanol (v/v) and 95% ethanol (v/v) instead of the different types of food simulated the migration of 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials; the phthalic acid esters in four food simulants were enriched and purified by a C18 SPE column and nitrogen blowing, and quantified by HPLC with a diode array detector. The chromatographic conditions and extraction conditions were optimized and all 10 of the phthalate acid esters had a maximum absorbance at 224 nm. The method showed limitations of detection in the range of 6.0-23.8 ng/mL the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9999 in all cases, recovery values ranged between 71.27 and 106.97% at spiking levels of 30, 60 and 90 ng/mL and relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.86 to 8.00%. The method was considered to be simple, fast and reliable for a study on the migration of these 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials into food.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of diethylphthalate and di-(2-ethyl)hexylphthalate on the physiology and ultrastructure of cucumber seedlings

Authors: Zhang, Y; Wang, L; Du, N; Ma, G; Yang, A; Zhang, H; Wang, Z; Song, Q (2014) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21:1020-1028. HERO ID: 1987637

[Less] Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one kind of persistent organic pollutants. This study was conducted . . . [More] Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one kind of persistent organic pollutants. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di(2-ethyl)hexylphthalate (DEHP) with different concentrations (0, 30, 50, 100, and 200 mg L(-1)) on early seedling growth of Cucumis sativus L. Physiological, biochemical, and ultrastructure of seedling leaves were examined for 7-day exposure. The three antioxidant enzymes' activities was stimulated at low-DEP treatments and decreased under higher levels (>200 mg L(-1)) compared to the controls. Furthermore, MDA and H2O2 gradually enhanced with the elevation of DEP and DEHP concentration. Significant impact on the chloroplast and mitochondrion was visible, possibly as a consequence of free radical generation. DEP induced bigger and more starch grains in chloroplasts than DEHP. This study concluded that the effects of DEP and DEHP on cucumber seedlings represented the adverse impacts of DEP and DEHP on the ecosystem and agricultural production. The environmental harm caused by DEP was severer than DEHP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of Three Phthalate Esters in Environmental Samples by Coal Cinder Extraction and Cyclodextrin Modified Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

Authors: Sun, H; Jiang, F; Chen, L; Zheng, J; Wu, Y; Liu, M (2014) Journal of Chromatographic Science 52:547-552. HERO ID: 1987635

[Less] A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using beta-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) as the electrophoresis . . . [More] A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using beta-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) as the electrophoresis additive has been developed for the simultaneous determination of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in environmental samples. To improve the sensitivity of cyclodextrin-modified MEKC (CD-MEKC), a flow injection procedure using a microcolumn packed with coal cinder as the solid-phase extractant was also investigated for the preconcentration and separation of DMP, DEP and DEHP in environmental samples. Parameters affecting CD-MEKC separation and coal cinder flow injection solid-phase extraction were systematically researched. In the presence of the running buffer [5 mmol/L of borax, 5% (v/v) methanol and 25 mmol/L of sodium dodecyl sulfate at pH 9.5], the addition of 14 mmol/L ß-CD greatly improved the separation efficiency. The analytes were quantitatively adsorbed by coal cinders and readily desorbed quantitatively with 0.2 mL of 10% (v/v) methanol-10 mmol/L disodium hydrogen phosphate. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factor of coal cinder was 60, and the determination limits of DMP, DEP and DEHP were 3.07, 2.07 and 4.06 ng/mL, respectively. The presented procedure was successfully applied to determine DMP, DEP and DEHP in landfill leachate and water samples with satisfactory results.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and fate of phthalate esters in full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plants and their impact on receiving waters along the Songhua River in China

Authors: Gao, D; Li, Z; Wen, Z; Ren, N (2014) Chemosphere 95:24-32. HERO ID: 1987643

[Less] The occurrence and fate of six phthalates: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl . . . [More] The occurrence and fate of six phthalates: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were investigated as phthalates passed through three full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment processes, and ultimately into the recipient Songhua River water in Harbin (China). The six phthalates were detected in the majority of aqueous and solid samples, with DEHP being the most abundant compound. The overall removal efficiency of ΣPAEs in the Cyclic Activated Sludge Technology (CAST) process was over 72%, while both the A/O and A/A/O processes achieved approximately 30% removal. The better performance of the CAST process relative to the Anoxic/Oxic (A/O) and Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic (A/A/O) processes was attributed to the indoor-conditions of the CAST plants, which effectively maintained the temperature of the treatment system. The fate of PAEs within two different types of WWTPs (CAST and A/A/O) were assessed qualitatively using mass balances. The results suggested that PAEs removal resulted from both biotransformation and adsorption, of which the former was particularly significant in the CAST process, while the latter was more significant in the A/A/O process. Substantial levels of several PAEs were detected in the Songhua River, especially downstream of the WWTPs, which means that the discharge from WWTPs has a strong impact on the water quality of the Songhua River during cold winter conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A statistical experimental design approach for mineralization and detoxification of diethyl phthalate by H2O2/UV-C process

Authors: Olmez-Hanci, T; Kabdaşlı, I; Tünay, O; Ecer, C; Aydın, B (2013) Water, Science and Technology 68:856-862. HERO ID: 1987642

[Less] In the present study, a three-factor central composite design (CCD) was implemented to evaluate the . . . [More] In the present study, a three-factor central composite design (CCD) was implemented to evaluate the major factors (treatment time, initial H2O2 dose and initial diethyl phthalate (DEP) concentration) influencing the H2O2/UV-C treatment of aqueous DEP solution. Significant regression models for total organic carbon (TOC) removal and residual H2O2 concentration were derived using analysis of variance (ANOVA), which were found to be adequate to perform the process variables optimization. According to the applied ANOVA, treatment time (positive effect) and initial H2O2 dose (negative effect after an optimum value) were found to be significant on the H2O2/UV-C process performance. TOC removal efficiencies were enhanced with increasing initial H2O2 dose up to an optimum value, and further increases in H2O2 dose resulted in a decrease in TOC removals due to the hydroxyl radical scavenging effect. When initial H2O2 dose increased from 10 to 30 mM, the TOC removal efficiency improved from 41 to 100% for DEPo of 100 mg/L for treatment time of 50 min. Further increase in initial H2O2 dose to 50 mM decreased the TOC removal efficiency down to 38%. The results of toxicity assessments with Vibrio fischeri on aqueous DEP solutions subjected to H2O2/UV-C treatment revealed complete detoxification at the optimum conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

FT-IR, Raman and NMR Spectra, Molecular Geometry, Vibrational Assignments, ab initio and Density Functional Theory Calculations for Diethyl Phthalate

Authors: Wang Meng; Geng Jin-Ju; Wei Zhong-Bo; Wang Zun-Yao (2013) Chinese Journal of Structural Chemistry 32:890-902. HERO ID: 1988288

[Less] Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) possess endocrine disruptive effects and can produce reproductive and developmental . . . [More] Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) possess endocrine disruptive effects and can produce reproductive and developmental toxicities. In this paper, both experimental and theoretical studies on FT-IR, Raman and H-1 NMR spectra of diethyl phthalate (DEP) have been carried out. The geometrical structure of DEP was optimized at the HF/6-31G*, HF/6-311G**, B3LYP/6-31G*, and B3LYP/6-311G** levels, respectively. The harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensity, Raman activity and H-1 NMR chemical shifts have been computed at the B3LYP/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-311G** levels. Anharmonic corrections to frequencies were obtained by means of second-order perturbation theory (PT2) at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. Based on potential energy distribution (PED), the vibrational assignments have also been performed. The theoretical calculation values were compared with the experimental observations and the results indicate they are in excellent agreement.