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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A statistical experimental design approach for mineralization and detoxification of diethyl phthalate by H2O2/UV-C process

Authors: Olmez-Hanci, T; Kabdaşlı, I; Tünay, O; Ecer, C; Aydın, B (2013) Water, Science and Technology 68:856-862. HERO ID: 1987642

[Less] In the present study, a three-factor central composite design (CCD) was implemented to evaluate the . . . [More] In the present study, a three-factor central composite design (CCD) was implemented to evaluate the major factors (treatment time, initial H2O2 dose and initial diethyl phthalate (DEP) concentration) influencing the H2O2/UV-C treatment of aqueous DEP solution. Significant regression models for total organic carbon (TOC) removal and residual H2O2 concentration were derived using analysis of variance (ANOVA), which were found to be adequate to perform the process variables optimization. According to the applied ANOVA, treatment time (positive effect) and initial H2O2 dose (negative effect after an optimum value) were found to be significant on the H2O2/UV-C process performance. TOC removal efficiencies were enhanced with increasing initial H2O2 dose up to an optimum value, and further increases in H2O2 dose resulted in a decrease in TOC removals due to the hydroxyl radical scavenging effect. When initial H2O2 dose increased from 10 to 30 mM, the TOC removal efficiency improved from 41 to 100% for DEPo of 100 mg/L for treatment time of 50 min. Further increase in initial H2O2 dose to 50 mM decreased the TOC removal efficiency down to 38%. The results of toxicity assessments with Vibrio fischeri on aqueous DEP solutions subjected to H2O2/UV-C treatment revealed complete detoxification at the optimum conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

FT-IR, Raman and NMR Spectra, Molecular Geometry, Vibrational Assignments, ab initio and Density Functional Theory Calculations for Diethyl Phthalate

Authors: Wang Meng; Geng Jin-Ju; Wei Zhong-Bo; Wang Zun-Yao (2013) Chinese Journal of Structural Chemistry 32:890-902. HERO ID: 1988288

[Less] Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) possess endocrine disruptive effects and can produce reproductive and developmental . . . [More] Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) possess endocrine disruptive effects and can produce reproductive and developmental toxicities. In this paper, both experimental and theoretical studies on FT-IR, Raman and H-1 NMR spectra of diethyl phthalate (DEP) have been carried out. The geometrical structure of DEP was optimized at the HF/6-31G*, HF/6-311G**, B3LYP/6-31G*, and B3LYP/6-311G** levels, respectively. The harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensity, Raman activity and H-1 NMR chemical shifts have been computed at the B3LYP/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-311G** levels. Anharmonic corrections to frequencies were obtained by means of second-order perturbation theory (PT2) at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. Based on potential energy distribution (PED), the vibrational assignments have also been performed. The theoretical calculation values were compared with the experimental observations and the results indicate they are in excellent agreement.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Gamma irradiation of active self-healing PLGA microspheres for efficient aqueous encapsulation of vaccine antigens

Authors: Desai, KG; Kadous, S; Schwendeman, SP (2013) Pharmaceutical Research 30:1768-1778. HERO ID: 1987630

[Less] PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of γ-irradiation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) . . . [More] PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of γ-irradiation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/Al(OH)₃/0 or 5 wt% diethyl phthalate (DEP) microspheres for active self-healing encapsulation of vaccine antigens.

METHODS: Microspheres were irradiated with ⁶⁰Co at 2.5 and 1.8 MRad and 0.37 and 0.20 MRad/h. Encapsulation of tetanus toxoid (TT) was achieved by mixing Al(OH)₃-PLGA microspheres with TT solution at 10-38°C. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to examine free radical formation. Glass transition temperature (T(g)) and molecular weight of PLGA was measured by differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography, respectively. Loading and release of TT were examined by modified Bradford, amino acid analysis, and ELISA assays.

RESULTS: EPR spectroscopy results indicated absence of free radicals in PLGA microspheres after γ-irradiation. Antigen-sorbing capacity, encapsulation efficiency, and T(g) of the polymer were also not adversely affected. When DEP-loaded microspheres were irradiated at 0.2 MRad/h, some PLGA pores healed during irradiation and PLGA healing during encapsulation was suppressed. The molecular weight of PLGA was slightly reduced when DEP-loaded microspheres were irradiated at the same dose rate. At the 0.37 MRad/h dose rate, these trends were not observed and the full immunoreactivity of TT was preserved during encapsulation and 1-month release. Gamma irradiation slightly increased TT initial burst release. The small increase in total irradiation dose from 1.8 to 2.5 MRad had insignificant effect on the polymer and microspheres properties analyzed.

CONCLUSIONS: Gamma irradiation is a plausible approach to provide a terminally sterilized, self-healing encapsulation PLGA excipient for vaccine delivery.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of gliclazide push-pull osmotic pump coated with aqueous colloidal polymer dispersions

Authors: Tang, X; Tai, LY; Yang, XG; Chen, F; Xu, HM; Pan, WS (2013) Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. HERO ID: 1249977

[Less] The objective of present work was to design and evaluate gliclazide push-pull osmotic pump (PPOP) coated . . . [More] The objective of present work was to design and evaluate gliclazide push-pull osmotic pump (PPOP) coated with aqueous colloidal polymer dispersions-Eudragit(®) RL 30D and Eudragit(®) RS 30D. The influence of diacetin, diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl sebacate (DBS) and triethyl citrate (TEC) on the free Eudragit(®) RL 30D and Eudragit(®) RS 30D films as plasticizers on drug release were studied. Among these four plasticizers, diacetin offered the smoothest surface of the cast films, and it displayed greatest water vapor transmission coefficient. Free RL and RS films with diacetin also exhibited greatest erosion compared with the other three plasticizers. On the other hand, TEC, DEP and DBS showed greater water absorption. When compared with CA-coated gliclazide PPOP, Eudragit-coated ones showed a f(2) factor of 71.7, indicating the similarity between the release profile of the two formulations. The prepared Eudragit-coated gliclazide PPOP showed typical Zero-order release characteristics, with R being 0.9953. In the in vivo evaluation, the mean relative oral bioavailability of Eudragit-coated PPOP compared to CA-coated ones was 106.9%, demonstrating good bioequivalence. Both of their in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) showed linear relationship, with R(2) being 0.9955 (Eudragit-coated PPOP) and 0.9987 (CA-coated PPOP), respectively. These results suggested that PPOP coated with Eudragit(®) RL 30D and RS 30D could overcome drawbacks of organic solution coating and promote the development of PPOP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

LC-TOF/MS determination of phthalates in edible salts from food markets in Korea

Authors: Dirwono, W; Nam, Y; Park, H; Lee, KB (2013) Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance 6:203-208. HERO ID: 1988282

[Less] Residual quantities of 12 phthalates have been monitored in edible salts (raw salts, refined salts, . . . [More] Residual quantities of 12 phthalates have been monitored in edible salts (raw salts, refined salts, refined salts with additives and baked salts) available in Korean food markets. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) was used to analyse the samples. The method was validated and showed linear correlation (R-2>0.996) in the range 0.5-100ngg(-1) for all target analytes. Recoveries were 85.9-108.4%, except for diethyl phthalate (DEP). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.7-6.0% and the limits of detection (LODs) were 1.2-2.8ngg(-1). Although the contamination of phthalates in salt would be trivial in comparison to those of other main foods and below the reference dose of the Chronic Oral Exposure recommended by US-EPA, the availability of reference data could be valuable for food chemists and salt manufacturers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal of diethyl phthalate from water solution by adsorption, photo-oxidation, ozonation and advanced oxidation process (UV/H2O2, O-3/H2O2 and O-3/activated carbon)

Authors: Medellin-Castillo, NA; Ocampo-Perez, R; Leyva-Ramos, R; Sanchez-Polo, M; Rivera-Utrilla, J; Mendez-Diaz, JD (2013) Science of the Total Environment 442:26-35. HERO ID: 1599957

[Less] The objective of this work was to compare the effectiveness of conventional technologies (adsorption . . . [More] The objective of this work was to compare the effectiveness of conventional technologies (adsorption on activated carbon, AC, and ozonation) and technologies based on advanced oxidation processes, AOPs, (UV/H(2)O(2), O(3)/AC, O(3)/H(2)O(2)) to remove phthalates from aqueous solution (ultrapure water, surface water and wastewater). Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was chosen as a model pollutant because of its high water solubility (1,080 mg/L at 293 K) and toxicity. The activated carbons showed a high adsorption capacity to adsorb DEP in aqueous solution (up to 858 mg/g), besides the adsorption mechanism of DEP on activated carbon is governed by dispersive interactions between π electrons of its aromatic ring with π electrons of the carbon graphene planes. The photodegration process showed that the pH solution does not significantly affect the degradation kinetics of DEP and the first-order kinetic model satisfactorily fitted the experimental data. It was observed that the rate of decomposition of DEP with the O(3)/H(2)O(2) and O(3)/AC systems is faster than that with only O(3). The technologies based on AOPs (UV/H(2)O(2), O(3)/H(2)O(2), O(3)/AC) significantly improve the degradation of DEP compared to conventional technologies (O(3), UV). AC adsorption, UV/H(2)O(2), O(3)/H(2)O(2), and O(3)/AC showed a high yield to remove DEP; however, the disadvantage of AC adsorption is its much longer time to reach maximum removal. The best system to treat water (ultrapure and natural) polluted with DEP is the O(3)/AC one since it achieved the highest DEP degradation and TOC removal, as well as the lower water toxicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diethyl Phthalate Removal by Continuous-Flow Ozonation: Response Surface Modeling and Optimization

Authors: Secula, MS; Barrot, Y; Cagnon, B; Versaveau, F; Chedeville, O (2013) Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 224. HERO ID: 1599970

[Less] An experimental design methodology was applied for response surface modeling and optimization of diethyl . . . [More] An experimental design methodology was applied for response surface modeling and optimization of diethyl phthalate (DEP) removal from synthetic wastewater by continuous-flow ozonation. The five independent variables considered were the initial concentration of DEP, initial solution pH, liquid flow rate, gas flow rate, and ozone concentration in the inlet gas. Using the Box-Behnken design, two quadratic models were developed as a functional relationship between respectively DEP removal efficiency and ozone mass transfer and the independent variables considered. It was found that all the factors considered have a significant effect on the removal efficiency response, except for the gas flow rate which did not influence DEP removal in the ranges considered. The results show that the ozonation efficiency can be predicted and are in very good agreement with the experimental data. Optimal conditions for two different sets of constraints were determined.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development Toxicity and Degradation of Diethyl phthalate

Authors: Hui, X; Li, S; Liu, J; Liu, B; Cao, X; Yang, Wei (2013) Advanced Materials Research 652-654:717-721. HERO ID: 1988283

[Less] Diethyl phthalate (DEP,CAS Registry no.84-66-2), a kind of Phthalate esters (PAEs), which was used in . . . [More] Diethyl phthalate (DEP,CAS Registry no.84-66-2), a kind of Phthalate esters (PAEs), which was used in many industries as an important industrial material, such as plastic, painting, rubber pesticide, cosmetic, etc. In recent years, DEP has caused environmental problems all over the world for widely use. This article discussed the development toxicity of DEP in microbial and plant, rats and humans and the progress of the technologies for degradation of DEP. We proposed that evaluation of the development toxicity and degradation of DEP would be important for risk assessment in humans and the environment removal.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Highly Sensitive Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ic-ELISA) by Antigen Coating for Diethyl Phthalate Analysis in Foods

Authors: Zhang, M; Yu, X; Wang, Yue; Hu, Y; Liu, S (2013) Food Analytical Methods 6:1223-1228. HERO ID: 1988284

[Less] As we have known, with the plasticizer disturbance in 2011 in Taiwan, long-term exposure to diethyl . . . [More] As we have known, with the plasticizer disturbance in 2011 in Taiwan, long-term exposure to diethyl phthalate (DEP), one of the widely used phthalate esters, can lead to serious health problems. Therefore, a highly sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) by antigen-coated plate format for DEP in foods was proposed in this paper. The polyclonal antibodies were raised against diethyl 4-aminophthalate (4-DEAP) conjugated to bovine serum albumin by the amino diazotization linkage method. Coating antigen was prepared with 4-DEAP conjugated to ovalbumin using the same procedure. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the ic-ELISA has a linear working range of 0.005-18.6 ng/mL (R (2) = 0.9921), with a limit of detection of 0.0049 ng/mL. Low cross-reactivity (< 9 %) to structurally related phthalates was observed. The method was successfully applied to the determination of DEP in fruit juice, milky tea, pure milk, and sour milk, without purification or preconcentration. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained ranging from 91.1 to 109.3 %. The results suggested that the developed ic-ELISA is a simple, sensitive, and specific method for the rapid monitoring of DEP in food samples.