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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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46 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of gliclazide push-pull osmotic pump coated with aqueous colloidal polymer dispersions

Authors: Tang, X; Tai, LY; Yang, XG; Chen, F; Xu, HM; Pan, WS (2013) Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. HERO ID: 1249977

[Less] The objective of present work was to design and evaluate gliclazide push-pull osmotic pump (PPOP) coated . . . [More] The objective of present work was to design and evaluate gliclazide push-pull osmotic pump (PPOP) coated with aqueous colloidal polymer dispersions-Eudragit(®) RL 30D and Eudragit(®) RS 30D. The influence of diacetin, diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl sebacate (DBS) and triethyl citrate (TEC) on the free Eudragit(®) RL 30D and Eudragit(®) RS 30D films as plasticizers on drug release were studied. Among these four plasticizers, diacetin offered the smoothest surface of the cast films, and it displayed greatest water vapor transmission coefficient. Free RL and RS films with diacetin also exhibited greatest erosion compared with the other three plasticizers. On the other hand, TEC, DEP and DBS showed greater water absorption. When compared with CA-coated gliclazide PPOP, Eudragit-coated ones showed a f(2) factor of 71.7, indicating the similarity between the release profile of the two formulations. The prepared Eudragit-coated gliclazide PPOP showed typical Zero-order release characteristics, with R being 0.9953. In the in vivo evaluation, the mean relative oral bioavailability of Eudragit-coated PPOP compared to CA-coated ones was 106.9%, demonstrating good bioequivalence. Both of their in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) showed linear relationship, with R(2) being 0.9955 (Eudragit-coated PPOP) and 0.9987 (CA-coated PPOP), respectively. These results suggested that PPOP coated with Eudragit(®) RL 30D and RS 30D could overcome drawbacks of organic solution coating and promote the development of PPOP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diethyl Phthalate Removal by Continuous-Flow Ozonation: Response Surface Modeling and Optimization

Authors: Secula, MS; Barrot, Y; Cagnon, B; Versaveau, F; Chedeville, O (2013) Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 224. HERO ID: 1599970

[Less] An experimental design methodology was applied for response surface modeling and optimization of diethyl . . . [More] An experimental design methodology was applied for response surface modeling and optimization of diethyl phthalate (DEP) removal from synthetic wastewater by continuous-flow ozonation. The five independent variables considered were the initial concentration of DEP, initial solution pH, liquid flow rate, gas flow rate, and ozone concentration in the inlet gas. Using the Box-Behnken design, two quadratic models were developed as a functional relationship between respectively DEP removal efficiency and ozone mass transfer and the independent variables considered. It was found that all the factors considered have a significant effect on the removal efficiency response, except for the gas flow rate which did not influence DEP removal in the ranges considered. The results show that the ozonation efficiency can be predicted and are in very good agreement with the experimental data. Optimal conditions for two different sets of constraints were determined.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A statistical experimental design approach for mineralization and detoxification of diethyl phthalate by H2O2/UV-C process

Authors: Olmez-Hanci, T; Kabdaşlı, I; Tünay, O; Ecer, C; Aydın, B (2013) Water, Science and Technology 68:856-862. HERO ID: 1987642

[Less] In the present study, a three-factor central composite design (CCD) was implemented to evaluate the . . . [More] In the present study, a three-factor central composite design (CCD) was implemented to evaluate the major factors (treatment time, initial H2O2 dose and initial diethyl phthalate (DEP) concentration) influencing the H2O2/UV-C treatment of aqueous DEP solution. Significant regression models for total organic carbon (TOC) removal and residual H2O2 concentration were derived using analysis of variance (ANOVA), which were found to be adequate to perform the process variables optimization. According to the applied ANOVA, treatment time (positive effect) and initial H2O2 dose (negative effect after an optimum value) were found to be significant on the H2O2/UV-C process performance. TOC removal efficiencies were enhanced with increasing initial H2O2 dose up to an optimum value, and further increases in H2O2 dose resulted in a decrease in TOC removals due to the hydroxyl radical scavenging effect. When initial H2O2 dose increased from 10 to 30 mM, the TOC removal efficiency improved from 41 to 100% for DEPo of 100 mg/L for treatment time of 50 min. Further increase in initial H2O2 dose to 50 mM decreased the TOC removal efficiency down to 38%. The results of toxicity assessments with Vibrio fischeri on aqueous DEP solutions subjected to H2O2/UV-C treatment revealed complete detoxification at the optimum conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

LC-TOF/MS determination of phthalates in edible salts from food markets in Korea

Authors: Dirwono, W; Nam, Y; Park, H; Lee, KB (2013) Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance 6:203-208. HERO ID: 1988282

[Less] Residual quantities of 12 phthalates have been monitored in edible salts (raw salts, refined salts, . . . [More] Residual quantities of 12 phthalates have been monitored in edible salts (raw salts, refined salts, refined salts with additives and baked salts) available in Korean food markets. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) was used to analyse the samples. The method was validated and showed linear correlation (R-2>0.996) in the range 0.5-100ngg(-1) for all target analytes. Recoveries were 85.9-108.4%, except for diethyl phthalate (DEP). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.7-6.0% and the limits of detection (LODs) were 1.2-2.8ngg(-1). Although the contamination of phthalates in salt would be trivial in comparison to those of other main foods and below the reference dose of the Chronic Oral Exposure recommended by US-EPA, the availability of reference data could be valuable for food chemists and salt manufacturers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development Toxicity and Degradation of Diethyl phthalate

Authors: Hui, X; Li, S; Liu, J; Liu, B; Cao, X; Yang, Wei (2013) Advanced Materials Research 652-654:717-721. HERO ID: 1988283

[Less] Diethyl phthalate (DEP,CAS Registry no.84-66-2), a kind of Phthalate esters (PAEs), which was used in . . . [More] Diethyl phthalate (DEP,CAS Registry no.84-66-2), a kind of Phthalate esters (PAEs), which was used in many industries as an important industrial material, such as plastic, painting, rubber pesticide, cosmetic, etc. In recent years, DEP has caused environmental problems all over the world for widely use. This article discussed the development toxicity of DEP in microbial and plant, rats and humans and the progress of the technologies for degradation of DEP. We proposed that evaluation of the development toxicity and degradation of DEP would be important for risk assessment in humans and the environment removal.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Highly Sensitive Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ic-ELISA) by Antigen Coating for Diethyl Phthalate Analysis in Foods

Authors: Zhang, M; Yu, X; Wang, Yue; Hu, Y; Liu, S (2013) Food Analytical Methods 6:1223-1228. HERO ID: 1988284

[Less] As we have known, with the plasticizer disturbance in 2011 in Taiwan, long-term exposure to diethyl . . . [More] As we have known, with the plasticizer disturbance in 2011 in Taiwan, long-term exposure to diethyl phthalate (DEP), one of the widely used phthalate esters, can lead to serious health problems. Therefore, a highly sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) by antigen-coated plate format for DEP in foods was proposed in this paper. The polyclonal antibodies were raised against diethyl 4-aminophthalate (4-DEAP) conjugated to bovine serum albumin by the amino diazotization linkage method. Coating antigen was prepared with 4-DEAP conjugated to ovalbumin using the same procedure. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the ic-ELISA has a linear working range of 0.005-18.6 ng/mL (R (2) = 0.9921), with a limit of detection of 0.0049 ng/mL. Low cross-reactivity (< 9 %) to structurally related phthalates was observed. The method was successfully applied to the determination of DEP in fruit juice, milky tea, pure milk, and sour milk, without purification or preconcentration. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained ranging from 91.1 to 109.3 %. The results suggested that the developed ic-ELISA is a simple, sensitive, and specific method for the rapid monitoring of DEP in food samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

FT-IR, Raman and NMR Spectra, Molecular Geometry, Vibrational Assignments, ab initio and Density Functional Theory Calculations for Diethyl Phthalate

Authors: Wang Meng; Geng Jin-Ju; Wei Zhong-Bo; Wang Zun-Yao (2013) Chinese Journal of Structural Chemistry 32:890-902. HERO ID: 1988288

[Less] Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) possess endocrine disruptive effects and can produce reproductive and developmental . . . [More] Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) possess endocrine disruptive effects and can produce reproductive and developmental toxicities. In this paper, both experimental and theoretical studies on FT-IR, Raman and H-1 NMR spectra of diethyl phthalate (DEP) have been carried out. The geometrical structure of DEP was optimized at the HF/6-31G*, HF/6-311G**, B3LYP/6-31G*, and B3LYP/6-311G** levels, respectively. The harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensity, Raman activity and H-1 NMR chemical shifts have been computed at the B3LYP/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-311G** levels. Anharmonic corrections to frequencies were obtained by means of second-order perturbation theory (PT2) at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. Based on potential energy distribution (PED), the vibrational assignments have also been performed. The theoretical calculation values were compared with the experimental observations and the results indicate they are in excellent agreement.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Penetration of Diesel Exhaust Particles Through Commercially Available Dust Half Masks

Authors: Penconek, A; Drazyk, P; Moskal, A (2013) Annals of Occupational Hygiene 57:360-373. HERO ID: 1315296

[Less] Half masks are certified by the competent, national institutions-National Institute for Occupational . . . [More] Half masks are certified by the competent, national institutions-National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the respective European national institutions applying common European regulations. However, certification testing is conducted with particles of NaCl, paraffin oil, or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and at the constant flow rate, whereas particles commonly found in workplaces may differ in size, shape, and morphology from these particles. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate filtration efficiency of commercially available filtering facepiece half masks under the condition of exposure to diesel fumes. In this study, we focused on the particulate phase [diesel exhaust particles (DEP)] of three (petroleum diesel, ecodiesel, and biodiesel) diesel fuel combustion types. Two types of European standard-certified half masks, FFP2 and FFP - Filtering Facepiece, and three types of popular diesel fuels were tested. The study showed that the filtration efficiencies for each examined half mask and for each of diesel exhaust fumes were lower than the minimum filtration efficiency required for the standard test aerosols by the European standards. For FFP2 and FFP3 particulate half masks, standard minimum filtration efficiency is 94 and 99%, respectively, whereas 84-89% of mass of DEP from various fuels were filtered by the tested FFP2 and only 75-86% by the FFP3. The study indicated that DEP is more penetrating for these filters than the standard salt or paraffin oil test aerosols. The study also showed that the most penetrating DEP are probably in the 30- to 300-nm size range, regardless of the fuel type and the half-mask model. Finally, the pressure drops across both half masks during the 80-min tests remained below an acceptable maximum of breathing resistance-regardless of the fuel types. The respiratory system, during 40-min test exposures, may be exposed to 12-16mg of DEP if a FFP2 or FFP3 particulate half mask is used. To conclude, commercially available half masks may not ensure a sufficient level of protection of the respiratory tract against diesel exhaust fumes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of adult human exposure to phthalate esters in the urban centre of Paris (France)

Authors: Martine, B; Marie-Jeanne, T; Cendrine, D; Fabrice, A; Marc, C (2013) Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 90:91-96. HERO ID: 1315297

[Less] Human exposure to phthalates was assessed through digestive and respiratory intakes. Six phthalates . . . [More] Human exposure to phthalates was assessed through digestive and respiratory intakes. Six phthalates (DMP, DEP, DnBP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP) were investigated in drinking water, in current foodstuff and in ambient air. Digestive intake was prevailing (92 %) with a major contribution of food (95.5 %). Phthalate intake from water was mainly due to bottled water (60 %) in spite of the minor volume absorbed daily. From the respiratory tract, it was dominated by DEP: 30.3 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) and the part played by indoor air prevailed. Total intake were as ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), for DEHP: 1458, DnBP: 191.8, BBP: 164.3, DEP: 107.7, DMP: 79.1.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants

Authors: Carlstedt, F; Jönsson, BA; Bornehag, CG (2013) Indoor Air 23:32-39. HERO ID: 1315309

[Less] Abstract  Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring material contains phthalates, and it has been shown that . . . [More] Abstract  Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring material contains phthalates, and it has been shown that such materials are important sources for phthalates in indoor dust. Phthalates are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Consecutive infants between 2 and 6 months old and their mothers were invited. A questionnaire about indoor environmental factors and family lifestyle was used. Urinary metabolites of the phthalates diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), and dietylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were measured in the urine of the children. Of 209 invited children, 110 (52%) participated. Urine samples were obtained from 83 of these. Urine levels of the BBzP metabolite monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) was significantly higher in infants with PVC flooring in their bedrooms (P < 0.007) and related to the body area of the infant. Levels of the DEHP metabolites MEHHP (P < 0.01) and MEOHP (P < 0.04) were higher in the 2-month-old infants who were not exclusively breast-fed when compared with breast-fed children. The findings indicate that the use of soft PVC as flooring material may increase the human uptake of phthalates in infants. Urinary levels of phthalate metabolites during early life are associated with the use of PVC flooring in the bedroom, body area, and the use of infant formula. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study shows that the uptake of phthalates is not only related to oral uptake from, for example, food but also to environmental factors such as building materials. This new information should be considered when designing indoor environment, especially for children.