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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diethyl phthalate enhances apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in PC12 cells

Authors: Sun, Y; Takahashi, K; Hosokawa, T; Saito, T; Kurasaki, M (In Press) Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology Online Pharmacology Online. HERO ID: 1249973

[Less] In this study, to examine the mechanism of diethyl phthalate toxicity to cells, the effects of diethyl . . . [More] In this study, to examine the mechanism of diethyl phthalate toxicity to cells, the effects of diethyl phthalate on apoptosis in a PC12 cell system were investigated by assaying apoptotic factors such as caspase-3, Bax, cytochrome c and DNA damage. Diethyl phthalate was shown to enhance the apoptosis induced by serum deprivation according to the results of DNA electrophoresis and TUNEL signal assays, although it could not induce apoptosis itself in the cells. This enhancement was thought to be because of an increase in caspase-3-like activity. In addition, the expression of bax and contents of cytochrome c in the cytosol showed a tendency to increase the cells exposed to diethyl phthalate. These results indicated that diethyl phthalate, a potential endocrine disrupter, affects the apoptotic system in PC12 cells. Diethyl phthalate may enhance oxidative stress such as that induced by reactive oxygen species in PC12 cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Co0.59Fe0.41P nanocubes derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks for removal of diethyl phthalate by activation of peroxymonosulfate

Authors: Lin, X; Ma, Y; Wan, J; Wang, Yan; Li, Y (2020) HERO ID: 5933452

[Less] In this study, Co0.59Fe0.41P nanocubes were derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks to activate . . . [More] In this study, Co0.59Fe0.41P nanocubes were derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the diethyl phthalate (DEP) removal in water. The structure, morphology, and physicochemical properties of the fresh and used materials were comprehensively studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy. Degradation tests were performed and an excellent degradation performance was observed. The achieved DEP removal rate within a 60 min period was approximately 95%. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis and quenching tests showed that both sulfate and hydroxyl radicals contributed to the removal of the pollutant. The degradation products were detected by GC-MS and UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the proposed degradation pathways were concluded. The study showed that the cobalt elements in the materials were the primary contributors for the activation of PMS for the removal of DEP. The reduction ability of PMS could assist in the recycling of Co3+/Co2+.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Radical chemistry of diethyl phthalate oxidation via UV/peroxymonosulfate process: Roles of primary and secondary radicals

Authors: Lei, Yu; Lu, Jun; Zhu, M; Xie, J; Peng, S; Zhu, C (2020) HERO ID: 5933500

[Less] The UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) process forms hydroxyl radicals ((OH)-O-center dot) and sulfate radicals . . . [More] The UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) process forms hydroxyl radicals ((OH)-O-center dot) and sulfate radicals (SO4 center dot-) to degrade micro-pollutants. Both these two radicals can be converted to secondary radicals (e.g. Cl-2(center dot-), CO3 center dot- and Cl-center dot) by effects of water matrix components. By using laser flash photolysis, the second-order rate constants for reactions of three PAEs with (OH)-O-center dot, SO4 center dot-, Cl-2(center dot-), Cl-center dot and CO3 center dot- were determined as (3.5-4.4) x 10(9), (4.9-5.6) x 10(8), (1.1-1.3) x 10(7), (1.8-2.0) x 10(10) and < 1 x 10(6) M-1 s(-1), respectively. Then diethyl phthalate (DEP) was selected as the target compound to investigate the radical chemistry of its degradation during the 254 nm UV/PMS process. Multiple effects of water matrix components in DEP degradation were investigated. Alkaline condition, chloride, bicarbonate and natural organic matter (NOM) inhibited DEP degradation while their effects were radical specific. SO4 center dot- could better withstand the negative effect of alkaline condition, bi- carbonate and NOM than (OH)-O-center dot, while (OH)-O-center dot was less affected by chloride than SO4 center dot-. Cl-center dot accounted for 12% of DEP degradation in the presence of 1 mM chloride. Cl-2(center dot-), CO3 center dot- and O-1(2) hardly contributed to DEP oxidation but they might be involved in the further oxidation of transformation intermediates. Transient-state intermediates and steady-state products were identified by time-resolved spectroscopy and GC-MS, respectively, from which the degradation pathways of DEP in different water matrices were proposed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Global review of phthalates in edible oil: An emerging and nonnegligible exposure source to human

Authors: Luo, Q; Liu, ZH; Yin, H; Dang, Z; Wu, PX; Zhu, NW; Lin, Z; Liu, Y (2020) Science of the Total Environment 704:135369. [Review] HERO ID: 5932867

[Less] This work investigated the presence of seven major phthalates in nine different kinds of edible oils . . . [More] This work investigated the presence of seven major phthalates in nine different kinds of edible oils (i.e. olive, rapeseed, peanut, sesame, tea seed, corn, soybean, sunflower, and blended oil) and their potential impacts on human. The respective total average phthalates concentrations in the oils studied were found to be 6.01, 2.79, 2.63, 2.03, 1.73, 1.66, 1.57, 1.26, and 0.72 mg/kg. On the other hand, the seven main phthalates in the edible oils with the average concentration ranked from high to low were in order of DiNP, DEHP, DiDP, DBP, DiBP, DEP, and BBP, with 0.90, 0.81, 0.79, 0.71, 0.22, 0.17, and 0.10 mg/kg, respectively. The estimated maximum human daily intakes (EDI) of DEHP, DBP, DiBP, DiNP, BBP, DEP, and DiDP via edible oils were determined to be 552, 2996, 121, 356, 268, 66, and 563 μg/p/d, respectively. It was further revealed that the maximum human EDI of DEHP, DBP, BBP, and DiBP through consumption of edible oils were 2.92, 6.79, 1.24, and 1.06 times higher than those via bottled water. The calculated average estrogenic equivalence (EEQ) values of the seven major phthalates in edible oils fell into the range of 2.7-958.1 ng E2/L, which were 45-396 times of those in bottled water. With published works, the complete distributions of 15 phthalates in nine kinds of edible oils were established and assessed for the health risks based on EDI and EEQ. This work provided the first evidence that edible oil is a potential source of phthalates, thus the potential adverse estrogenic effects on human health should need to be assessed in a holistic manner.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Pilot Biomonitoring Study of Cumulative Phthalates Exposure among Vietnamese American Nail Salon Workers

Authors: Varshavsky, JR; Morello-Frosch, R; Harwani, S; Snider, M; Petropoulou, SE; Park, JS; Petreas, M; Reynolds, P; Nguyen, T; Quach, T (2020) HERO ID: 5932872

[Less] Many California nail salon workers are low-income Vietnamese women of reproductive age who use nail . . . [More] Many California nail salon workers are low-income Vietnamese women of reproductive age who use nail products daily that contain androgen-disrupting phthalates, which may increase risk of male reproductive tract abnormalities during pregnancy. Yet, few studies have characterized phthalate exposures among this workforce. To characterize individual metabolites and cumulative phthalates exposure among a potentially vulnerable occupational group of nail salon workers, we collected 17 post-shift urine samples from Vietnamese workers at six San Francisco Bay Area nail salons in 2011, which were analyzed for four primary phthalate metabolites: mono-n-butyl-, mono-isobutyl-, mono(2-Ethylhexyl)-, and monoethyl phthalates (MnBP, MiBP, MEHP, and MEP, respectively; μg/L). Phthalate metabolite concentrations and a potency-weighted sum of parent compound daily intake (Σandrogen-disruptor, μg/kg/day) were compared to 203 Asian Americans from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) using Student's t-test and Wilcoxin signed rank test. Creatinine-corrected MnBP, MiBP, MEHP (μg/g), and cumulative phthalates exposure (Σandrogen-disruptor, μg/kg/day) levels were 2.9 (p < 0.0001), 1.6 (p = 0.015), 2.6 (p < 0.0001), and 2.0 (p < 0.0001) times higher, respectively, in our nail salon worker population compared to NHANES Asian Americans. Levels exceeded the NHANES 95th or 75th percentiles among some workers. This pilot study suggests that nail salon workers are disproportionately exposed to multiple phthalates, a finding that warrants further investigation to assess their potential health significance.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Carbon-derived from metal-organic framework MOF-74: A remarkable adsorbent to remove a wide range of contaminants of emerging concern from water

Authors: Bhadra, BN; Yoo, DKyu; Jhung, SHwa (2020) HERO ID: 5933499

[Less] Five typical Zn-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) such as MOF-74(Zn) were pyrolyzed to obtain carbons-derived . . . [More] Five typical Zn-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) such as MOF-74(Zn) were pyrolyzed to obtain carbons-derived from MOFs (CDMs). The carbon-derived from MOF-74(Zn) or CDM-74 was firstly applied, together with other four CDMs and commercial activated carbon (AC), in the adsorptive removal of five representative contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as phthalic acid, diethyl phthalate, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), chloroxylenol (CLXN) and oxybenzone (OXB) from water. CDM-74, with high mesopore volume and acid sites density, showed the highest capacity for the adsorption of DEET, OXB and CLXN from water among the tested and any reported adsorbent, so far. The plausible adsorption mechanism could be suggested, or H-bonding was important in the adsorption where the DEET and CDM-74 (especially phenolics) can be H-acceptor and H-donor, respectively. Based on the highest adsorption capacity for three adsorbates and facile recyclability, CDM-74 could be suggested as a potential adsorbent to eliminate a wide range of CECs from water.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Early prenatal exposure to suspected endocrine disruptor mixtures is associated with lower IQ at age seven

Authors: Tanner, EM; Hallerbäck, MU; Wikström, S; Lindh, C; Kiviranta, H; Gennings, C; Bornehag, CG (2020) HERO ID: 5933606

[Less] BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are xenobiotics with the ability . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are xenobiotics with the ability to interfere with hormone action, even at low levels. Prior environmental epidemiology studies link numerous suspected EDCs, including phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, results for some chemicals were inconsistent and most assessed one chemical at a time.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the overall impact of prenatal exposure to an EDC mixture on neurodevelopment in school-aged children, and identify chemicals of concern while accounting for co-exposures.

METHODS: Among 718 mother-child pairs from the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy study (SELMA) study, we used Weighted Quantile Sum (WQS) regression to assess the association between 26 EDCs measured in 1st trimester urine or blood, with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (IV) Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores at age 7 years. Models were adjusted for child sex, gestational age, mother's education, mother's IQ (RAVEN), weight, and smoking status. To evaluate generalizability, we conducted repeated holdout validation, a machine learning technique.

RESULTS: Using repeated holdout validation, IQ scores were 1.9-points (CI = -3.6, -0.2) lower among boys for an inter-quartile-range (IQR) change in the WQS index. BPF made the largest contribution to the index with a weight of 14%. Other chemicals of concern and their weights included PBA (9%), TCP (9%), MEP (6%), MBzP (4%), PFOA (6%), PFOS (5%), PFHxS (4%), Triclosan (5%), and BPA (4%). While we did observe an inverse association between EDCs and IQ among all children when training and testing the WQS index estimate on the full dataset, these results were not robust to repeated holdout validation.

CONCLUSION: Among boys, early prenatal exposure to EDCs was associated with lower intellectual functioning at age 7. We identified bisphenol F as the primary chemical of concern, suggesting that the BPA replacement compound may not be any safer for children. Future studies are needed to confirm the potential neurotoxicity of replacement analogues.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Feminine Hygiene Products-A Neglected Source of Phthalate Exposure in Women

Authors: Gao, CJ; Wang, F; Shen, HM; Kannan, K; Guo, Y (2020) HERO ID: 5932884

[Less] Phthalates have been associated with reproductive toxicity and precocious puberty in females, but the . . . [More] Phthalates have been associated with reproductive toxicity and precocious puberty in females, but the occurrence of these toxicants in feminine hygiene products is rarely reported. In this study, eight phthalates were determined in 120 feminine hygiene products (56 feminine care products and 64 sanitary napkins) collected from China. Phthalates were found in 86% and 98% of feminine care products and sanitary napkins, respectively, with the total concentrations varying between not detectable and 813 μg/g (median: 0.26 μg/g) and 0.25 and 8.76 μg/g (1.43 μg/g), respectively. Diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were the major compounds, accounting for >60% of the total concentrations. The plastic materials used on the top and bottom layers and the hot melt adhesive used during the manufacturing process are the potential sources of phthalates in sanitary napkins. The range of daily exposure doses of phthalates in women from the use of feminine care products and sanitary napkins was <0.001-0.156 μg/kg-bw/day and <0.001-0.731 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. Sanitary napkins contributed to 8.2% of the total exposure, and the levels of exposure to several phthalates from sanitary napkins were much higher than those reported from indoor dust ingestion but were lower than those of dietary intakes. Our study confirmed a new source of women's exposure to phthalates, sanitary napkins.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of a separation framework for effects-based targeted and non-targeted toxicological screening of water and wastewater

Authors: Pochiraju, SS; Linden, K; Gu, AZ; Rosenblum, J (2020) HERO ID: 5932885

[Less] An environmental water sample fractionation framework was developed based on effects-directed analysis . . . [More] An environmental water sample fractionation framework was developed based on effects-directed analysis (EDA) to detect known and unknown compounds of concern in different waters. Secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed framework for characterizing estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The effluent was spiked with known estrogenic compounds to validate the framework in a targeted approach and an unspiked sample was also investigated in a non-targeted approach. The framework separated compounds based on polarity and adsorption using liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid phase extraction. The targeted and non-targeted effluents generated six fractions each, which were assessed for estrogenic activity using an in vitro bioassay (yeast estrogen screen - YES). Three out of the six fractions in each case, along with the raw effluent, showed estrogen equivalent concentrations (EEQs) ranging between 1.0 and 3.0 μg/L. Directed by the assay results, these estrogenic fractions were further analyzed using liquid- and gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for compound identification. The developed separation framework coupled with a bioassay aided in identification of both known and unknown compounds producing estrogenic effects in the water sample. The approach of fractionation followed by concentration helped isolate and elevate contaminant levels without necessarily concentrating potential matrix effects that could cause interfering cytotoxicity and inhibition in the bioassay. The targeted analysis showed consistency between predicted and observed results, while the non-targeted analysis revealed the presence of three estrogenic compounds in the unspiked effluent: di-isobutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and benzophenone, that were confirmed with standards. The study mainly aimed at development and validation of a simple yet effective EDA framework with low cost techniques for water and wastewater toxicity screening and evaluation, and the results suggested that the developed framework could be used as a screening tool for isolating and identifying unknown compounds in a complex water sample.