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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs

Authors: Morrison, GC; Weschler, CJ; Bekö, G; Koch, HM; Salthammer, T; Schripp, T; Toftum, J; Clausen, G (2016) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 26:113-118. HERO ID: 2915549

[Less] To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we . . . [More] To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Using a breathing hood to isolate dermal from inhalation uptake, we measured urinary metabolites of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from an individual exposed to known concentrations of these compounds for 6 h in an experimental chamber. The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)); for exposed clothes the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6.5, respectively. Even for non-occupational environments, wearing clothing that has adsorbed/absorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake of SVOCs by substantial amounts relative to bare skin.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 10 June 2015; doi:10.1038/jes.2015.42.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between bone mineral density and urinary phthalate metabolites among post-menopausal women: A cross-sectional study of NHANES data 2005-2010

Authors: Deflorio-Barker, SA; Turyk, ME (2016) International Journal of Environmental Health Research 26:326-345. HERO ID: 3045439

[Less] Bone mineral density (BMD) decreases with age, especially among post-menopausal women. Exposures to . . . [More] Bone mineral density (BMD) decreases with age, especially among post-menopausal women. Exposures to endocrine disruptors, such as phthalate diesters, could alter BMD through a variety of unidentified mechanisms. A hypothesis-generating study investigated associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and BMD at the femoral neck and spine in post-menopausal women (n = 480) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, from 2005 to 2010. Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), molar sum of low molecular weight metabolites (mono-n-butyl phthalate (MNBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MIBP), MEP), molar sum of estrogenic metabolites (MNBP, MIBP, MEP, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBZP)), and an estrogenic equivalency factor were negatively associated with spinal BMD. Some associations were modified by age or BMI. The cross-sectional study design, uncertainty regarding the critical time window of exposure, the potential for exposure misclassification, and residual confounding limit our abilities to draw causal conclusions regarding phthalate metabolites and BMD in post-menopausal women. Future studies should address these limitations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate exposure and semen quality in fertile US men

Authors: Thurston, SW; Mendiola, J; Bellamy, AR; Levine, H; Wang, C; Sparks, A; Redmon, JB; Drobnis, EZ; Swan, SH (2016) Andrology 4:632-638. HERO ID: 3052879

[Less] Several experimental and observational studies have demonstrated the antiandrogenicity of several phthalates. . . . [More] Several experimental and observational studies have demonstrated the antiandrogenicity of several phthalates. However, there is limited evidence of an association between phthalate exposure in adult life and semen quality. The aim of this study was to examine phthalate exposure during adulthood in relation to semen quality in fertile US men. This multi-center cross-sectional study included 420 partners of pregnant women who attended a prenatal clinic in one of five US cities during 1999-2001. Nine phthalate metabolites [mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP)], as well as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono (three carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)] were measured in urine collected at the same time as the semen sample. We regressed natural log-transformed (ln) sperm concentration, ln(total sperm count), ln(total motile sperm count), percent motile spermatozoa, and percent spermatozoa with normal morphology on each of the nine natural log-transformed metabolite concentrations and on the molar-weighted sum of DEHP metabolites in separate models. We fit unadjusted models and models that adjusted for confounders determined a priori. In unadjusted models, ln(MiBP) was significantly and positively associated with motility and ln(MBzP) significantly negatively associated with ln(total sperm count). In adjusted linear models, urinary metabolite concentrations of DEHP, DBP, DEP, and DOP were not associated with any semen parameter. We found an inverse association between ln(MBzP) concentrations and sperm motility (β = -1.47, 95% CI: -2.61, -0.33), adjusted for ln(creatinine concentration), geographic location, age, race, smoking status, stress, recent fever, time from sample collection and time to complete analysis. Several sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these associations. This study and the available literature suggest that impacts of adult exposure to phthalates at environmental levels on classical sperm parameters are likely to be small.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessing differences in toxicity and teratogenicity of three phthalates, Diethyl phthalate, Di-n-propyl phthalate, and Di-n-butyl phthalate, using Xenopus laevis embryos

Authors: Gardner, ST; Wood, AT; Lester, R; Onkst, PE; Burnham, N; Perygin, DH; Rayburn, J (2016) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 79:71-82. HERO ID: 3070743

[Less] Phthalates, compounds used to add flexibility to plastics, are ubiquitous in the environment. In particular, . . . [More] Phthalates, compounds used to add flexibility to plastics, are ubiquitous in the environment. In particular, the diethyl (DEP), di-n-propyl (DnPP), and di-n-butyl (DBP) phthalates were found to exert detrimental effects in both mammalian and non-mammalian studies, with toxic effects varying according to alkyl chain length. Embryos of Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog, have been used to assess toxicity and teratogenicity of several compounds and serves as a model for assessing adverse and teratogenic effects of ortho-phthalate esters. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for comparison of developmentally toxic effects of ortho-phthalate esters using Xenopus embryos. In this study developing Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to increasing concentrations of DEP, DnPP, and DBP using the 96-h Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX), with 96-h lethal concentrations, effective concentrations to induce malformations, teratogenic indices, and concentrations to inhibit growth determined. DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed enhanced toxicity with increasing ester length. Developing Xenopus laevis exposed to DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed similar malformations that also occurred at lower concentrations with increasing alkyl chain length. Teratogenic risk did not change markedly with alkyl chain length, with data showing only DBP to be teratogenic.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dermal uptake directly from air under transient conditions: Advances in modeling and comparisons with experimental results for human subjects

Authors: Morrison, GC; Weschler, CJ; Bekö, G (2016) Indoor Air 26:913-924. HERO ID: 3070745

[Less] To better understand the dermal exposure pathway, we enhance an existing mechanistic model of transdermal . . . [More] To better understand the dermal exposure pathway, we enhance an existing mechanistic model of transdermal uptake by including skin surface lipids (SSL) and consider the impact of clothing. Addition of SSL increases the overall resistance to uptake of SVOCs from air but also allows for rapid transfer of SVOCs to sinks like clothing or clean air. We test the model by simulating di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) exposures of six bare-skinned (Weschler et al., 2015) and one clothed participant (Morrison et al., 2015b). The model predicts total uptake values that are consistent with the measured values. For bare-skinned participants, the model predicts a normalized mass uptake of DEP of 3.1 (μg/m(2) )/(μg/m(3) ) whereas the experimental results range from 1.0 to 4.3 (μg/m(2) )/(μg/m(3) ); uptake of DnBP is somewhat overpredicted: 4.6 (μg/m(2) )/(μg/m(3) ) vs the experimental range of 0.5 to 3.2 (μg/m(2) )/(μg/m(3) ). For the clothed participant, the model predicts higher than observed uptake for both species. Uncertainty in model inputs, including convective mass-transfer coefficients, partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients, could account for overpredictions. Simulations that include transfer of skin oil to clothing improve model predictions. A dynamic model that includes SSL is more sensitive to changes that impact external mass transfer such as putting on and removing clothes and bathing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolism and kinetics in an in vitro model of testis development

Authors: Harris, S; Wegner, S; Hong, SW; Faustman, EM (2016) Toxicology In Vitro 32:123-131. HERO ID: 3070746

[Less] We have developed an in vitro model of testis development (3D-TCS) using rat testicular cells overlaid . . . [More] We have developed an in vitro model of testis development (3D-TCS) using rat testicular cells overlaid with extracellular matrix. One barrier preventing utilization of in vitro models in toxicity testing is the absence of metabolic capability. Another challenge is lack of kinetic data for compounds in vitro. We characterized metabolic capabilities and investigated the kinetics of phthalate male reproductive toxicants in the 3D-TCS. Cells were treated with three phthalate diesters for 2, 8 and 24h. Parent compounds and metabolites were measured in cell culture media and cell lysate via mass spectrometry. Levels of monoester metabolites were used as an indication of metabolism of phthalates via lipase activity. Metabolites were detected in all treated cell media and cell lysate samples, with levels ranging from <0.5-14.7% of initial mass of parent compound. Phthalates partitioned between media and lysate in a manner consistent with each compound's degree of lipophilicity. UDGPT activity was detected in DBP and DEP treated samples. 3D-TCS microarray data indicated gene expression for lipases and CYPP450s. Results indicate that the 3D-TCS is a metabolically active co-culture and that physiochemical properties can provide information about the kinetics of compounds in the 3D-TCS, improving our ability to interpret results from the model.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to phthalates and anogenital distance in male infants from a low-exposed Danish cohort (2010-2012)

Authors: Jensen, TK; Frederiksen, H; Kyhl, HB; Lassen, TH; Swan, SH; Bornehag, CG; Skakkebaek, NE; Main, KM; Lind, DV; Husby, S; Andersson, AM (2016) Environmental Health Perspectives 124:1107-1113. HERO ID: 3070748

[Less] BACKGROUND: Phthalates comprise a large class of chemicals used in a variety of consumer . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Phthalates comprise a large class of chemicals used in a variety of consumer products. Several have anti-androgenic properties and in rodents prenatal exposure has been associated with reduced anogenital distance (AGD); the distance from the anus to the genitals in male offspring. Few human studies have been conducted but associations between the anti-androgenic phthalates and male AGD have been reported.

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between phthalate exposure in late pregnancy in Danish women pregnant in 2010-2012 and AGD in their infants at 3 months of age (N=273).

METHODS: In the Odense child cohort urinary concentrations of 12 phthalate metabolites of di-ethyl, di-n-butyl-, di-iso-butyl-, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-, butyl-benzyl- and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DEP, DnBP, DiBP, DEHP, BBzP and DiNP, respectively) were measured among 245 mothers to boys at approximately gestational week 28 (range 20.4-30.4) and adjusted for osmolality. AGD, penile width and weight were measured 3 months after the expected date of birth. Associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and AGD and penile width were estimated using multivariable linear regression adjusting for age and weight-for-age standard deviation score.

RESULTS: Phthalate levels were lower in this population than in a recent Swedish in which phthalates were measured in first trimester. No consistent associations were seen between any prenatal phthalate exposure and AGD or penile width. Most associations were negative for exposures above the first quartile, and for ln-transformed exposures modeled as continuous variables, but there were no consistent dose-response patterns, and associations were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) CONCLUSION: We found no significant trends towards shorter AGD in boys with higher phthalates exposures in this low exposed Danish population.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of toxicity and biodegradability on activated sludge of priority and emerging pollutants

Authors: Tobajas, M; Verdugo, V; Polo, AM; Rodriguez, JJ; Mohedano, AF (2016) Environmental Technology 37:713-721. HERO ID: 3070754

[Less] Several methods for evaluating the toxicity and biodegradability of hazardous pollutants (chlorinated . . . [More] Several methods for evaluating the toxicity and biodegradability of hazardous pollutants (chlorinated compounds, chemical additives and pharmaceuticals) have been studied in this work. Different bioassays using representative bacteria of marine and terrestrial ecosystems such as Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida have been used to assess the ecotoxicity. Activated sludge was used to analyse the effect of those pollutants in a biological reactor of a sewage treatment plant (STP). The results demonstrate that none of the compounds is toxic to activated sludge, except ofloxacin to P. putida. The additives tested can be considered moderately toxic according to the more sensitive V. fischeri assays, whereas the EC50 values of the pharmaceuticals depend on the specific microorganism used in each test. Regarding the biodegradability, respirometric measurements were carried out for fast biodegradability assessment and the Zahn-Wellens test for inherent biodegradability. The evolution of the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) showed that only diethyl phthalate was easily biodegradable and acetylsalicylic acid was partially biodegradable (98% and 65% degradation, respectively). The persistence of dichloromethane, ofloxacin and hidrochlorothiazide was confirmed along the 28 days of the Zahn-Wellens test whereas 1,1,1-trichloroethane showed inherent biodegradability (74% removal). Most of the chlorinated compounds, pharmaceuticals, bisphenol A and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were partially degraded in 28 d with total organic carbon (TOC) reduction ranging from 21% to 51%. Sulphamethoxazole showed certain biodegradation (50% removal) with TOC decrease around 31%, which indicates the formation of non-biodegradable by-products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Paired serum and urine concentrations of biomarkers of diethyl phthalate, methyl paraben, and triclosan in rats

Authors: Teitelbaum, SL; Li, Q; Lambertini, L; Belpoggi, F; Manservisi, F; Falcioni, L; Bua, L; Silva, MJ; Ye, X; Calafat, AM; Chen, J (2016) Environmental Health Perspectives 124:39-45. HERO ID: 2918730

[Less] BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This first of its kind proof of concept rodent study examines . . . [More] BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This first of its kind proof of concept rodent study examines the relationship between oral doses of three widely used personal care product ingredients (diethyl phthalate (DEP), methyl paraben (MPB), triclosan) and urine and serum concentrations of their respective biomarkers.

METHODS: Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we carried out two rounds of experiments with oral gavage doses selected in reference to EPA NOAEL: 1735 (DEP), 1050 (MPB), 50 (triclosan) mg/kg/day. Administered doses ranged from 0.005-173 mg/kg/day, 10-100,000 times below NOAEL for each chemical. Controls for MBP and triclosan experiments were animals treated with olive oil (the vehicle) only; controls for DEP serum experiments were animals treated with the lowest MBP and triclosan doses. Doses were administered for five days with five rats in each treatment group. Urine and blood serum, collected on the last day of exposure, were analyzed for biomarkers. Relationships between oral dose and biomarker concentrations were assessed using linear regression.

RESULTS: Biomarkers were detected in all control urine samples at parts-per-billion levels suggesting a low endemic environmental exposure of the three chemicals that could not be controlled even with all precaution measures undertaken. Among exposed animals, urinary concentrations of all three biomarkers were orders of magnitude higher than those in serum. A consistently positive linear relationship between oral dose and urinary concentration was observed (R(2)>0.80); the relationship was inconsistent in serum.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of careful consideration of the oral dose used in animal experiments and provides useful information in selecting doses for future studies.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Migration of BTEX and phthalates from natural rubber latex balloons obtained from the Sri Lankan market

Authors: Jayawardena, I; Godakumbura, PI; Prashantha, MA (2016) 5:20. HERO ID: 3070740

[Less] The current study evaluates the migration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) and phthalates . . . [More] The current study evaluates the migration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) and phthalates into artificial saliva from natural rubber latex (NRL) balloons available for sale in Sri Lanka. It was discovered that at least one BTEX compound migrated from almost all the brands. The migration of four phthalates; diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate were also observed. Migratory levels of BTEX and phthalates in most of the balloon brands were above the permissible levels set by the European Union. Assessment of factors affecting the migratory levels indicated migration under active mouthing conditions and migration from the neck region of the balloons were significantly higher. The migratory levels were observed to decrease with storage time, and in certain brands the BTEX levels decreased below the permissible level. One-way ANOVA indicated no significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) in migratory levels of each individual compound within the same brand for both BTEX and phthalates. When compared among different brands, BTEX levels indicated significant differences (p ≤ 0.05), while phthalate levels were observed to not be significantly different (p ≥ 0.05). A significant difference was also observed (p ≤ 0.05) among the migratory levels of compounds under each test condition evaluated as factors affecting the migratory level. Furthermore, the solvent based colorants added to color the latex were found to be the source of BTEX and phthalates in the NRL balloons.