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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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27 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Neonatal phthalate ester exposure induced placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP mRNA expression in two districts of southeast China

Authors: Li, B; Xu, X; Zhu, Y; Cao, J; Zhang, Y; Huo, Xia (2016) Scientific Reports 6:21004. HERO ID: 3230087

[Less] Plastic production releases phthalate esters (PAEs), which can alter the expression of metallothioneins . . . [More] Plastic production releases phthalate esters (PAEs), which can alter the expression of metallothioneins (MTs), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) and heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP). A total of 187 mother-infant pairs were recruited, 127 from Chenghai (high exposed group) and 60 from Haojiang (low exposed group), to investigate the association between neonatal PAE exposure and mRNA expression of placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Umbilical cord blood and placenta samples were collected for measuring five PAE concentrations and detecting mRNA levels of MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) were significantly higher in the high exposed group compared to the low exposed group. FATP1 and HFABP mRNA in the high exposed group were higher than that in the low exposed group while MT-1A was contrary. Both dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and DEHP were correlated with higher MT and MT-2A expression, while diethyl phthalate (DEP) was also positively correlated with MT-1A and FATP1 expression in female infants. DEHP exposure was negatively correlated with birth weight and gestational age in male infants. These results show that neonatal PAE exposure alters the mRNA expression of placental MTs and FATP1, which are related to fetal growth and development.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolism and kinetics in an in vitro model of testis development

Authors: Harris, S; Wegner, S; Hong, SW; Faustman, EM (2016) Toxicology In Vitro 32:123-131. HERO ID: 3070746

[Less] We have developed an in vitro model of testis development (3D-TCS) using rat testicular cells overlaid . . . [More] We have developed an in vitro model of testis development (3D-TCS) using rat testicular cells overlaid with extracellular matrix. One barrier preventing utilization of in vitro models in toxicity testing is the absence of metabolic capability. Another challenge is lack of kinetic data for compounds in vitro. We characterized metabolic capabilities and investigated the kinetics of phthalate male reproductive toxicants in the 3D-TCS. Cells were treated with three phthalate diesters for 2, 8 and 24h. Parent compounds and metabolites were measured in cell culture media and cell lysate via mass spectrometry. Levels of monoester metabolites were used as an indication of metabolism of phthalates via lipase activity. Metabolites were detected in all treated cell media and cell lysate samples, with levels ranging from <0.5-14.7% of initial mass of parent compound. Phthalates partitioned between media and lysate in a manner consistent with each compound's degree of lipophilicity. UDGPT activity was detected in DBP and DEP treated samples. 3D-TCS microarray data indicated gene expression for lipases and CYPP450s. Results indicate that the 3D-TCS is a metabolically active co-culture and that physiochemical properties can provide information about the kinetics of compounds in the 3D-TCS, improving our ability to interpret results from the model.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of frozen human epidermis storage duration and cryoprotectant on barrier function using two model compounds

Authors: Barbero, AM; Frasch, HF (2016) Skin Pharmacology and Physiology 29:31-40. HERO ID: 3045434

[Less] Skin is commonly stored frozen and then thawed prior to use for in vitro permeation experiments. Does . . . [More] Skin is commonly stored frozen and then thawed prior to use for in vitro permeation experiments. Does frozen storage of skin alter its barrier property? Numerous studies have found contradictory answers to this question. In this study, the steady-state flux and lag time of diethyl phthalate (DEP) were measured for fresh human skin and skin frozen at -85°C for 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months with 10% glycerol as a cryoprotective agent. No significant differences in steady-state flux were found between fresh and previously frozen samples (p = 0.6). For lag time, a significant (p = 0.002) difference was found among all groups, but comparisons with fresh skin were not significant. Does glycerol have a cryoprotective effect? The steady-state flux and lag time of DEP and caffeine were measured through human skin stored at -85°C for up to 12 months with and without 10% glycerol. No significant differences in steady-state flux or lag time were found between samples stored with or without glycerol for either DEP or caffeine (p ≥ 0.17). These findings support the use of frozen skin to measure the passive permeation of chemicals in studies unconcerned with viability and metabolism. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ultrasound-assisted Low Density Solvent Based Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction for Determination of Phthalate Esters in Bottled Water Samples

Authors: Uansiri, S; Vichapong, J; Kanchanamayoon, W (2016) Chemical Research in Chinese Universities 32:178-183. HERO ID: 3230081

[Less] A technique of ultrasound-assisted low density solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction . . . [More] A technique of ultrasound-assisted low density solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the determination of four phthalate esters, including dimethyl phthalate(DMP), diethyl phthalate(DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate(DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) in bottled water samples. A low density solvent, toluene, was selected as extraction solvent. In the extraction process, a mixture of 15 mu L of toluene(extraction solvent) and 100 mu L of methanol(disperser solvent) was rapidly injected into 1.0 mL of water samples. A cloudy solution was formed after ultrasounded for 5 min, and then centrifuged at 5000 r/min for 5 min. The enriched analytes in the floating phase were determined by means of gas chromatograph. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors were found to be in a range of 29-67, and the recoveries were ranged from 81.2% to 103.9%. The limits of the detection were in a range of 3.8-5.6 mu g/L. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of phthalate esters in bottled water samples, and the concentrations of phthalate esters found in the water samples were below the allowable levels.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Chemical Warfare Nerve Agent Simulants

Authors: Kim, E; Lee, H; Choi, SunK; Yoon, MHan; Oh, HanBin (2016) Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society 37:316-320. HERO ID: 3230305

[Less] To avoid possible danger, simulants of chemical warfare nerve gas agents, such as dimethyl methylphosphonate . . . [More] To avoid possible danger, simulants of chemical warfare nerve gas agents, such as dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), di(propylene glycol) monomethyl ether (DPGMME), methyl salicylate, and diethyl phthalate (DEP), are often used for the development of a new detection and analysis method. In the present study, several MALDI matrices were evaluated to determine the optimal matrix for the simultaneous Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) detection of the above-mentioned five chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants, and -cyanohydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) was found to be most effective in detecting all of the simulants without interference from strong background matrix peaks. Furthermore, the limits of detection for the five simulants were roughly estimated with the CHCA matrix. This information is expected to be important for the development of future electrowetting-on-dielectrics (EWOD)-based sample preparation methods that can be subjected to subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF MS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Migration of phthalates on culture plates - an important challenge to consider for in vitro studies

Authors: Frohnert Hansen, J; Boas, M; Møller Brorson, M; Frederiksen, H; Hartoft-Nielsen, ML; Krogh Rasmussen, Å; Main, KM; Feldt-Rasmussen, U (2016) Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 76:1-7. HERO ID: 3070741

[Less] Phthalates are endocrine disruptors of the reproductive system and suspected to influence many other . . . [More] Phthalates are endocrine disruptors of the reproductive system and suspected to influence many other organ and hormone systems. They are also semi-volatile organic compounds present in the gas phase in the environment. Their mode of action has been investigated in numerous in vitro studies. Multi-well culture plates are typically used to study phthalates in cell cultures. In a pilot study, we observed evidence of phthalate migration in 24-well culture plates. As this has not previously been described, we investigated the phenomenon in more detail. Primary human thyroid epithelial cell cultures (n = 8 cultures) were exposed to either di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Measurement of phthalate metabolites by mass spectrometry demonstrated that the short-branched DEP was able to migrate to adjacent wells when added to cell culture plates. DnBP also seemed to be able to migrate, unlike the long-branched DEHP or the monoester MnBP which did not seem to have this ability. High background levels of phthalate metabolites were also observed, which might compromise results from low dose phthalate studies. In conclusion, the migration of phthalates which is probably caused by their volatile properties might lead to false interpretation of study results.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparative study of diethyl phthalate degradation by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2: Kinetics, mechanism, and effects of operational parameters

Authors: Song, C; Wang, L; Ren, J; Lv, B; Sun, Z; Yan, J; Li, X; Liu, J (2016) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23:2640-2650. HERO ID: 3070751

[Less] The photodegradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 is studied. The DEP degradation . . . [More] The photodegradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 is studied. The DEP degradation kinetics and multiple crucial factors effecting the clearance of DEP are investigated, including initial DEP concentration ([DEP]0), initial pH values (pH0), UV light intensity, anions (Cl(-), NO(3-), SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-), and CO3 (2-)), cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), and Fe(3+)), and humic acid (HA). Total organic carbon (TOC) removal is tested by two treatments. And, cytotoxicity evolution of DEP degradation intermediates is detected. The relationship between molar ratio ([H2O2]/[DEP] or [TiO2]/[DEP]) and degradation kinetic constant (K) is also studied. And, the cytotoxicity tests of DEP and its degradation intermediates in UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 treatments are researched. The DEP removal efficiency of UV/H2O2 treatment is higher than UV/TiO2 treatment. The DEP degradation fitted a pseudo-first-order kinetic pattern under experimental conditions. The K linearly related with molar ratio in UV/H2O2 treatment while nature exponential relationship is observed in the case of UV/TiO2. However, K fitted corresponding trends better in H2O2 treatment than in TiO2 treatment. The Cl(-) is in favor of the DEP degradation in UV/H2O2 treatment; in contrast, it is disadvantageous to the DEP degradation in UV/TiO2 treatment. Other anions are all disadvantageous to the DEP degradation in two treatments. Fe(3+) promotes the degradation rates significantly. And, all other cations in question inhibit the degradation of DEP. HA hinders DEP degradation in two treatments. The intermediates of DEP degradation in UV/TiO2 treatment are less toxic to biological cell than that in UV/H2O2 treatment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs

Authors: Morrison, GC; Weschler, CJ; Bekö, G; Koch, HM; Salthammer, T; Schripp, T; Toftum, J; Clausen, G (2016) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 26:113-118. HERO ID: 2915549

[Less] To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we . . . [More] To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Using a breathing hood to isolate dermal from inhalation uptake, we measured urinary metabolites of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from an individual exposed to known concentrations of these compounds for 6 h in an experimental chamber. The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)); for exposed clothes the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6.5, respectively. Even for non-occupational environments, wearing clothing that has adsorbed/absorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake of SVOCs by substantial amounts relative to bare skin.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 10 June 2015; doi:10.1038/jes.2015.42.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessing differences in toxicity and teratogenicity of three phthalates, Diethyl phthalate, Di-n-propyl phthalate, and Di-n-butyl phthalate, using Xenopus laevis embryos

Authors: Gardner, ST; Wood, AT; Lester, R; Onkst, PE; Burnham, N; Perygin, DH; Rayburn, J (2016) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 79:71-82. HERO ID: 3070743

[Less] Phthalates, compounds used to add flexibility to plastics, are ubiquitous in the environment. In particular, . . . [More] Phthalates, compounds used to add flexibility to plastics, are ubiquitous in the environment. In particular, the diethyl (DEP), di-n-propyl (DnPP), and di-n-butyl (DBP) phthalates were found to exert detrimental effects in both mammalian and non-mammalian studies, with toxic effects varying according to alkyl chain length. Embryos of Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog, have been used to assess toxicity and teratogenicity of several compounds and serves as a model for assessing adverse and teratogenic effects of ortho-phthalate esters. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for comparison of developmentally toxic effects of ortho-phthalate esters using Xenopus embryos. In this study developing Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to increasing concentrations of DEP, DnPP, and DBP using the 96-h Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX), with 96-h lethal concentrations, effective concentrations to induce malformations, teratogenic indices, and concentrations to inhibit growth determined. DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed enhanced toxicity with increasing ester length. Developing Xenopus laevis exposed to DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed similar malformations that also occurred at lower concentrations with increasing alkyl chain length. Teratogenic risk did not change markedly with alkyl chain length, with data showing only DBP to be teratogenic.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Methods for the determination of endocrine disrupting phthalate esters

Authors: Qureshi, MS; Yusoff, AR; Wirzal, MD; Sirajuddin, MD; Barek, J; Afridi, HI; Üstündag, Z (2016) Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry 46:146-159. [Review] HERO ID: 2914669

[Less] Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in general and industrial environment and in . . . [More] Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in general and industrial environment and in may industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates into the list of priority substances with potentially endocrine disrupting action. Namely they are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalates (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DNDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring of different phthalates in various environmental, biological and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs which makes them suitable for large scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods.