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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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27 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Indoor phthalate concentration in residential apartments in Chongqing, China: Implications for preschool children's exposure and risk assessment

Authors: Bu, Z; Zhang, Y; Mmereki, D; Yu, W; Li, B (2016) Atmospheric Environment 127:34-45. HERO ID: 3222282

[Less] Six phthalates - dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) . . . [More] Six phthalates - dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) - in indoor gas-phase and dust samples were measured in thirty residential apartments for the first time in Chongqing, China. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate preschool children's exposure via inhalation, non-dietary ingestion and dermal absorption based on gas-phase and dust concentrations. Risk assessment was evaluated by comparing the modeled exposure doses with child-specific benchmarks specified in California's Proposition 65. The detection frequency for all the targeted phthalates was more than 80% except for BBzP. DMP was the most predominant compound in the gas-phase (median = 0.91 mu g/m(3) and 0.82 mu g/m(3) in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively), and DEHP was the most predominant compound in the dust samples (median = 1543 mu g/g and 1450 mu g/g in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively). Correlation analysis suggests that indoor DiBP and DnBP might come from the same emission sources. The simulations showed that the median DEHP daily intake was 3.18-4.28 mu g/day/kg-bw in all age groups, suggesting that it was the greatest of the targeted phthalates. The risk assessment indicated that the exposure doses of DnBP and DEHP exceeded the child-specific benchmarks in more than 90% of preschool children in Chongqing. Therefore, from a children's health perspective, efforts should focus on controlling indoor phthalate concentrations and exposures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of clothing on dermal exposure to phthalates: Observations and insights from sampling both skin and clothing

Authors: Gong, M; Weschler, CJ; Zhang, Y (2016) Environmental Science and Technology 50:4350-4357. HERO ID: 3229677

[Less] Clothing can either retard or accelerate dermal exposure to phthalates. To investigate the impact of . . . [More] Clothing can either retard or accelerate dermal exposure to phthalates. To investigate the impact of clothing on dermal exposure to six phthalates (DMP/DEP/DiBP/DnBP/BBzP/DEHP) in real environments, two sets of experiments have been conducted: (1) Skin wipes were collected from 11 adults to examine the phthalate levels on both bare-skin (hand/forehead) and clothing-covered body locations (arm/back/calf); (2) Five adults were asked to wear just-washed jeans for 1 day (1(st) experiment), 5 days (2(nd) experiment), and 10 days (3(rd) experiment). Phthalate levels on their legs were measured on selected days during the wearing period, and phthalate levels in the jeans were measured at the end of each experiment and again after washing. Measured phthalate levels on body locations covered by clothing were lower than those on uncovered locations, but still substantial. Dermal uptake would be underestimated by a factor of 2 to 5 if absorption through body locations covered by clothing were neglected. Phthalate levels in the jeans and on the legs increased with the wearing time. However, the levels in the jeans and on the legs were not strongly correlated, indicating that other pathways, e.g, contact with bedding or bedclothes, likely contribute to the levels on the legs. The efficiency with which laundering washing removed phthalates from the jeans increased with decreasing Kow; median values ranged from very low (<5%) for DEHP to very high (∼75%) for DMP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal of trace phthalate esters from water by thin-film composite nanofiltration hollow fiber membranes

Authors: Wei, X; Shi, Y; Fei, Y; Chen, J; Lv, B; Chen, Y; Zheng, H; Shen, J; Zhu, L (2016) Chemical Engineering Journal 292:382-388. HERO ID: 3230082

[Less] Rejection behavior of five kinds of phthalate acid ester (PAEs) including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), . . . [More] Rejection behavior of five kinds of phthalate acid ester (PAEs) including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from water sources using lab-fabricated hollow fiber nanofiltration (NF) membranes were investigated. Adsorption kinetic behaviors of PAEs were studied as well as the different operation parameters on the rejection of PAEs. The results showed that the times in which PAEs reach saturation adsorption on membrane surface are different. The equilibrium time increased with the molecular weight of the PAE increase. After the PAE reached adsorption equilibrium, the rejection rates of DMP, DEP, DBP, DnOP and DEHP by NF membranes were 82.3%, 86.7%, 91.5%, 95.1% and 95.4%, respectively. The influence of operation parameters including the operation pressure, pH, ionic strength, and temperature on PAE rejection behaviors were also studied. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure and toxicity forecasts to advance high-throughput environmental monitoring

Authors: Rager, JE; Strynar, MJ; Liang, S; Mcmahen, RL; Richard, A; Grulke, CM; Wambaugh, JF; Isaacs, KK; Judson, R; Williams, AJ; Sobus, J (2016) Environment International 88:269-280. HERO ID: 3230102

[Less] There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen . . . [More] There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and analysis platforms, based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), now exist to meet this need. Here we describe results of a study that links HRMS data with exposure predictions from the U.S. EPA's ExpoCast (TM) program and in vitro bioassay data from the U.S. interagency Tox21 consortium. Vacuum dust samples were collected from 56 households across the U.S. as part of the American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS). Sample extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) with electrospray ionization. On average, approximately 2000 molecular features were identified per sample (based on accurate mass) in negative ion mode, and 3000 in positive ion mode. Exact mass, isotope distribution, and isotope spacing were used to match molecular features with a unique listing of chemical formulas extracted from EPA's Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) database. A total of 978 DSSTox formulas were consistent with the dust LC-TOF/molecular feature data (match score >= 90); these formulas mapped to 3228 possible chemicals in the database. Correct assignment of a unique chemical to a given formula required additional validation steps. Each suspect chemical was prioritized for follow-up confirmation using abundance and detection frequency results, along with exposure and bioactivity estimates from ExpoCast and Tox21, respectively. Chemicals with elevated exposure and/or toxicity potential were further examined using a mixture of 100 chemical standards. A total of 33 chemicals were confirmed present in the dust samples by formula and retention time match; nearly half of these do not appear to have been associated with house dust in the published literature. Chemical matches found in at least 10 of the 56 dust samples include Piperine, N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), Triclocarban, Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Propylparaben, Methylparaben, Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP), and Nicotine. This study demonstrates a novel suspect screening methodology to prioritize chemicals of interest for subsequent targeted analysis. The methods described here rely on strategic integration of available public resources and should be considered in future non-targeted and suspect screening assessments of environmental and biological media. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate ester concentrations in blood serum, urine and endometrial tissues of Chinese endometriosis patients

Authors: Sun, J; Chen, Bo; Zhang, L; Zhao, D; Li, ShuG (2016) International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 9:3808-3819. HERO ID: 3230103

[Less] Objective: To explore differences of phthalic acid ester (PAE) concentrations in serum and urine as . . . [More] Objective: To explore differences of phthalic acid ester (PAE) concentrations in serum and urine as well as endometrial tissues in patients diagnosed with endometriosis (EM) compared to healthy controls in Shanghai. Patients and methods: We designed a single-center case-control study based on the measurement of PAE concentrations in serum and urine of patients and controls as well as in pathological tissues from EM patients which were measured using either high performance liquid and/or gas chromatography. A total of 289 female subjects were included in the study (115 cases diagnosed with EM and 174 healthy women as controls). Results: Positive detection rates of Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were > 90% in both measured groups for all measurements, but for diethyl phthalate (DEP) the range was from 0-16.4%. The serum DBP and DEHP concentrations in patients with EM were significantly higher than in healthy women (P < 0.05). The urine concentration of primary DEHP metabolites (Sigma DEHP) was also higher in EM patients (P < 0.05). In patients diagnosed with EM, DBP and DEHP concentrations in pathological tissues were 4 and 14.4 times higher respectively, as those in serum. Conclusion: Significantly enhanced blood serum DBP and DEHP concentrations and significant increases of their primary metabolites in urine of EM patients compared to the controls indicated that PAE affected EM. In addition, the high concentration of DBP and DEHP in resected endometrial tissues of EM patients supported this finding.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Methods for the determination of endocrine disrupting phthalate esters

Authors: Qureshi, MS; Yusoff, AR; Wirzal, MD; Sirajuddin, MD; Barek, J; Afridi, HI; Üstündag, Z (2016) Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry 46:146-159. [Review] HERO ID: 2914669

[Less] Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in general and industrial environment and in . . . [More] Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in general and industrial environment and in may industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates into the list of priority substances with potentially endocrine disrupting action. Namely they are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalates (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DNDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring of different phthalates in various environmental, biological and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs which makes them suitable for large scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs

Authors: Morrison, GC; Weschler, CJ; Bekö, G; Koch, HM; Salthammer, T; Schripp, T; Toftum, J; Clausen, G (2016) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 26:113-118. HERO ID: 2915549

[Less] To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we . . . [More] To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Using a breathing hood to isolate dermal from inhalation uptake, we measured urinary metabolites of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from an individual exposed to known concentrations of these compounds for 6 h in an experimental chamber. The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)); for exposed clothes the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6.5, respectively. Even for non-occupational environments, wearing clothing that has adsorbed/absorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake of SVOCs by substantial amounts relative to bare skin.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 10 June 2015; doi:10.1038/jes.2015.42.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Neonatal phthalate ester exposure induced placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP mRNA expression in two districts of southeast China

Authors: Li, B; Xu, X; Zhu, Y; Cao, J; Zhang, Y; Huo, Xia (2016) Scientific Reports 6:21004. HERO ID: 3230087

[Less] Plastic production releases phthalate esters (PAEs), which can alter the expression of metallothioneins . . . [More] Plastic production releases phthalate esters (PAEs), which can alter the expression of metallothioneins (MTs), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) and heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP). A total of 187 mother-infant pairs were recruited, 127 from Chenghai (high exposed group) and 60 from Haojiang (low exposed group), to investigate the association between neonatal PAE exposure and mRNA expression of placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Umbilical cord blood and placenta samples were collected for measuring five PAE concentrations and detecting mRNA levels of MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) were significantly higher in the high exposed group compared to the low exposed group. FATP1 and HFABP mRNA in the high exposed group were higher than that in the low exposed group while MT-1A was contrary. Both dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and DEHP were correlated with higher MT and MT-2A expression, while diethyl phthalate (DEP) was also positively correlated with MT-1A and FATP1 expression in female infants. DEHP exposure was negatively correlated with birth weight and gestational age in male infants. These results show that neonatal PAE exposure alters the mRNA expression of placental MTs and FATP1, which are related to fetal growth and development.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessing differences in toxicity and teratogenicity of three phthalates, Diethyl phthalate, Di-n-propyl phthalate, and Di-n-butyl phthalate, using Xenopus laevis embryos

Authors: Gardner, ST; Wood, AT; Lester, R; Onkst, PE; Burnham, N; Perygin, DH; Rayburn, J (2016) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 79:71-82. HERO ID: 3070743

[Less] Phthalates, compounds used to add flexibility to plastics, are ubiquitous in the environment. In particular, . . . [More] Phthalates, compounds used to add flexibility to plastics, are ubiquitous in the environment. In particular, the diethyl (DEP), di-n-propyl (DnPP), and di-n-butyl (DBP) phthalates were found to exert detrimental effects in both mammalian and non-mammalian studies, with toxic effects varying according to alkyl chain length. Embryos of Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog, have been used to assess toxicity and teratogenicity of several compounds and serves as a model for assessing adverse and teratogenic effects of ortho-phthalate esters. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for comparison of developmentally toxic effects of ortho-phthalate esters using Xenopus embryos. In this study developing Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to increasing concentrations of DEP, DnPP, and DBP using the 96-h Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX), with 96-h lethal concentrations, effective concentrations to induce malformations, teratogenic indices, and concentrations to inhibit growth determined. DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed enhanced toxicity with increasing ester length. Developing Xenopus laevis exposed to DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed similar malformations that also occurred at lower concentrations with increasing alkyl chain length. Teratogenic risk did not change markedly with alkyl chain length, with data showing only DBP to be teratogenic.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolism and kinetics in an in vitro model of testis development

Authors: Harris, S; Wegner, S; Hong, SW; Faustman, EM (2016) Toxicology In Vitro 32:123-131. HERO ID: 3070746

[Less] We have developed an in vitro model of testis development (3D-TCS) using rat testicular cells overlaid . . . [More] We have developed an in vitro model of testis development (3D-TCS) using rat testicular cells overlaid with extracellular matrix. One barrier preventing utilization of in vitro models in toxicity testing is the absence of metabolic capability. Another challenge is lack of kinetic data for compounds in vitro. We characterized metabolic capabilities and investigated the kinetics of phthalate male reproductive toxicants in the 3D-TCS. Cells were treated with three phthalate diesters for 2, 8 and 24h. Parent compounds and metabolites were measured in cell culture media and cell lysate via mass spectrometry. Levels of monoester metabolites were used as an indication of metabolism of phthalates via lipase activity. Metabolites were detected in all treated cell media and cell lysate samples, with levels ranging from <0.5-14.7% of initial mass of parent compound. Phthalates partitioned between media and lysate in a manner consistent with each compound's degree of lipophilicity. UDGPT activity was detected in DBP and DEP treated samples. 3D-TCS microarray data indicated gene expression for lipases and CYPP450s. Results indicate that the 3D-TCS is a metabolically active co-culture and that physiochemical properties can provide information about the kinetics of compounds in the 3D-TCS, improving our ability to interpret results from the model.