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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence of phthalate esters in over-the-counter medicines from China and its implications for human exposure

Authors: Jia, LL; Lou, XY; Guo, Y; Leung, KS; Zeng, EY (2017) Environment International 98:137-142. HERO ID: 5540627

[Less] Food, air, personal care products and indoor dust have been recognized as the main routes of exposure . . . [More] Food, air, personal care products and indoor dust have been recognized as the main routes of exposure to phthalates in Chinese population, but other sources may have been overlooked, e.g., medicines. To fill the knowledge gap, phthalate esters were measured in 96 over-the-counter medicines made in China, including selected 71 Chinese patented medicines and 25 western medicines. It was found that none of the medicines was free of phthalates. The mean concentrations of individual phthalates ranged from 0.001μg/g (dicyclohexyl phthalate) to 5.85μg/g (diethyl phthalate). Among 9 targeted phthalates, di-n-butyl phthalate was the dominant congener, accounting for > 65% of the total phthalates in all medicine samples, followed by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diethyl phthalate. Phthalates in medicines appeared to derive from gastroresistant film coatings, plastic packing materials or phthalate contaminated rural herbal plants (especially for Chinese patented medicines). Daily human exposure to phthalates was estimated for local patients for one treatment cycle (e.g., one week) based on suggested consumption dosage and phthalate concentrations. Almost all exposure levels were below the guidelines suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency or European Food Safety Authority, indicating low health risk with phthalates from consumption of the medicines. In addition, concentration levels of phthalates in patients would increase upon administration but are expected to decrease to the same values as those in patients before they took medicines in several days. Because the number of medicine samples was limited and the concentrations of phthalates varied in a large range, further investigations are needed to acquire more data for better assessment of human health effects for Chinese population. Capsule: Distribution of phthalate esters in over-the-counter medicines and related exposure for Chinese population are examined.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessing the concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) and the genotoxic potential of treated wastewater (final effluent) in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Al-Saleh, I; Elkhatib, R; Al-Rajoudi, T; Al-Qudaihi, G (2017) Science of the Total Environment 578:440-451. HERO ID: 3469247

[Less] Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants . . . [More] Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants that tend to bio-accumulate in humans through the soil-plant-animal food chain. Some studies have reported the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in addition to their estrogenic activities. Water resources are scarce in Saudi Arabia, and several wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) have been constructed for agricultural and industrial use. This study was designed to: (1) measure the concentrations of BPA and six PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), in secondary- and tertiary-treated wastewater collected from five WTPs in three Saudi cities for four to five weeks and (2) test their potential genotoxicity. Three genotoxicological parameters were used: % tail DNA (%T), tail moment (TM) and percentage micronuclei (%MN). Both DBP and DEHP were detected in all treated wastewater samples. DMP, DEP, BBP, DOP, and BPA were found in 83.3, 84.2, 79, 73.7 and 97.4% of the samples, respectively. The levels of DMP (p<0.001), DOP (p<0.001) and BPA (p=0.001) were higher in tertiary- treated wastewater than secondary-treated wastewater, perhaps due to the influence of the molecular weight and polarity of the chemicals. Both weekly sampling frequency and WTP locations significantly affected the variability in our data. Treated wastewater from Wadi Al-Araj was able to induce DNA damage (%T and TM) in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells that was statistically higher than wastewater from all other WTPs and in untreated TK6 cells (negative control). %MN in samples from both Wadi Al-Araj and Manfouah did not differ statistically but was significantly higher than in the untreated TK6 cells. This study also showed that the samples of tertiary-treated wastewater had a higher genotoxicological potential to induce DNA damage than the samples of secondary-treated wastewater. BPA and some PAEs in the treated wastewater might have the potential to induce genetic damage, despite their low levels. Genotoxicity, however, may also have been due to the presence of other contaminants. Our preliminary findings should be of concern to Saudi agriculture because long-term irrigation with treated wastewater could lead to the accumulation of PAEs and BPA in the soil and ultimately reach the human and animal food chain. WTPs need to remove pollutants more efficiently. Until then, a cautious use of treated wastewater for irrigation is recommended to avoid serious health impacts on local populations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phenyl-functionalized mesoporous silica materials for the rapid and efficient removal of phthalate esters

Authors: Fan, J; Wang, X; Teng, W; Yang, J; Ran, X; Gou, X; Bai, N; Lv, M; Xu, H; Li, G; Zhang, W; Zhao, D (2017) Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 487:354-359. HERO ID: 3491078

[Less] Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a group of endocrine disrupting compounds, which have been widely used as . . . [More] Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a group of endocrine disrupting compounds, which have been widely used as plasticizers. To alleviate the environmental and health threats from water resources polluted by PAEs, we prepared phenyl functionalized mesoporous silica materials (ph-SBA-15) were synthesized by a simple post-modification approach for rapid and efficient removal of low concentration of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) from aqueous solution. Mesostructure, texture, surface chemistry and surface charges were systemically characterized. The obtained ph-SBA-15 possesses a highly ordered mesostructure, a high surface area (418m(2)/g), uniform mesopores (6.5nm) and high-density organic groups around 11wt.%. Batch adsorption experiments revealed that phenyl modified SBA-15 had an excellent ability to remove DBP with the maximum adsorption capacity up to ∼40mg/g at 25°C. The thermodynamics and kinetics for the adsorption were also investigated, demonstrating an exothermic, multi-layer and fast adsorption process. In addition, DBP adsorption was found to be sensitive to the pH and the uptake was observed to be greatest at around pH 7.0. Furthermore, this material can be effectively regenerated by ethanol.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Indoor phthalate concentration in residential apartments in Chongqing, China: Implications for preschool children's exposure and risk assessment

Authors: Bu, Z; Zhang, Y; Mmereki, D; Yu, W; Li, B (2016) Atmospheric Environment 127:34-45. HERO ID: 3222282

[Less] Six phthalates - dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) . . . [More] Six phthalates - dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) - in indoor gas-phase and dust samples were measured in thirty residential apartments for the first time in Chongqing, China. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate preschool children's exposure via inhalation, non-dietary ingestion and dermal absorption based on gas-phase and dust concentrations. Risk assessment was evaluated by comparing the modeled exposure doses with child-specific benchmarks specified in California's Proposition 65. The detection frequency for all the targeted phthalates was more than 80% except for BBzP. DMP was the most predominant compound in the gas-phase (median = 0.91 mu g/m(3) and 0.82 mu g/m(3) in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively), and DEHP was the most predominant compound in the dust samples (median = 1543 mu g/g and 1450 mu g/g in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively). Correlation analysis suggests that indoor DiBP and DnBP might come from the same emission sources. The simulations showed that the median DEHP daily intake was 3.18-4.28 mu g/day/kg-bw in all age groups, suggesting that it was the greatest of the targeted phthalates. The risk assessment indicated that the exposure doses of DnBP and DEHP exceeded the child-specific benchmarks in more than 90% of preschool children in Chongqing. Therefore, from a children's health perspective, efforts should focus on controlling indoor phthalate concentrations and exposures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of clothing on dermal exposure to phthalates: Observations and insights from sampling both skin and clothing

Authors: Gong, M; Weschler, CJ; Zhang, Y (2016) Environmental Science and Technology 50:4350-4357. HERO ID: 3229677

[Less] Clothing can either retard or accelerate dermal exposure to phthalates. To investigate the impact of . . . [More] Clothing can either retard or accelerate dermal exposure to phthalates. To investigate the impact of clothing on dermal exposure to six phthalates (DMP/DEP/DiBP/DnBP/BBzP/DEHP) in real environments, two sets of experiments have been conducted: (1) Skin wipes were collected from 11 adults to examine the phthalate levels on both bare-skin (hand/forehead) and clothing-covered body locations (arm/back/calf); (2) Five adults were asked to wear just-washed jeans for 1 day (1(st) experiment), 5 days (2(nd) experiment), and 10 days (3(rd) experiment). Phthalate levels on their legs were measured on selected days during the wearing period, and phthalate levels in the jeans were measured at the end of each experiment and again after washing. Measured phthalate levels on body locations covered by clothing were lower than those on uncovered locations, but still substantial. Dermal uptake would be underestimated by a factor of 2 to 5 if absorption through body locations covered by clothing were neglected. Phthalate levels in the jeans and on the legs increased with the wearing time. However, the levels in the jeans and on the legs were not strongly correlated, indicating that other pathways, e.g, contact with bedding or bedclothes, likely contribute to the levels on the legs. The efficiency with which laundering washing removed phthalates from the jeans increased with decreasing Kow; median values ranged from very low (<5%) for DEHP to very high (∼75%) for DMP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal of trace phthalate esters from water by thin-film composite nanofiltration hollow fiber membranes

Authors: Wei, X; Shi, Y; Fei, Y; Chen, J; Lv, B; Chen, Y; Zheng, H; Shen, J; Zhu, L (2016) Chemical Engineering Journal 292:382-388. HERO ID: 3230082

[Less] Rejection behavior of five kinds of phthalate acid ester (PAEs) including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), . . . [More] Rejection behavior of five kinds of phthalate acid ester (PAEs) including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from water sources using lab-fabricated hollow fiber nanofiltration (NF) membranes were investigated. Adsorption kinetic behaviors of PAEs were studied as well as the different operation parameters on the rejection of PAEs. The results showed that the times in which PAEs reach saturation adsorption on membrane surface are different. The equilibrium time increased with the molecular weight of the PAE increase. After the PAE reached adsorption equilibrium, the rejection rates of DMP, DEP, DBP, DnOP and DEHP by NF membranes were 82.3%, 86.7%, 91.5%, 95.1% and 95.4%, respectively. The influence of operation parameters including the operation pressure, pH, ionic strength, and temperature on PAE rejection behaviors were also studied. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure and toxicity forecasts to advance high-throughput environmental monitoring

Authors: Rager, JE; Strynar, MJ; Liang, S; Mcmahen, RL; Richard, A; Grulke, CM; Wambaugh, JF; Isaacs, KK; Judson, R; Williams, AJ; Sobus, J (2016) Environment International 88:269-280. HERO ID: 3230102

[Less] There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen . . . [More] There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and analysis platforms, based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), now exist to meet this need. Here we describe results of a study that links HRMS data with exposure predictions from the U.S. EPA's ExpoCast (TM) program and in vitro bioassay data from the U.S. interagency Tox21 consortium. Vacuum dust samples were collected from 56 households across the U.S. as part of the American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS). Sample extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) with electrospray ionization. On average, approximately 2000 molecular features were identified per sample (based on accurate mass) in negative ion mode, and 3000 in positive ion mode. Exact mass, isotope distribution, and isotope spacing were used to match molecular features with a unique listing of chemical formulas extracted from EPA's Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) database. A total of 978 DSSTox formulas were consistent with the dust LC-TOF/molecular feature data (match score >= 90); these formulas mapped to 3228 possible chemicals in the database. Correct assignment of a unique chemical to a given formula required additional validation steps. Each suspect chemical was prioritized for follow-up confirmation using abundance and detection frequency results, along with exposure and bioactivity estimates from ExpoCast and Tox21, respectively. Chemicals with elevated exposure and/or toxicity potential were further examined using a mixture of 100 chemical standards. A total of 33 chemicals were confirmed present in the dust samples by formula and retention time match; nearly half of these do not appear to have been associated with house dust in the published literature. Chemical matches found in at least 10 of the 56 dust samples include Piperine, N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), Triclocarban, Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Propylparaben, Methylparaben, Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP), and Nicotine. This study demonstrates a novel suspect screening methodology to prioritize chemicals of interest for subsequent targeted analysis. The methods described here rely on strategic integration of available public resources and should be considered in future non-targeted and suspect screening assessments of environmental and biological media. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate ester concentrations in blood serum, urine and endometrial tissues of Chinese endometriosis patients

Authors: Sun, J; Chen, Bo; Zhang, L; Zhao, D; Li, ShuG (2016) International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 9:3808-3819. HERO ID: 3230103

[Less] Objective: To explore differences of phthalic acid ester (PAE) concentrations in serum and urine as . . . [More] Objective: To explore differences of phthalic acid ester (PAE) concentrations in serum and urine as well as endometrial tissues in patients diagnosed with endometriosis (EM) compared to healthy controls in Shanghai. Patients and methods: We designed a single-center case-control study based on the measurement of PAE concentrations in serum and urine of patients and controls as well as in pathological tissues from EM patients which were measured using either high performance liquid and/or gas chromatography. A total of 289 female subjects were included in the study (115 cases diagnosed with EM and 174 healthy women as controls). Results: Positive detection rates of Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were > 90% in both measured groups for all measurements, but for diethyl phthalate (DEP) the range was from 0-16.4%. The serum DBP and DEHP concentrations in patients with EM were significantly higher than in healthy women (P < 0.05). The urine concentration of primary DEHP metabolites (Sigma DEHP) was also higher in EM patients (P < 0.05). In patients diagnosed with EM, DBP and DEHP concentrations in pathological tissues were 4 and 14.4 times higher respectively, as those in serum. Conclusion: Significantly enhanced blood serum DBP and DEHP concentrations and significant increases of their primary metabolites in urine of EM patients compared to the controls indicated that PAE affected EM. In addition, the high concentration of DBP and DEHP in resected endometrial tissues of EM patients supported this finding.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Methods for the determination of endocrine disrupting phthalate esters

Authors: Qureshi, MS; Yusoff, AR; Wirzal, MD; Sirajuddin, MD; Barek, J; Afridi, HI; Üstündag, Z (2016) Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry 46:146-159. [Review] HERO ID: 2914669

[Less] Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in general and industrial environment and in . . . [More] Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in general and industrial environment and in may industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates into the list of priority substances with potentially endocrine disrupting action. Namely they are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalates (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DNDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring of different phthalates in various environmental, biological and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs which makes them suitable for large scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs

Authors: Morrison, GC; Weschler, CJ; Bekö, G; Koch, HM; Salthammer, T; Schripp, T; Toftum, J; Clausen, G (2016) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 26:113-118. HERO ID: 2915549

[Less] To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we . . . [More] To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Using a breathing hood to isolate dermal from inhalation uptake, we measured urinary metabolites of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from an individual exposed to known concentrations of these compounds for 6 h in an experimental chamber. The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)); for exposed clothes the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6.5, respectively. Even for non-occupational environments, wearing clothing that has adsorbed/absorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake of SVOCs by substantial amounts relative to bare skin.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 10 June 2015; doi:10.1038/jes.2015.42.