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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Indoor phthalate concentration in residential apartments in Chongqing, China: Implications for preschool children's exposure and risk assessment

Authors: Bu, Z; Zhang, Y; Mmereki, D; Yu, W; Li, B (2016) Atmospheric Environment 127:34-45. HERO ID: 3222282

[Less] Six phthalates - dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) . . . [More] Six phthalates - dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) - in indoor gas-phase and dust samples were measured in thirty residential apartments for the first time in Chongqing, China. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate preschool children's exposure via inhalation, non-dietary ingestion and dermal absorption based on gas-phase and dust concentrations. Risk assessment was evaluated by comparing the modeled exposure doses with child-specific benchmarks specified in California's Proposition 65. The detection frequency for all the targeted phthalates was more than 80% except for BBzP. DMP was the most predominant compound in the gas-phase (median = 0.91 mu g/m(3) and 0.82 mu g/m(3) in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively), and DEHP was the most predominant compound in the dust samples (median = 1543 mu g/g and 1450 mu g/g in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively). Correlation analysis suggests that indoor DiBP and DnBP might come from the same emission sources. The simulations showed that the median DEHP daily intake was 3.18-4.28 mu g/day/kg-bw in all age groups, suggesting that it was the greatest of the targeted phthalates. The risk assessment indicated that the exposure doses of DnBP and DEHP exceeded the child-specific benchmarks in more than 90% of preschool children in Chongqing. Therefore, from a children's health perspective, efforts should focus on controlling indoor phthalate concentrations and exposures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of clothing on dermal exposure to phthalates: Observations and insights from sampling both skin and clothing

Authors: Gong, M; Weschler, CJ; Zhang, Y (2016) Environmental Science and Technology 50:4350-4357. HERO ID: 3229677

[Less] Clothing can either retard or accelerate dermal exposure to phthalates. To investigate the impact of . . . [More] Clothing can either retard or accelerate dermal exposure to phthalates. To investigate the impact of clothing on dermal exposure to six phthalates (DMP/DEP/DiBP/DnBP/BBzP/DEHP) in real environments, two sets of experiments have been conducted: (1) Skin wipes were collected from 11 adults to examine the phthalate levels on both bare-skin (hand/forehead) and clothing-covered body locations (arm/back/calf); (2) Five adults were asked to wear just-washed jeans for 1 day (1(st) experiment), 5 days (2(nd) experiment), and 10 days (3(rd) experiment). Phthalate levels on their legs were measured on selected days during the wearing period, and phthalate levels in the jeans were measured at the end of each experiment and again after washing. Measured phthalate levels on body locations covered by clothing were lower than those on uncovered locations, but still substantial. Dermal uptake would be underestimated by a factor of 2 to 5 if absorption through body locations covered by clothing were neglected. Phthalate levels in the jeans and on the legs increased with the wearing time. However, the levels in the jeans and on the legs were not strongly correlated, indicating that other pathways, e.g, contact with bedding or bedclothes, likely contribute to the levels on the legs. The efficiency with which laundering washing removed phthalates from the jeans increased with decreasing Kow; median values ranged from very low (<5%) for DEHP to very high (∼75%) for DMP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal of trace phthalate esters from water by thin-film composite nanofiltration hollow fiber membranes

Authors: Wei, X; Shi, Y; Fei, Y; Chen, J; Lv, B; Chen, Y; Zheng, H; Shen, J; Zhu, L (2016) Chemical Engineering Journal 292:382-388. HERO ID: 3230082

[Less] Rejection behavior of five kinds of phthalate acid ester (PAEs) including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), . . . [More] Rejection behavior of five kinds of phthalate acid ester (PAEs) including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from water sources using lab-fabricated hollow fiber nanofiltration (NF) membranes were investigated. Adsorption kinetic behaviors of PAEs were studied as well as the different operation parameters on the rejection of PAEs. The results showed that the times in which PAEs reach saturation adsorption on membrane surface are different. The equilibrium time increased with the molecular weight of the PAE increase. After the PAE reached adsorption equilibrium, the rejection rates of DMP, DEP, DBP, DnOP and DEHP by NF membranes were 82.3%, 86.7%, 91.5%, 95.1% and 95.4%, respectively. The influence of operation parameters including the operation pressure, pH, ionic strength, and temperature on PAE rejection behaviors were also studied. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure and toxicity forecasts to advance high-throughput environmental monitoring

Authors: Rager, JE; Strynar, MJ; Liang, S; Mcmahen, RL; Richard, A; Grulke, CM; Wambaugh, JF; Isaacs, KK; Judson, R; Williams, AJ; Sobus, J (2016) Environment International 88:269-280. HERO ID: 3230102

[Less] There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen . . . [More] There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and analysis platforms, based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), now exist to meet this need. Here we describe results of a study that links HRMS data with exposure predictions from the U.S. EPA's ExpoCast (TM) program and in vitro bioassay data from the U.S. interagency Tox21 consortium. Vacuum dust samples were collected from 56 households across the U.S. as part of the American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS). Sample extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) with electrospray ionization. On average, approximately 2000 molecular features were identified per sample (based on accurate mass) in negative ion mode, and 3000 in positive ion mode. Exact mass, isotope distribution, and isotope spacing were used to match molecular features with a unique listing of chemical formulas extracted from EPA's Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) database. A total of 978 DSSTox formulas were consistent with the dust LC-TOF/molecular feature data (match score >= 90); these formulas mapped to 3228 possible chemicals in the database. Correct assignment of a unique chemical to a given formula required additional validation steps. Each suspect chemical was prioritized for follow-up confirmation using abundance and detection frequency results, along with exposure and bioactivity estimates from ExpoCast and Tox21, respectively. Chemicals with elevated exposure and/or toxicity potential were further examined using a mixture of 100 chemical standards. A total of 33 chemicals were confirmed present in the dust samples by formula and retention time match; nearly half of these do not appear to have been associated with house dust in the published literature. Chemical matches found in at least 10 of the 56 dust samples include Piperine, N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), Triclocarban, Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Propylparaben, Methylparaben, Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP), and Nicotine. This study demonstrates a novel suspect screening methodology to prioritize chemicals of interest for subsequent targeted analysis. The methods described here rely on strategic integration of available public resources and should be considered in future non-targeted and suspect screening assessments of environmental and biological media. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate ester concentrations in blood serum, urine and endometrial tissues of Chinese endometriosis patients

Authors: Sun, J; Chen, Bo; Zhang, L; Zhao, D; Li, ShuG (2016) International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 9:3808-3819. HERO ID: 3230103

[Less] Objective: To explore differences of phthalic acid ester (PAE) concentrations in serum and urine as . . . [More] Objective: To explore differences of phthalic acid ester (PAE) concentrations in serum and urine as well as endometrial tissues in patients diagnosed with endometriosis (EM) compared to healthy controls in Shanghai. Patients and methods: We designed a single-center case-control study based on the measurement of PAE concentrations in serum and urine of patients and controls as well as in pathological tissues from EM patients which were measured using either high performance liquid and/or gas chromatography. A total of 289 female subjects were included in the study (115 cases diagnosed with EM and 174 healthy women as controls). Results: Positive detection rates of Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were > 90% in both measured groups for all measurements, but for diethyl phthalate (DEP) the range was from 0-16.4%. The serum DBP and DEHP concentrations in patients with EM were significantly higher than in healthy women (P < 0.05). The urine concentration of primary DEHP metabolites (Sigma DEHP) was also higher in EM patients (P < 0.05). In patients diagnosed with EM, DBP and DEHP concentrations in pathological tissues were 4 and 14.4 times higher respectively, as those in serum. Conclusion: Significantly enhanced blood serum DBP and DEHP concentrations and significant increases of their primary metabolites in urine of EM patients compared to the controls indicated that PAE affected EM. In addition, the high concentration of DBP and DEHP in resected endometrial tissues of EM patients supported this finding.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Methods for the determination of endocrine disrupting phthalate esters

Authors: Qureshi, MS; Yusoff, AR; Wirzal, MD; Sirajuddin, MD; Barek, J; Afridi, HI; Üstündag, Z (2016) Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry 46:146-159. [Review] HERO ID: 2914669

[Less] Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in general and industrial environment and in . . . [More] Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in general and industrial environment and in may industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates into the list of priority substances with potentially endocrine disrupting action. Namely they are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalates (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DNDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring of different phthalates in various environmental, biological and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs which makes them suitable for large scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs

Authors: Morrison, GC; Weschler, CJ; Bekö, G; Koch, HM; Salthammer, T; Schripp, T; Toftum, J; Clausen, G (2016) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 26:113-118. HERO ID: 2915549

[Less] To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we . . . [More] To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Using a breathing hood to isolate dermal from inhalation uptake, we measured urinary metabolites of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from an individual exposed to known concentrations of these compounds for 6 h in an experimental chamber. The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)); for exposed clothes the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6.5, respectively. Even for non-occupational environments, wearing clothing that has adsorbed/absorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake of SVOCs by substantial amounts relative to bare skin.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 10 June 2015; doi:10.1038/jes.2015.42.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds of respiratory health relevance in French dwellings

Authors: Dallongeville, A; Costet, N; Zmirou-Navier, D; Le Bot, B; Chevrier, C; Deguen, S; Annesi-Maesano, I; Blanchard, O (2016) Indoor Air 26:426-438. HERO ID: 2918731

[Less] Over the last decades, the prevalence of childhood respiratory conditions has dramatically increased . . . [More] Over the last decades, the prevalence of childhood respiratory conditions has dramatically increased worldwide. Considering the time spent in enclosed spaces, indoor air pollutants are of major interest to explain part of this increase. This study aimed to measure the concentrations of pollutants known or suspected to affect respiratory health that are present in dwellings in order to assess children's exposure. Measurements were taken in 150 homes with at least one child, in Brittany (western France), to assess the concentrations of 18 volatile organic compounds (among which four aldehydes and four trihalomethanes) and nine semi-volatile organic compounds (seven phthalates and two synthetic musks). In addition to descriptive statistics, a principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate grouping of contaminants. Formaldehyde was highly present and above 30 μg/m(3) in 40% of the homes. Diethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, and dimethylphthalate were quantified in all dwellings, as well as Galaxolide and Tonalide. For each chemical family, the groups appearing in the PCA could be interpreted in term of sources. The high prevalence and the levels of these compounds, with known or suspected respiratory toxicity, should question regulatory agencies to trigger prevention and mitigation actions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Multiresidue analysis of environmental pollutants in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Zhou, RZ; Jiang, J; Mao, T; Zhao, YS; Lu, Y (2016) Food Chemistry 207:43-50. HERO ID: 3158687

[Less] A novel multiresidue determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) . . . [More] A novel multiresidue determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and alkylphenols (APs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. The samples were extracted with hexane-saturated acetonitrile, and after concentration, the extract was directly qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. The calibration curve displayed good linearity in the range of 2-100μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The mean recoveries were 70.0-110.8% by analysis of spiked oil, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.1-10.2% (n=6), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for the 23 PAHs, 17 PAEs and 3 APs were 0.1-1.0μg/kg, 0.1-4.0μg/kg and 1.2-3.0μg/kg, respectively. The established method effectively avoided interference from large amounts of lipids and pigments. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation in routine analysis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

Authors: Pivnenko, K; Eriksen, MK; Martín-Fernández, JA; Eriksson, E; Astrup, TF (2016) Waste Management 54:44-52. HERO ID: 3229670

[Less] Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials . . . [More] Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360μg/g, 460μg/g and 2700μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.