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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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47 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Neonatal phthalate ester exposure induced placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP mRNA expression in two districts of southeast China

Authors: Li, B; Xu, X; Zhu, Y; Cao, J; Zhang, Y; Huo, Xia (2016) Scientific Reports 6:21004. HERO ID: 3230087

[Less] Plastic production releases phthalate esters (PAEs), which can alter the expression of metallothioneins . . . [More] Plastic production releases phthalate esters (PAEs), which can alter the expression of metallothioneins (MTs), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) and heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP). A total of 187 mother-infant pairs were recruited, 127 from Chenghai (high exposed group) and 60 from Haojiang (low exposed group), to investigate the association between neonatal PAE exposure and mRNA expression of placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Umbilical cord blood and placenta samples were collected for measuring five PAE concentrations and detecting mRNA levels of MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) were significantly higher in the high exposed group compared to the low exposed group. FATP1 and HFABP mRNA in the high exposed group were higher than that in the low exposed group while MT-1A was contrary. Both dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and DEHP were correlated with higher MT and MT-2A expression, while diethyl phthalate (DEP) was also positively correlated with MT-1A and FATP1 expression in female infants. DEHP exposure was negatively correlated with birth weight and gestational age in male infants. These results show that neonatal PAE exposure alters the mRNA expression of placental MTs and FATP1, which are related to fetal growth and development.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal of diethyl phthalate from water by ozone microbubbles in a pilot plant

Authors: Jabesa, A; Ghosh, P (2016) Journal of Environmental Management 180:476-484. HERO ID: 3230212

[Less] Ozone microbubbles (OMBs) were used to remove diethyl phthalate (DEP) from water in a pilot plant. The . . . [More] Ozone microbubbles (OMBs) were used to remove diethyl phthalate (DEP) from water in a pilot plant. The removal of DEP and the mineralization efficiency were investigated under various reaction conditions. The removal of DEP by OMBs was very effective at the high pH and high ozone generation rates. Almost complete mineralization of DEP could be achieved at the high pH. The contribution of OH was computed by using a hydroxyl radical scavenger (i.e. t-BuOH). In neutral and alkaline media, the reaction of DEP with OH dominated over its direct reaction with ozone. The overall oxidation reaction fitted a second-order kinetic model. The overall rate constant and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient of ozone slightly increased with increasing pH. The results indicate that the OMBs were efficient in terms of the reduction of concentration of DEP and its complete mineralization.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Macrocyclic tetraimines: Synthesis and reversible uptake of diethyl phthalate by a porous macrocycle

Authors: Sanna, E; Escudero-Adán, EC; López, C; Ballester, P; Rotger, C; Costa, A (2016) Journal of Organic Chemistry 81:5173-5180. HERO ID: 3230214

[Less] The imine bond has attracted much attention for the synthesis of macrocycles used to construct porous . . . [More] The imine bond has attracted much attention for the synthesis of macrocycles used to construct porous materials. In the present article, we report on the synthesis of two series of isomeric macrocyclic tetraimines based on bis-alkynylbenzene diamines. Under heterogeneous solid-liquid conditions the condensation of the diamines with isophthalaldehyde or terephthaldehyde afforded mainly the corresponding [2 + 2] adducts. Among the eight macrocycles studied, only the macrocycle 1 has a porous structure. The article describes not only the synthesis of these macrocycles but also the encountered difficulties during their preparation. Finally, we expand the use of 1a as a porous solid support by studying its reversible and preferential liquid-solid adsorption properties for diethyl phthalate in front of other commercial phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Photodegradation of diethyl phthalate with PANi/CNT/TiO2 immobilized on glass plate irradiated with visible light and simulated sunlight-effect of synthesized method and pH

Authors: Hung, CH; Yuan, C; Li, HW (2016) Journal of Hazardous Materials 322:243-253. HERO ID: 3230222

[Less] Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is one of the most common phthalates for industrial use and has widely spread . . . [More] Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is one of the most common phthalates for industrial use and has widely spread in environment. A series of PANi/CNT/TiO2 potocatalysts immobilized on glass plate irradiated with visible light were presented to degrade DEP in this study. The PANi/CNT/TiO2 potocatalysts were fabricated by co-doping with polyaniline (PANi) and two functionalized CNT (CNT-COCl and CNT-COOH) onto TiO2 followed by a hydrothermal synthesis and a sol-gel hydrolysis. Doping of PANi resulted in the absorption edge of the fabricated potocatalysts shifting to 421-437nm and the most distinguished red-shift effect was found in hydrothermal synthesized photocatalysts. The best DEP degradation of 41.5-59.0% and 44.5-67.4% was found in the simulated sunlight system irradiated for 120min for sol-gel hydrolysis PANi/CNT/TiO2 photocatalysts and hydrothermal synthesized ones, respectively. The optimum pH was determined at 5.0 and 7.0 for the two PANi/CNT/TiO2 photocatalysts mentioned above, respectively. The reusability of the sol-gel hydrolyzed photocatalysts up to 5 times was observed no decline in the photodegradation efficiency but less photocatalytic stability of the hydrothermal synthesized ones was found. Meanwhile, the active species of OH radicals generated in the DEP degradation system was identified by free radical scavenging experiments.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reaction pathway and oxidation mechanisms of dibutyl phthalate by persulfate activated with zero-valent iron

Authors: Li, H; Wan, J; Ma, Y; Wang, Y (2016) Science of the Total Environment 562:889-897. HERO ID: 3230226

[Less] This study investigated reaction pathway and oxidation mechanisms of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) by persulfate . . . [More] This study investigated reaction pathway and oxidation mechanisms of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) by persulfate (PS) activated with zero-valent iron (ZVI). The DBP degradation was studied at three pH values (acidic, neutral and basic) in the presence of different organic scavengers. Using a chemical probe method, both sulfate radical (SO4(-)) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) were found to be primary oxidants at pH3.0 and pH7.0, respectively while ·OH was the major specie to oxidize DBP at pH11.0. A similar result was found in an experiment of Electron Spin Resonance spin-trapping where in addition to OH, superoxide radical (O2(-)) was detected at pH11.0. The transformation of degradation products including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), phthalic anhydride, and acetophenone exhibited diverse variation during the reaction processes. The phthalic anhydride concentration appeared to be maximum at all pHs. Another eleven intermediate products were also found at pH3.0 by GC-MS and HPLC analysis, and their degradation mechanisms and pathways were proposed. It was suggested that dealkylation, hydroxylation, decarboxylation and hydrogen extraction were the dominant degradation mechanisms of DBP at pH3.0.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolism and kinetics in an in vitro model of testis development

Authors: Harris, S; Wegner, S; Hong, SW; Faustman, EM (2016) Toxicology In Vitro 32:123-131. HERO ID: 3070746

[Less] We have developed an in vitro model of testis development (3D-TCS) using rat testicular cells overlaid . . . [More] We have developed an in vitro model of testis development (3D-TCS) using rat testicular cells overlaid with extracellular matrix. One barrier preventing utilization of in vitro models in toxicity testing is the absence of metabolic capability. Another challenge is lack of kinetic data for compounds in vitro. We characterized metabolic capabilities and investigated the kinetics of phthalate male reproductive toxicants in the 3D-TCS. Cells were treated with three phthalate diesters for 2, 8 and 24h. Parent compounds and metabolites were measured in cell culture media and cell lysate via mass spectrometry. Levels of monoester metabolites were used as an indication of metabolism of phthalates via lipase activity. Metabolites were detected in all treated cell media and cell lysate samples, with levels ranging from <0.5-14.7% of initial mass of parent compound. Phthalates partitioned between media and lysate in a manner consistent with each compound's degree of lipophilicity. UDGPT activity was detected in DBP and DEP treated samples. 3D-TCS microarray data indicated gene expression for lipases and CYPP450s. Results indicate that the 3D-TCS is a metabolically active co-culture and that physiochemical properties can provide information about the kinetics of compounds in the 3D-TCS, improving our ability to interpret results from the model.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of toxicity and biodegradability on activated sludge of priority and emerging pollutants

Authors: Tobajas, M; Verdugo, V; Polo, AM; Rodriguez, JJ; Mohedano, AF (2016) Environmental Technology 37:713-721. HERO ID: 3070754

[Less] Several methods for evaluating the toxicity and biodegradability of hazardous pollutants (chlorinated . . . [More] Several methods for evaluating the toxicity and biodegradability of hazardous pollutants (chlorinated compounds, chemical additives and pharmaceuticals) have been studied in this work. Different bioassays using representative bacteria of marine and terrestrial ecosystems such as Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida have been used to assess the ecotoxicity. Activated sludge was used to analyse the effect of those pollutants in a biological reactor of a sewage treatment plant (STP). The results demonstrate that none of the compounds is toxic to activated sludge, except ofloxacin to P. putida. The additives tested can be considered moderately toxic according to the more sensitive V. fischeri assays, whereas the EC50 values of the pharmaceuticals depend on the specific microorganism used in each test. Regarding the biodegradability, respirometric measurements were carried out for fast biodegradability assessment and the Zahn-Wellens test for inherent biodegradability. The evolution of the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) showed that only diethyl phthalate was easily biodegradable and acetylsalicylic acid was partially biodegradable (98% and 65% degradation, respectively). The persistence of dichloromethane, ofloxacin and hidrochlorothiazide was confirmed along the 28 days of the Zahn-Wellens test whereas 1,1,1-trichloroethane showed inherent biodegradability (74% removal). Most of the chlorinated compounds, pharmaceuticals, bisphenol A and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were partially degraded in 28 d with total organic carbon (TOC) reduction ranging from 21% to 51%. Sulphamethoxazole showed certain biodegradation (50% removal) with TOC decrease around 31%, which indicates the formation of non-biodegradable by-products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of frozen human epidermis storage duration and cryoprotectant on barrier function using two model compounds

Authors: Barbero, AM; Frasch, HF (2016) Skin Pharmacology and Physiology 29:31-40. HERO ID: 3045434

[Less] Skin is commonly stored frozen and then thawed prior to use for in vitro permeation experiments. Does . . . [More] Skin is commonly stored frozen and then thawed prior to use for in vitro permeation experiments. Does frozen storage of skin alter its barrier property? Numerous studies have found contradictory answers to this question. In this study, the steady-state flux and lag time of diethyl phthalate (DEP) were measured for fresh human skin and skin frozen at -85°C for 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months with 10% glycerol as a cryoprotective agent. No significant differences in steady-state flux were found between fresh and previously frozen samples (p = 0.6). For lag time, a significant (p = 0.002) difference was found among all groups, but comparisons with fresh skin were not significant. Does glycerol have a cryoprotective effect? The steady-state flux and lag time of DEP and caffeine were measured through human skin stored at -85°C for up to 12 months with and without 10% glycerol. No significant differences in steady-state flux or lag time were found between samples stored with or without glycerol for either DEP or caffeine (p ≥ 0.17). These findings support the use of frozen skin to measure the passive permeation of chemicals in studies unconcerned with viability and metabolism. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ultrasound-assisted Low Density Solvent Based Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction for Determination of Phthalate Esters in Bottled Water Samples

Authors: Uansiri, S; Vichapong, J; Kanchanamayoon, W (2016) Chemical Research in Chinese Universities 32:178-183. HERO ID: 3230081

[Less] A technique of ultrasound-assisted low density solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction . . . [More] A technique of ultrasound-assisted low density solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the determination of four phthalate esters, including dimethyl phthalate(DMP), diethyl phthalate(DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate(DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) in bottled water samples. A low density solvent, toluene, was selected as extraction solvent. In the extraction process, a mixture of 15 mu L of toluene(extraction solvent) and 100 mu L of methanol(disperser solvent) was rapidly injected into 1.0 mL of water samples. A cloudy solution was formed after ultrasounded for 5 min, and then centrifuged at 5000 r/min for 5 min. The enriched analytes in the floating phase were determined by means of gas chromatograph. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors were found to be in a range of 29-67, and the recoveries were ranged from 81.2% to 103.9%. The limits of the detection were in a range of 3.8-5.6 mu g/L. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of phthalate esters in bottled water samples, and the concentrations of phthalate esters found in the water samples were below the allowable levels.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro

Authors: Hansen, JF; Brorson, MM; Boas, M; Frederiksen, H; Nielsen, CH; Lindström, ES; Hofman-Bang, J; Hartoft-Nielsen, ML; Frisch, T; Main, KM; Bendtzen, K; Rasmussen, ÅK; Feldt-Rasmussen, U (2016) PLoS ONE 11:e0151192. HERO ID: 3230219

[Less] Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of . . . [More] Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)) on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg) secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor) by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells.