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ETBE

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of ethyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation in a contaminated aquifer by compound-specific isotope analysis and in situ microcosms - Supplementary material

Authors: Bombach, P; Nägele, N; Rosell, M; Richnow, HH; Fischer, A (2015) Journal of Hazardous Materials 286. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3445208


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline

Authors: Okamoto, K; Hiramatsu, M; Hino, T; Otake, T; Okamoto, T; Miyamoto, H; Honma, M; Watanabe, N (2015) Journal of Hazardous Materials 287:151-161. HERO ID: 2849944

[Less] To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended . . . [More] To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were developed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comprehensive Environmental Investigation at Former Industrial/Petroleum Underground Storage Tank Sites in Long Beach, CA: A Forensic Perspective

Authors: Kim, D; Lu, JC; Park, JS (2015) HERO ID: 2849946

[Less] Two industrial sites were investigated based on years of available hydrogeologic information and monitoring . . . [More] Two industrial sites were investigated based on years of available hydrogeologic information and monitoring data for soil and groundwater. Collected data were forensically evaluated using age-dating and fingerprinting methods. The previous business uses of the project sites were as a gas station, laundry/dry-cleaning service, and car wash with petroleum underground storage tanks (USTs). As a result, these sites were exposed to a number of toxic contaminants at relatively high concentrations. Source control was necessary for successful remediation and the ultimate removal of the remaining compounds from these industrial sites. Although contaminated soil around the source was excavated during the remedial action and the high concentrations of contaminants were reduced, typical groundwater contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline (TPH-G), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), and oxygenates including methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) were persistently found at the studied sites around the source points. The plume and concentration of contaminants had changed their shapes and strength for all monitoring periods. Thus, additional source control seems to be a requirement for the complete removal of source contamination, which must be ascertained with groundwater and soil monitoring on a regular time base. For the study sites, monitored natural attenuation was relatively feasible for the long-term plan; however, it did not offer a perfect remediation solution for an ultimate goal because of residual toxic compounds that might have affected the surrounding residential areas at higher concentrations than their health limits. Therefore, as a remediation strategy, the combination of clean-up technology and natural attenuation with monitoring activities are more highly recommended than either clean-up or natural attenuation used separately.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Investigation of humic substance photosensitized reactions via carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation

Authors: Zhang, N; Schindelka, J; Herrmann, H; George, C; Rosell, M; Herrero-Martín, S; Klán, P; Richnow, HH (2015) Environmental Science and Technology 49:233-242. HERO ID: 2849945

[Less] Humic substances (HS) acting as photosensitizers can generate a variety of reactive species, such as . . . [More] Humic substances (HS) acting as photosensitizers can generate a variety of reactive species, such as OH radicals and excited triplet states ((3)HS*), promoting the degradation of organic compounds. Here, we apply compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) to characterize photosensitized mechanisms employing fuel oxygenates, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), as probes. In oxygenated aqueous media, Λ (Δδ(2)H/Δδ(13)C) values of 23 ± 3 and 21 ± 3 for ETBE obtained by photosensitization by Pahokee Peat Humic Acid (PPHA) and Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA), respectively, were in the range typical for H-abstraction by OH radicals generated by photolysis of H2O2 (Λ = 24 ± 2). However, (3)HS* may become a predominant reactive species upon the quenching of OH radicals (Λ = 14 ± 1), and this process can also play a key role in the degradation of ETBE by PPHA photosensitization in deoxygenated media (Λ = 11 ± 1). This is in agreement with a model photosensitization by rose bengal (RB(2-)) in deoxygenated aqueous solutions resulting in one-electron oxidation of ETBE (Λ = 14 ± 1). Our results demonstrate that the use of CSIA could open new avenues for the assessment of photosensitization pathways.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Physiological and genetic screening methods for the isolation of methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading bacteria for bioremediation purposes

Authors: Guisado, IM; Purswani, J; Gonzalez-Lopez, J; Pozo, C (2015) HERO ID: 2849963

[Less] Bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been widely described . . . [More] Bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been widely described since their cost/efficient ratios are lower than other physic-chemical methodologies. The present study focused on the isolation and selection of MTBE degrading microorganisms from contaminated soil and groundwater samples based on results from growth on mineral media amended with MTBE and BTEX, presence or absence of the monooxygenase genes and specific ability to degrade MTBE. Three bacterial strains were selected and identified as Rhodococcus ruber, strains EE1 (CECT 8555), EE6 (CECT 8612) and A5 (CECT 8556), showing the ability to degrade 60.0, 36.0 and '10.0 mg l(-1) MTBE, respectively. Moreover, all the R. ruber strains showed the presence of genes encoding MTBE-degrading enzymes. One isolated strain was identified as Paenibacillus sp. SH7 (CECT 8558) and demonstrated the greatest MTBE degradation value (100 mg l(-1)), but together with the last strain selected and identified as Agrobacterium sp. MS2 (CECT 8557) did not result in positive amplification of any of the monooxygenase primers tested. The lowest toxicity (as EC50) was observed after 4-days growth of R. ruber EE6 on MTBE-supplemented mineral medium. The potential application of these strains in bioremediation processes is discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Two-step conversion of LLCN olefins to strong anti-knocking alcohol mixtures catalysed by Rh, Ru/TPPTS complexes in aqueous media

Authors: Kokkinos, NC; Nikolaou, N; Psaroudakis, N; Mertis, K; Mitkidou, S; Mitropoulos, ACh (2015) HERO ID: 2849967

[Less] A two-step conversion of light-light cracked naphtha (LLCN) olefins to strong anti-knocking alcohol . . . [More] A two-step conversion of light-light cracked naphtha (LLCN) olefins to strong anti-knocking alcohol mixtures is proposed as a potential solution to the serious negative aspects from the use of gasoline ether oxygenates (MTBE, ETBE, TAME) from the refineries. Aqueous biphasic Rh/TPPTS-catalysed hydroformylation reaction of olefins present in a Greek refinery naphtha cut comprises the first part of the two-step proposed process. The second part of the proposed LLCN upgrade process is the in situ hydrogenation of the produced aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols catalysed by Ru/TPPTS complex in aqueous media. Both catalytic systems of Rh/TPPTS and Ru/TPPTS have been generated in situ by direct addition of the corresponding catalyst precursors to TPPTS in aqueous media; and they were revealed as effective catalytic systems for biphasic hydroformylation and biphasic hydrogenation of complicated mixtures, respectively. The ultimate fuel will contain more oxygen; it will have better combustion properties and higher octane numbers. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of ethyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation in a contaminated aquifer by compound-specific isotope analysis and in situ microcosms

Authors: Bombach, P; Nägele, N; Rosell, M; Richnow, HH; Fischer, A (2015) Journal of Hazardous Materials 286:100-106. HERO ID: 2849954

[Less] Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is an upcoming groundwater pollutant in Europe whose environmental fate . . . [More] Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is an upcoming groundwater pollutant in Europe whose environmental fate has been less investigated, thus far. In the present study, we investigated the in situ biodegradation of ETBE in a fuel-contaminated aquifer using compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA), and in situ microcosms in combination with total lipid fatty acid (TLFA)-stable isotope probing (SIP). In a first field investigation, CSIA revealed insignificant carbon isotope fractionation, but low hydrogen isotope fractionation of up to +14 parts per thousand along the prevailing anoxic ETBE plume suggesting biodegradation of ETBE. Ten months later, oxygen injection was conducted to enhance the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) at the field site. Within the framework of this remediation measure, in situ microcosms loaded with [C-13(6)]-ETBE (BACTRAP (R) s) were exposed for 119 days in selected groundwater wells to assess the biodegradation of ETBE by TLFA-SIP under the following conditions: (i) ETBE as main contaminant; (ii) ETBE as main contaminant subjected to oxygen injection; (iii) ETBE plus other PH; (iv) ETBE plus other PH subjected to oxygen injection. Under all conditions investigated, significant C-13-incorporation into microbial total lipid fatty acids extracted from the in situ microcosms was found, providing clear evidence of ETBE biodegradation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Molecular structure and thermal stability of the oxide-supported phosphotungstic Wells-Dawson heteropolyacid

Authors: Matkovic, SR; Collins, SE; Bonivardi, AL; Banares, MA; Briand, LE (2015) HERO ID: 2849959

[Less] We present, for the first time in the literature, a systematic study of the molecular structure of the . . . [More] We present, for the first time in the literature, a systematic study of the molecular structure of the Wells-Dawson heteropolyacid H6P2W18O62 center dot 24H(2)O (HPA) dispersed on TiO2, SiO2, ZrO2 and Al2O3. The heteropolyacid-based materials were synthesized through a conventional impregnation method (in aqueous and ethanol media) at a loading that corresponds to the theoretical "monolayer'' coverage (dispersion limit loading). The combination of Raman and infrared studies demonstrates the presence of crystals of HPA (regardless of the nature of the medium used during the synthesis) suggesting that the dispersion limit loading was greatly exceeded. In situ temperature programmed spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the Raman shift of the distinctive W=O Raman mode of the phosphotungstic Wells-Dawson heteropolyacid is sensitive to the local environment, that is, the amount of water molecules associated with the structure. Moreover, the aqueous based species associated with such structures are recognizable through infrared spectroscopy.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Novel antioxidant capacity assay for lipophilic compounds using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

Authors: Takahashi, Y; Ichimori, K; Okano, M; Goto, H (2015) HERO ID: 2849947

[Less] A novel antioxidant capacity assay for lipophilic compounds was developed using electron paramagnetic . . . [More] A novel antioxidant capacity assay for lipophilic compounds was developed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The assay is based on antioxidant's scavenging ability against the tert-butoxyl radical generated photolytically from di-tert-butyl peroxide in ethyl acetate, and named the tert-butoxyl-based antioxidant capacity (BAC) assay. The radical was trapped by spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide, and EPR signal intensity of the spin adduct was used as a quantitative marker of radical levels. Signal intensity decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of an antioxidant that competitively reacts with the radical, which was utilized to evaluate BAC values. The BAC method enabled the accurate estimation of antioxidant capacity for lipophilic materials that may counteract lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. The BAC values for quercetin and caffeic acid are 0.639 ± 0.020 and 0.118 ± 0.012 trolox equivalents, respectively, which are much smaller than values obtained by other aqueous methods such as H-ORAC and ORAC-EPR. Thus, antioxidants present in a non-aqueous environment should be evaluated using a non-aqueous system. In combination with in situ ascorbate reduction, the BAC method was capable of accurately determining the antioxidant capacity of water-insoluble materials that may be reduced in living cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A review of emission products from bioethanol and its blends with gasoline. Background for new guidelines for emission control

Authors: Manzetti, S; Andersen, O (2015) Fuel 140:293-301. HERO ID: 2849965

[Less] Bioethanol-gasoline blends represent an emerging direction in the attempts to reduce GHG emissions, . . . [More] Bioethanol-gasoline blends represent an emerging direction in the attempts to reduce GHG emissions, urban and road-side pollution and to limit the use of fossil fuels in vehicle engines. As a result of the biofuel directives, an increasing number of vehicles is gradually adapting bioethanol-gasoline blends, and concerns are arising in context with their new and poorly studied emission profiles. Compared to conventional ethanol-gasoline blends, the introduction of bioethanol can add new parameters to the emission profiles of the sharply increasing number of vehicles worldwide. This review sheds light on the known and anticipated emission products from combustion of blends of gasoline and bioethanol, their toxic properties and the expected role of additive chemistry on pollution profiles. The results presented herein show that benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and VOCs are the dominant emission products from bioethanol similarly to ethanol-gasoline blends. However, the presence of additives, such as ETBE and MTBE adds further complexity to expected emission profiles, followed by proprietary additives, lubricants and detergents which -based on a limited amount of available information, show that further research is required. Our conclusions suggest that a generic reduction of amine-based additives in blends is a safe approach for reducing toxicity of bioethanol-gasoline blends. Oxygenated additives however, are expected to have a reduced toxicity from the emissions compared to amine-based types, nevertheless, studies show that also these, based on their concentrations can introduce considerable risks to the health and the environment. The implementation of novel catalyst technologies applied on bioethanol-gasoline blends may therefore be an avenue of reduction of the toxic components deriving from bioethanol-gasoline blends. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.