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ETBE

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Physical properties of gasoline, isobutanol and ETBE binary blends in comparison with gasoline ethanol blends

Authors: Rodríguez-Antón, LM; Gutíerrez-Martín, F; Doce, Y (2016) HERO ID: 3486715


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Relevant properties for catalytic activity of sulfonic ion-exchange resins in etherification of isobutene with linear primary alcohols

Authors: Hug Badia, J; Fite, C; Bringue, R; Ramirez, E; Iborra, M (2016) HERO ID: 3486701

[Less] The catalyzed liquid-phase reaction of isobutene with a homologous series of linear alcohols, from methanol . . . [More] The catalyzed liquid-phase reaction of isobutene with a homologous series of linear alcohols, from methanol to 1-butanol, has been studied at 333 K and 1.5 MPa. Sixteen sulfonic ion-exchange resins, to cover a wide range of properties, have been assayed. A response surface methodology analysis allowed to identify the most relevant catalyst properties, and the change of their relative importance along the homologous series of alcohols. Globally, reaction rates increase with the alcohol length. Resins with a high acid capacity and low specific volume of swollen polymer are the most active ones for the studied etherification reactions. (C) 2016 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization and fingerprinting of soil and groundwater contamination sources around a fuel distribution station in Galicia (NW Spain)

Authors: Balseiro-Romero, M; Macías, F; Monterroso, C (2016) HERO ID: 3486707

[Less] Soil and groundwater contamination around a fuel distribution station in Tomiño (NW Spain) was evaluated. . . . [More] Soil and groundwater contamination around a fuel distribution station in Tomiño (NW Spain) was evaluated. For this purpose, top and subsoil (up to 6.4 m) and groundwater were sampled around the station, approximately in a 60-m radius. Samples were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS to identify and quantify volatile fuel organic compounds (VFOC) (MTBE, ETBE and BTEX) and diesel range organics (DRO). Analysis and fingerprinting data suggested that the contamination of soil and groundwater was provoked by a fuel leak from underground storage tanks. This was reflected by hydrocarbon indices and principal component analysis, which discriminated a direct source of contamination of the subsoil samples around the station. The contaminants probably migrated from tank nearby soils to surrounding soils and leached to groundwater, following a SW direction. Irrigation with contaminated groundwater provoked a severe contamination of topsoils, which were enriched with the lightest components of gasoline and diesel. Fingerprinting also revealed the continuity of the leak, reflected by the presence of volatiles in some samples, which principally appeared in fresh leaks. MTBE was detected in a very high concentration in groundwater samples (up to 690 μg L(-1)), but it was not detected in fresh gasoline. This also evidenced an old source of contamination, probably starting in the mid-1990s, when the use of MTBE in gasoline was regulated.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Forensic analysis of tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) detections in a hydrocarbon-rich groundwater basin

Authors: Quast, KW; Levine, AD; Kester, JE; Fordham, CL (2016) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 188:208. HERO ID: 3486710

[Less] Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in . . . [More] Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in groundwater and coalbed methane (CBM) wells in southeastern Colorado's hydrocarbon-rich Raton Basin. TBA concentrations in shallow water wells averaged 75.1 μg/L, while detections in deeper CBM wells averaged 14.4 μg/L. The detection of TBA prompted a forensic investigation to try to identify potential sources. Historic and recent data were reviewed to determine if there was a discernable pattern of TBA occurrence. Supplemental samples from domestic water wells, monitor wells, CBM wells, surface waters, and hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids were analyzed for TBA in conjunction with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), proxies for evidence of contamination from reformulated gasoline or associated oxygenates. Exploratory microbiological sampling was conducted to determine if methanotrophic organisms co-occurred with TBA in individual wells. Meaningful comparisons of historic TBA data were limited due to widely varying reporting limits. Mapping of TBA occurrence did not reveal any spatial patterns or physical associations with CBM operations or contamination plumes. Additionally, TBA was not detected in HF fluids or surface water samples. Given the widespread use of TBA in industrial and consumer products, including water well completion materials, it is likely that multiple diffuse sources exist. Exploratory data on stable isotopes, dissolved gases, and microbial profiling provide preliminary evidence that methanotrophic activity may be producing TBA from naturally occurring isobutane. Reported TBA concentrations were significantly below a conservative risk-based drinking water screening level of 8000 μg/L derived from animal toxicity data.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Physical properties of gasoline, isobutanol and ETBE binary blends in comparison with gasoline ethanol blends

Authors: Miguel Rodriguez-Anton, L; Gutierrez-Martin, F; Doce, Y (2016) HERO ID: 3486711

[Less] The addition of renewable fuels to gasoline, such as bio-alcohols or bio-ethers is required in order . . . [More] The addition of renewable fuels to gasoline, such as bio-alcohols or bio-ethers is required in order to be in compliance with current environmental directives. Nevertheless, they change fuel properties which could affect standards compliance, engine performance and air emissions. This paper studies the impact of ethanol (EtOH), isobutanol (iBtOH) or ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) on the Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP), distillation curves, density and other related gasoline properties, which belong to the group of relevant specifications that affect engine operation. The main conclusion is that the addition of ETBE or iBtOH has important advantages over EtOH in terms of energy density, air/fuel ratio, vapour pressure, renewable content and other effects; it was also found that the addition of ETBE affects equally and linearly the properties of two kinds of base gasolines as compared with other studies. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Speed of sound measurement in ethyl tert-butyl ether and tert-amyl methyl ether by Brillouin light scattering

Authors: Zheng, X; Zhang, Y; He, M (2016) HERO ID: 3486705

[Less] Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) have been considered as the potential . . . [More] Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) have been considered as the potential fuel additives as the replacement of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Now it is necessary to supplement and perfect the thermophysical properties of oxygenates, including acoustic property. In this paper, speed of sound in ETBE and TAME were measured by Brillouin light scattering from 293.15 K to 680 K and from saturated vapor pressure to 10 MPa, including saturated liquid/vapor, compressed liquid and supercritical region. It is estimated that u (T) = 0.01 K under saturated condition; u (T) = 0.02 K, u (p) = 0.015 MPa for p < 5.5 MPa, u (p) = 0.03 MPa for p > 5.5 MPa under compressed liquid and supercritical conditions; and the relative expended uncertainty in the speed of sound is estimated to be less than 0.5% with coverage factor of k to be 2. Moreover, the reference relations of the speed of sound for saturated liquid, vapor and compressed state are presented for interpolation with the average absolute deviation of 0.23%, 0.07% and 0.33% for ETBE and 0.34%, 0.24% and 0.29% for TAME, respectively. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for water-ethanol-entrainer ternary system with entrainers: Cyclohexane, n-pentane, DEE (diethyl ether), DIPE (di-isopropyl ether), ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether)

Authors: Qasim, F; Choi, HC; Shin, JS; Park, SJ (2016) Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 33:2179-2185. HERO ID: 3486702

[Less] The water-ethanol system was studied experimentally to find the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data . . . [More] The water-ethanol system was studied experimentally to find the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data at various temperature values by using five different entrainers: cyclohexane, n-pentane, DEE (diethyl ether), DIPE (diisopropyl ether), and ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether). Ternary LLE data for water-ethanol-entrainer system was determined based on an experimental procedure. Exact liquid activity coefficient parameters were found by experimental data and LLE data was predicted. For this purpose, two thermodynamic models, NRTL and UNIQUAC, were compared and contrasted with experimental data to probe into the better thermodynamic model for the azeotropic processes of ethanol system. The most promising entrainer was found through root mean square and average absolute deviations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of ethanol, ethyl-tert-butyl ether and dimethyl-carbonate blends with gasoline on SI engine

Authors: Schifter, I; Gonzalez, U; Gonzalez-Macias, C (2016) Fuel 183:253-261. HERO ID: 3441772

[Less] The oxygenates ethanol (EtOH), ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) were blended . . . [More] The oxygenates ethanol (EtOH), ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) were blended in a gasoline blendstock at levels of 2.8 wt% oxygen. Chemical and physical properties of the blends were compared to the requirements of ozone non-attainment areas in Mexico, particularly the percent of oxygen and the octane number but with reduced Reid vapor pressure with respect to the commercial regular gasoline sold in the area. Ethanol seems to be the additive that provides the highest fuel sensitivity (RON-MON) followed by the DMC blend. The blends were tested on a single cylinder spark ignition engine. Experiments were conducted for equivalence air-fuel ratio, fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, brake thermal efficiency, brake power, engine torque and brake specific fuel consumption, while exhaust emissions were analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). For all studied engine operation conditions (stoichiometric, rich and lean), baseline fuel presents the maximum cyclic dispersion; therefore, adding oxygenates makes more homogeneous cycle-by-cycle operation. The presence of DMC compensates for the reductions in combustion speed as the air fuel ratio becomes lean. Ethanol has similar effect; however, ETBE does not present this behavior. Additionally, EtOH and DMC burned 5-10% faster than ETBE and baseline gasoline under lean conditions. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Oxidation characteristic and products of ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether)

Authors: Liu, X; Ito, S; Wada, Y (2015) HERO ID: 2849961

[Less] The oxidation characteristic of ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) was determined using ARC (accelerating . . . [More] The oxidation characteristic of ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) was determined using ARC (accelerating rate calorimetry). Oxidation temperature and oxidation kinetics were calculated using temperature-time (T-t) and pressure-time (P-t) plots, and reaction products were analyzed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrum). Results showed that the oxidation reaction process of ETBE with oxygen occurred through absorption of oxygen by ETBE, followed by thermal decomposition and oxidation reaction. The initial auto-oxidation temperature was approximately 383 K. The initial oxygen absorption kinetics was second-order, 1/P = 1.39 x 10(-7)t + 7.31 x 10(-4). The thermal decomposition kinetics of ETBE peroxides was first-order reaction, and parameters were k = A(r) x exp (E-a/RT), in (A(r)) = 85.43 (1/min), E-a = 264.9 kJ/mol. E-a was reduced when the reaction included added peroxide. Oxidation reaction products were complex, indicating a link between the products and the ETBE/O-2 ratio. Many oxidation products were formed when an excess of oxygen, such as carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, formic acid, or acetic acid was present. And the acetic acid tert-butyl ester and formic acid 1,1-dimethylethyl ester were detected in reaction product. ETBE was stable even 393 K, and exothermic reaction has not been detected even 523 K under a nitrogen atmosphere. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Two-step conversion of LLCN olefins to strong anti-knocking alcohol mixtures catalysed by Rh, Ru/TPPTS complexes in aqueous media

Authors: Kokkinos, NC; Nikolaou, N; Psaroudakis, N; Mertis, K; Mitkidou, S; Mitropoulos, ACh (2015) HERO ID: 2849967

[Less] A two-step conversion of light-light cracked naphtha (LLCN) olefins to strong anti-knocking alcohol . . . [More] A two-step conversion of light-light cracked naphtha (LLCN) olefins to strong anti-knocking alcohol mixtures is proposed as a potential solution to the serious negative aspects from the use of gasoline ether oxygenates (MTBE, ETBE, TAME) from the refineries. Aqueous biphasic Rh/TPPTS-catalysed hydroformylation reaction of olefins present in a Greek refinery naphtha cut comprises the first part of the two-step proposed process. The second part of the proposed LLCN upgrade process is the in situ hydrogenation of the produced aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols catalysed by Ru/TPPTS complex in aqueous media. Both catalytic systems of Rh/TPPTS and Ru/TPPTS have been generated in situ by direct addition of the corresponding catalyst precursors to TPPTS in aqueous media; and they were revealed as effective catalytic systems for biphasic hydroformylation and biphasic hydrogenation of complicated mixtures, respectively. The ultimate fuel will contain more oxygen; it will have better combustion properties and higher octane numbers. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.