Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


n-Butanol


5,953 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Statistical Design for Formulation Optimization of Hydrocortisone Butyrate-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles

Authors: Yang, X; Patel, S; Sheng, Y; Pal, D; Mitra, AK (In Press) HERO ID: 2284353

[Less] The aim of this investigation was to develop hydrocortisone butyrate (HB)-loaded poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic . . . [More] The aim of this investigation was to develop hydrocortisone butyrate (HB)-loaded poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) with ideal encapsulation efficiency (EE), particle size, and drug loading (DL) under emulsion solvent evaporation technique utilizing various experimental statistical design modules. Experimental designs were used to investigate specific effects of independent variables during preparation of HB-loaded PLGA NP and corresponding responses in optimizing the formulation. Plackett-Burman design for independent variables was first conducted to prescreen various formulation and process variables during the development of NP. Selected primary variables were further optimized by central composite design. This process leads to an optimum formulation with desired EE, particle size, and DL. Contour plots and response surface curves display visual diagrammatic relationships between the experimental responses and input variables. The concentration of PLGA, drug, and polyvinyl alcohol and sonication time were the critical factors influencing the responses analyzed. Optimized formulation showed EE of 90.6%, particle size of 164.3 nm, and DL of 64.35%. This study demonstrates that statistical experimental design methodology can optimize the formulation and process variables to achieve favorable responses for HB-loaded NP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor tributyrin in colon carcinogenesis involves the induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage

Authors: Heidor, R; Furtado, KS; Ortega, JF; de Oliveira, TF; Tavares, PE; Vieira, A; Miranda, ML; Purgatto, E; Moreno, FS (In Press) HERO ID: 2284479

[Less] The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) tributyrin (TB), a prodrug . . . [More] The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) tributyrin (TB), a prodrug of butyric acid (BA), was evaluated in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. The animals were treated with TB (TB group: 200mg/100g of body weight, b.w.) or maltodextrin (MD isocaloric control group: 300mg/100g b.w.) daily for 9 consecutive weeks. In the 3rd and 4th weeks of treatment, the rats in the TB and MD groups were given DMH (40mg/kg b.w.) twice a week. After 9weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the distal colon was examined. Compared with the control group (MD group), TB treatment reduced the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF; p<0.05) as well as the ACF with ≥4 crypts (p<0.05), which are considered more aggressive, but not inhibited the formation of DMH-induced O6-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts. The TB group also showed a higher apoptotic index (p<0.05) and reduced DNA damage (p<0.05) compared with MD group. TB acted as a HDACi, as rats treated with the prodrug of BA had higher levels of histone H3K9 acetylation compared with the MD group (p<0.05). TB administration resulted in increased colonic tissue concentrations of BA (p<0.05) compared with the control animals. These results suggest that TB can be considered a promising chemopreventive agent for colon carcinogenesis because it reduced the number of ACF, including those that were more aggressive. Induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage are cellular mechanisms that appear to be involved in the chemopreventive activity of TB.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Histone deacetylase inhibitor prevents cell growth in Burkitt's lymphoma by regulating PI3K/Akt pathways and leads to upregulation of miR-143, miR-145, and miR-101

Authors: Dos Santos Ferreira, AC; Robaina, MC; de Rezende, LM; Severino, P; Klumb, CE (In Press) HERO ID: 2284483

[Less] Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma more common in children comprising one third . . . [More] Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma more common in children comprising one third of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. The recent discovery in BL pathogenesis highlighted the activation of PI3K pathway in cooperation with Myc in the development of BL. In this study, we demonstrated that PI3K/Akt pathway is a target to histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) in BL cells. The combination of HDACi (sodium butyrate, NaB) and chemotherapy (VP-16) inhibited 51 % of the proliferation and enhanced the blockage of the cell cycle progression at G2/M with a concurrent decrease in the S phase. Microarray profiling showed a synergistic action of NaB/VP-16 combination through the differential regulation of 1,413 genes. Comparing VP-16 treatment with the NaB/VP-16 combination, 318 genes were deregulated: 250 genes were downregulated, and 68 were upregulated when compared with untreated cells. Among these genes, six (CDKN1A, CCND1, FAS, CHEK2, MDM4, and SESN2) belong to the p53-signaling pathway. The activation of this signaling pathway is usually induced by stress signals and ultimately leads to cell cycle arrest. Besides, the inhibition of the cell growth was related to reduced Akt phosphorylation, and decrease of c-Myc protein expression by about 60 % (p ≤ 0.005). Moreover, HDACi enhanced miR-101, miR-143, and miR-145 levels in BL cell line, which were inversely associated with the levels of miR-101, miR-143, and miR-145 found to be extremely downregulated in the sample of BL patients. We highlight the fact that effective combinations of HDACis with other target drugs could improve BL therapy in the future.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cellular metabolism in colorectal carcinogenesis: Influence of lifestyle, gut microbiome and metabolic pathways

Authors: Hagland, HR; Søreide, K (In Press) HERO ID: 2284556

[Less] The interconnectivity between diet, gut microbiota and cell molecular responses is well known; however, . . . [More] The interconnectivity between diet, gut microbiota and cell molecular responses is well known; however, only recently has technology allowed the identification of strains of microorganisms harbored in the gastrointestinal tract that may increase susceptibility to cancer. The colonic environment appears to play a role in the development of colon cancer, which is influenced by the human metabolic lifestyle and changes in the gut microbiome. Studying metabolic changes at the cellular level in cancer be useful for developing novel improved preventative measures, such as screening through metabolic breath-tests or treatment options that directly affect the metabolic pathways responsible for the carcinogenicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effects of dynamic changes of malonyl ginsenosides on evaluation and quality control of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer

Authors: Liu, Z; Li, Y; Li, X; Ruan, CC; Wang, LJ; Sun, GZ (In Press) Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. HERO ID: 1037908

[Less] To clarify the effects of malonyl ginsenosides (MGR) on evaluation and quality control of Panax ginseng, . . . [More] To clarify the effects of malonyl ginsenosides (MGR) on evaluation and quality control of Panax ginseng, the contents of neutral and malonyl ginsenosides from P. ginseng were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with UV-VIS detector (HPLC-UV) during extraction, processing and storage. Several solvents, including water, ethanol, methanol, and n-butanol were used in the cold-soaked extraction (CSE). Among the four extraction solvents, methanol was found to be the most efficient. CSE was compared with other extraction methods such as Soxhlet extraction (SE), heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The content of MGR showed significant differences, higher in CSE and UAE; lower in MAE and HRE; no MGR could be detected after SE. However, the total contents of neutral and malonyl ginsenosides were not different. Meanwhile, white ginseng, stored at 25°C in air of low humidity, showed a marked decrease in the concentration of MGR from 1.19% to 0.63% but with an increase in the neutral ginsenosides from 1.12% to 1.53% after 0-9-month storage. The results indicated that MGR changed dynamically in P. ginseng with different extraction solvents, extraction methods and increasing storage time. The total ginsenosides was not only underestimated but also determined imprecisely by ignoring malonyl ginsenosides. On the basis of our results, we suggest that malonyl ginsenosides should be transformed into the corresponding neutral ginsenosides during sample preparation for quality control and evaluation of P. ginseng. Then the content of six neutral ginsenosides in samples was used as the true level of total ginsenosides. The results reported here might provide useful information for accurate evaluation and quality control of P. ginseng.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Calcium is involved in nitric oxide- and auxin-induced lateral root formation in rice

Authors: Chen, YH; Kao, CH (In Press) Protoplasma. HERO ID: 871432

[Less] In the present study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of lateral root (LR) formation . . . [More] In the present study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of lateral root (LR) formation in rice was examined. Application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA; a naturally occurring auxin) to rice seedlings induced LR formation. The effect is specific for NO because the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3- oxide (cPTIO) blocked the action of SNP and IBA. Endogenous NO was detected by the specific fluorescence probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate. SNP- and IBA-induced NO fluorescence was specifically suppressed by cPTIO. Nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor sodium tungstate completely inhibited IBA-induced LR formation and NO fluorescence. However, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N (G)-nitro-L: -arginine methyl ester hydrochloride slightly reduced IBA-induced LR formation and NO generation. It appears that NO generation that occurs in response to IBA might primarily involve NR activity. Moreover, NO production caused by SNP and IBA was localized in root area corresponding to LR emergence. The effects of Ca(2+) chelators, Ca(2+)-channel inhibitors, and calmodulin antagonists on LR formation induced by SNP and IBA were also examined. All these inhibitors were effective in reducing the action of SNP and IBA. However, Ca(2+) chelators and Ca(2+)-channel inhibitors had no effect on SNP- and IBA-induced NO generation. It is concluded that cytosolic levels of Ca(2+) may regulate SNP and IBA action through calmodulin-dependent mechanism.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of the in Vivo Anti-inflammatory Effects of Extracts from Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd

Authors: Huang, LJ; Gao, WY; Li, X; Zhao, WS; Huang, LQ; Liu, CX (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1455296

[Less] Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd., as a pharmaceutical supplement, is widely used in northern China to treat . . . [More] Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd., as a pharmaceutical supplement, is widely used in northern China to treat respiratory diseases. Our previous studies showed the ethanol extract of P. bretschneideri had significant anti-inflammatory activity. To isolate and identify the active ingredients, the ethanol extract was separated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions. The bioactivity of each fraction was investigated using an in vivo model. Results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory effect. Subsequently, this fraction was subjected to separation and purification using silica gel column chromatography, C(18)-ODS, and recrystallization, leading to two sterols and two triterpenes, which were identified as beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid. Moreover, all of the isolated compounds could significantly inhibit the ear edema induced by xylene. These results indicated that P. bretschneideri had good anti-inflammatory effects and the constituents beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid might well account for it.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lipoxygenase and urease inhibition of the aerial parts of the Polygonatum verticillatum

Authors: Khan, H; Saeed, M; Muhammad, N; Gaffar, R; Gul, F; Raziq, N (In Press) HERO ID: 2282962

[Less] Over expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) and urease has already contributed to the pathology of different . . . [More] Over expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) and urease has already contributed to the pathology of different human disease. Targeting the inhibition of these enzymes has proved great clinical utility. The aim of the present study was to scrutinised the inhibitory profile of the aerial parts of the Polygonatum verticillatum enzyme against LOX, urease, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) using standard experimental protocols. When checked against lipoxygenase, the extracts revealed significant attenuation. Of the tested extracts, the ethyl acetate fraction was the most potent (half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 97 µg/mL) followed by aqueous fraction IC50: 109 µg/mL). Regarding urease inhibition, n-butanol was the most potent fraction (IC50: 97 µg/mL). However, the extracts did not show significant inhibition on AChE and BChE. In the preliminary phytochemical tests, the aerial parts of the plant showed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and terpenoids. The current findings could be attributed to these groups of compounds.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Functional analysis and in vitro correction of splicing FAH mutations causing tyrosinemia type I

Authors: Pérez-Carro, R; Sánchez-Alcudia, R; Pérez, B; Navarrete, R; Pérez-Cerdá, C; Ugarte, M; Desviat, L (In Press) HERO ID: 2283305

[Less] Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is a rare disease caused by a deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate . . . [More] Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is a rare disease caused by a deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, resulting mainly in hepatic alterations due to accumulation of the toxic metabolites fumarylacetoacetate, maleylacetoacetate and succinylacetone. We have characterized using minigenes four splicing mutations affecting exonic or intronic nucleotides of the FAH gene identified in two HT1 patients. Two of the mutations are novel, c.82-1G>A and c.913G>C and the other two have been previously associated with a splicing defect (c.836A>G and c.1062+5G>A). All mutations were confirmed to affect splicing in minigenes, resulting in exon skipping or activation of a cryptic splice site. We have analyzed the effect of different compounds known to modulate splicing (valproic acid, phenyl butyrate, M344, EIPA, and resveratrol) and the overexpression of splice factors of the SR protein family on the transcriptional profile of the mutant minigenes. For the c.836A>G mutation, a partial recovery of the correctly spliced transcript was observed. These results confirm the relevance of performing functional studies for mutations potentially affecting the splicing process and open the possibility of supplementary therapeutic approaches to diseases caused by splicing defects.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

When a healthy diet turns deadly

Authors: Zumbrun, SD; Melton-Celsa, AR; O'Brien, AD (In Press) HERO ID: 2283459

[Less] The health benefits of a high fiber diet (HFD) result in part from the action of metabolic end products . . . [More] The health benefits of a high fiber diet (HFD) result in part from the action of metabolic end products made by gut commensals on the host epithelium. Butyrate is one such beneficial metabolite; however, butyrate paradoxically enhances the capacity of Escherichia coli-produced Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) to kill tissue culture cells. We recently showed that mice fed a HFD exhibited increased butyrate in gut contents and had an altered intestinal microbiota with reduced numbers of Escherichia species. Furthermore, mice fed a high fiber diet and infected with Stx-producing E. coli (STEC) were colonized to a higher degree, lost more weight, and succumbed to infection at greater rates compared with STEC-infected low fiber diet animals. The HFD animals showed higher levels of the Stx receptor globotriaocylceramide (Gb3) in both the gut and kidneys. We speculate that a HFD that leads to increased intestinal butyrate and Gb3 in the intestines and kidneys may explain the higher rate of the hemolytic uremic syndrome in females over males.