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n-Butanol




  • 1.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Inhalation of butanols: changes in the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system

    Authors: Aarstad, K; Zahlsen, K; Nilsen, OG
    (1985) Archives of Toxicology 8:418-421.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. After inhalation of different butanol isomers for 3 days (2000 ppm) and 5 days (500 ppm), liver and . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. After inhalation of different butanol isomers for 3 days (2000 ppm) and 5 days (500 ppm), liver and kidney parameters of the microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzyme system were increased. sec-Butanol caused the highest increase in cytochrome P-450 concentration with a 47% rise in the kidneys (500 ppm for 5 days) and 33% in the liver (2000 ppm for 3 days). A concomitant increase of the in vitro n-hexane metabolism in liver microsomes was observed with a 77% increased formation of the preneurotoxic metabolite 2-hexanol compared with control. iso-Butanol did not alter total cytochrome P-450 concentration but caused a significant 30% decrease in the formation of 2-hexanol. Inhalation of all butanols slightly decreased the enzyme levels in the lung. Changes in microsomal enzymes did not correlate with measured serum concentrations of the different butanols showing different inducing capacities among the butanol isomers themselves or the participation of metabolites in the inducing process. As a conclusion sec-butanol, probably through its metabolite methyl-ethyl-ketone, is the most potent inducer of microsomal cytochrome P-450 in liver and kidney while iso-butanol does not alter total cytochrome P-450.
    Tagged With: Source – January 2013 (private), Additional strategies - 1/2013, Merged reference set - 1/2013, Supporting Studies, Sources of Health Effects Data, Animal health effects studies, Additional Strategies
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Production of herbicide-resistant cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) transformed with the bar gene

    Authors: Aasim, M; Khawar, KM; Ozcan, S
    (2013) Turkish Journal of Biology 37:472-478.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Plant genetic engineering has opened new avenues to modify crops and has provided a powerful tool for . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Plant genetic engineering has opened new avenues to modify crops and has provided a powerful tool for crop improvement. The present study reports the development of regeneration and genetic transformation protocol for the Turkish cowpea cultivar Akkiz. The immature cotyledons were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.25-0.75 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine with or without 0.25 mg L-1 alpha-naphthalene acetic acid. Shoot regeneration varied 44.4%-83.3% with 2.1-5.0 shoots per explant. Regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium containing 0.50 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid and acclimatized in the greenhouse, where they flowered and set seeds. Immature cotyledons were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the recombinant binary vector pRGG containing an herbicide tolerance gene (bar) along with a uida (GUS) gene under 35S promoter. Phosphinothricin was used as a selectable marker at a concentration of 2.5 mg.L-1. Putative transformants were screened by-the histochemical GUS assay. Furthermore, molecular analysis revealed the presence of the introduced gene in the,genome of cowpea cultivar Akkiz. The selected transgenic plants showed a resistance to Basta (R) nonselective herbicide at up to 10 mL L-1 of water. Putative transgenic plants retained their pigmentation and continued to grow in the greenhouse.
    Tagged With: Excluded (not pertinent), Not chemical specific, Database Searches - March 2014 (private), WOS – 3/2014, Database searches , WOS
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Augmentation of the anticancer effects of proteasome inhibitors by combination with sodium butyrate in human colorectal cancer cells

    Authors: Abaza; M. S. I.
    (2010) Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 1:675-693.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a critical role in the degradation of cellular proteins and cell . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a critical role in the degradation of cellular proteins and cell cycle control. As such, dysregulating the degradation of such proteins should have profound effects on tumor growth and should cause cells to undergo apoptosis. Proteasome inhibitors display marked anticancer tendencies in hematopoietic cells; however, this activity is much less potent against solid tumor malignant cells. In addition, it can mediate toxicities such as peripheral neuropathy and can induce primary/secondary resistances. These observations prompted us to investigate whether sodium butyrate (NaB), a natural product for inducing tumor cell apoptosis that exhibits a low degree of clinical toxicity, can enhance the anticancer effects of the proteasome inhibitors MG115, MG132, PSI-1, PSI-2 and epoxomicin in human colorectal cancer. Combinations of the proteasome inhibitors and NaB markedly inhibited the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, particularly compared to single treatment with NaB and the proteasome inhibitors. A combination of the proteasome inhibitors and NaB produced additive and synergistic growth inhibitory effects. The human colorectal cancer cells treated with NaB, proteasome inhibitors, and their combinations exhibited growth arrest at the G(1), G(2)-M/S, and G(1) or S/G(2)-M phases of the cell cycle, respectively. NaB stimulated the conversion of procaspase-3 into caspase-3 and induced the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and lamin-B, which are two hallmarks of apoptosis. NaB, the proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin, and their combination stimulated the release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria, which was most likely responsible for the activation of caspase-3. Combined treatment with NaB and the proteasome inhibitors caused marked induction of apoptosis compared to single treatments of the proteasome inhibitors and NaB; the apoptotic signals were abolished by the inhibitors of caspase-3 activity. The proteasome inhibitors and their combinations with NaB counteracted the suressive effect that was induced by NaB on the levels of p53. NaB, the proteasome inhibitors and their combinations decreased the levels of BcL2, but increased the levels of Bax, p21(waf1) and p27(Kip1). Taken together, these results indicate a synergistic interaction between proteasome inhibitors and sodium butyrate that could present a new approach for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
    Tagged With: Source – January 2013 (private), WOS - 1/2013, Merged reference set - 1/2013, Excluded (not pertinent), Use in sample prep or assay, Database searches , WOS
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Photoluminescence of anatase and rutile TiO2 particles

    Authors: Abazović, ND; Comor, MI; Dramićanin, MD; Jovanović, DJ; Ahrenkiel, SP; Nedeljković, JM
    (2006) Journal of Physical Chemistry B 110:25366-25370.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Nonaqueous reactions between titanium(IV) chloride and alcohols (benzyl alcohol or n-butanol) were used . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Nonaqueous reactions between titanium(IV) chloride and alcohols (benzyl alcohol or n-butanol) were used for the synthesis of anatase TiO2 particles, while rutile TiO2 particles were synthesized in aqueous media by acidic hydrolysis of titanium(IV) chloride. The X-ray diffraction measurements proved the exclusive presence of either the anatase or the rutile phase in prepared samples. The photoluminescence of both kinds of particles (anatase and rutile) with several well-resolved peaks extending in the visible spectral region was observed, and the quantum yield at room temperature was found to be 0.25%. Photon energy up-conversion from colloidal anatase and rutile TiO2 particles was observed at low excitation intensities. The energy of up-converted photoluminescence spans the range of emission of normal photoluminescence. The explanation of photon energy up-conversion involves mid-gap energy levels originating from oxygen vacancies.
    Tagged With: Source – January 2013 (private), Pubmed - 1/2013, Merged reference set - 1/2013, Excluded (not pertinent), Use in sample prep or assay, Database searches , Pubmed
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    In vitro assessment of relief to oxidative stress by different fractions of Boerhavia procumbens

    Authors: Abbasi, MA; Rubab, K; Aziz-ur-Rehman; Riaz, T; Shahzadi, T; Khalid, M; Ajaib, M
    (2012)
    Tagged With: Database searches , WOS , Database Searches - March 2014 (private), WOS – 3/2014, Excluded (not pertinent), Use in sample prep or assay
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Assessing the response of indigenous loquat cultivar Mardan to phytohormones for in vitro shoot proliferation and rooting

    Authors: Abbasi, NA; Pervaiz, T; Hafiz, IA; Yaseen, M; Hussain, A
    (2013) Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B 14:774-784.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. In vitro cultures of loquat cultivar Mardan were established using shoot apices after treating with . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. In vitro cultures of loquat cultivar Mardan were established using shoot apices after treating with NaOCl (5%, 7%, 10%, 12%, 14% (v/v)) for 12 min and HgCl2 (0.01%, 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.25% (w/v)) for 2 min. A maximum survival rate of 70% was recorded after surface sterilization with 10% NaOCl. Caulogenic response was assessed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with assorted combinations of the cytokinins, benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin, and N6-(2-isopentyl)adenine (2iP). Treatment of BAP 1.5 mg/L combined with 2iP 9.0 mg/L and kinetin 1.5 mg/L was found to be optimum for shoot morphogenesis in terms of the number and subsequent growth of shoots, while the highest shoot length was yielded by the combination of BAP 0.5 mg/L, kinetin 0.5 mg/L, and 2iP 3 mg/L. Higher levels of cytokinins induced callogenesis, vitrification and stunted growth to some extent. For rhizogenesis, uniform sized micro-shoots were excised and transferred to half-strength MS medium containing auxins. The best rooting expression was observed with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 1 mg/L combined with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) 2 mg/L and paclobutrazol (PBZ) 1 mg/L.
    Tagged With: Excluded (not pertinent), Not chemical specific, Database Searches - March 2014 (private), Pubmed - 3/2014 , WOS – 3/2014, Database searches , Pubmed , WOS
  • 7.
    Journal Article
    Journal
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    The involvement of opioidergic mechanisms in the activity of Bacopa monnieri extract and its toxicological studies

    Authors: Abbas, M; Subhan, F; Mohani, N; Rauf, K; Ali, G; Khan, M
    (2011) 5:1120-1124.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. n-butanol extract (n-Bt ext) of Bacopa monnieri (BM) was studied for antinociceptive effect in the animal . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. n-butanol extract (n-Bt ext) of Bacopa monnieri (BM) was studied for antinociceptive effect in the animal models of acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests. The extract exhibited significant antinociceptive activity (P < 0.01) in these tests. Standard centrally acting analgesic, morphine, peripherally acting and diclofenac were also tested along with the extract for comparison. The antinociceptive effect of the extract was antagonized by the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone in a fashion similar to morphine that indicated the involvement of opioids in the mediation of antinociceptive response of BM. Toxicolgical studies indicated that n-Bt ext is comparatively toxic. These results indicate that BM possesses antinociceptive activity that may be mediated through interaction with opioid receptors.
    Tagged With: Source – January 2013 (private), WOS - 1/2013, Merged reference set - 1/2013, Excluded (not pertinent), Not chemical specific, Database searches , WOS

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  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Diuretic activity of some Smilax canariensis fractions

    Authors: Abdala, S; Martín-Herrera, D; Benjumea, D; Gutiérrez, SD
    (2012) Journal of Ethnopharmacology 140:277-281.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Smilax canariensis is an endemic species of the Canary . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Smilax canariensis is an endemic species of the Canary Islands, popularly known as "Zarzaparrilla sin espinas". The rhizome, leaves and stem of this species has wide use in folk medicine practice on the islands, where they are habitually employed as diuretic.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: In this paper we report on the diuretic activity in experimental animals of several fractions of the methanol extract of this species.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four fractions of the methanol extract of the rhizomes, leaves and stem of Smilax canariensis (50 and 100mg/kg), Furosemide and Hydrochlorotiazide (10mg/kg), were orally administered to laboratory animals to evaluate their diuretic activity. Water excretion rate, pH, conductivity, and content of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) were measured in the urine of saline-loaded mice.

    RESULTS: All the studied extracts showed an interesting increase of the diuresis, although the n-buthanol (27%; p<0.05) and ethyl acetate extract (35%; p<0.01), at 100mg/kg p.o., showed the most interesting diuretic activity, which suggested that this diuretic effect is associated with the compounds contained in the fractions of intermediate polarity (ethyl acetate and n-butanol), decreasing in the most extreme apolar and polar sub-extracts (dichloromethane and methanol: water respectively). The increase in diuresis produced by these two extracts was very close to the values of Hydrochlorothiazide (32%) or Furosemide (39%), used as reference diuretics.

    CONCLUSIONS: These data, together with previous results on the aqueous and methanol extracts, reaffirm assertions made regarding the effectiveness of the extracts of this plant against urinary pathologies in the Canary Islands folk medicine.
    Tagged With: Database searches , WOS , Source – January 2013 (private), WOS - 1/2013, Merged reference set - 1/2013, Database Searches - March 2014 (private), WOS – 3/2014, Excluded (not pertinent), Not chemical specific
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Antidiabetic activity of phenolic compounds from Pecan bark in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Authors: Abdallah, HM; Salama, MM; Abd-Elrahman, EH; El-Maraghy, SA
    (2011) Phytochemistry Letters 4:337-341.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The n-butanol fraction (BF) of bark of Pecan tree, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (Juglandaceae) . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The n-butanol fraction (BF) of bark of Pecan tree, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (Juglandaceae) afforded two new flavonol methyl ether: caryatin-3' sulfate (6) and caryatin-3' methyl ether-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (7) while five known phenolics (1-5) were isolated from its ethyl acetate fraction (EAF). The structures of isolated compounds were established based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The isolated compounds were investigated for their hypoglycaemic, antioxidant as well as the aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory effect in lenses of streptozocin diabetic rats. All the isolated compounds showed significant hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activities, except 5 and 6. A marked AR-inhibitory effect was identified for compounds 2, 3 and 7. (C) 2011 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Tagged With: Source – January 2013 (private), WOS - 1/2013, Merged reference set - 1/2013, Excluded (not pertinent), Not chemical specific, Database searches , WOS
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Stability of Lutein in Wholegrain Bakery Products Naturally High in Lutein or Fortified with Free Lutein

    Authors: Abdel-Aal, ElSM; Young, JC; Akhtar, H; Rabalski, I
    (2010) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58:10109-10117.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Lutein is a yellow pigment found in common foods that promotes the health of eyes and skin and is associated . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Lutein is a yellow pigment found in common foods that promotes the health of eyes and skin and is associated with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts. In the present study, selected high-lutein wheat and corn were milled into wholegrain flours by two mills to improve flour uniformity. The high-lutein and lutein-fortified wholegrain flours were processed into breads, cookies, and muffins to study lutein stability during baking and subsequent storage. Lutein and its isomers were separated, identified, and quantified by LC-UV/vis and LC-MS following extraction with water-saturated 1-butanol. Baking resulted in a significant reduction in all-trans-lutein and the formation of cis-lutein and cis-zeaxanthin isomers. Subsequent storage at ambient temperature had a slight impact on the content of all-trans-lutein. Effects of processing were more pronounced in lutein-fortified products, and the degradation rate of lutein was influenced by concentration and baking recipe. Fortified cookies and muffins showed greater lutein reduction compared with bread. Despite the significant reduction in lutein, the fortified bakery products still possessed reasonable amounts per serving that would enhance daily intake and consumption of wholegrain foods.
    Tagged With: Source – January 2013 (private), WOS - 1/2013, Merged reference set - 1/2013, Excluded (not pertinent), Not chemical specific, Database searches , WOS
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