Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


n-Butanol


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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Non-Antidepressant Pharmacological Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Comprehensive Review

Authors: Abdel-Ahad, P; Kazour, F (In Press) HERO ID: 2282868

[Less] Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with significant morbidity and dysfunction. . . . [More] Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with significant morbidity and dysfunction. First-line OCD treatments - serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and their combination - though widely used, are not sufficient in treating resistant cases. This eventually raises the need for finding novel strategies, whether by adding-on drugs or switching to a different psychopharmacological class. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of non-antidepressant pharmacological treatment that has been evaluated for the management of OCD. Materials and methods: A research has been conducted using MedLine and the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms were used: Obsessive compulsive disorder AND drug therapy. Articles that conformed to specific inclusion criteria were stratified per drug and per quality of evidence. For each drug, articles having the best level of evidence were retained. Results: Sixty-eight articles were reviewed and presented by drug class as follows: antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) analogues and GABA reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, glutamatergic agents and other miscellaneous drugs. Discussion: There is substantial collective evidence supporting the use of antipsychotics as an augmentation treatment of resistant OCD patients. Although not always consistent, the following drugs showed some efficacy upon randomized controlled trials: risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, haloperidol, topiramate, pindolol, morphine, ondansetron and celecoxib. The efficacy of glutamatergic agents is promising. Numerous other pharmacological agents have been studied yet the results are inconclusive due to several limitations mainly of methodological nature.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Non-Antidepressant Pharmacologic Long-Term Treatment of Panic Disorder

Authors: Ibrahim, C; Naja, WJ; Haddad, RS (In Press) HERO ID: 2282870

[Less] Introduction: Panic disorder (PD) is a common anxiety disorder. Despite neurophysiological advances, . . . [More] Introduction: Panic disorder (PD) is a common anxiety disorder. Despite neurophysiological advances, its pathogenesis is still not well elucidated. Although the recommended pharmacological agents have demonstrated efficacy and a rather acceptable tolerability, yet many patients do not respond fully and still suffer from residual symptoms. There is a need for new pharmacological classes with better tolerability and efficacy, and faster onset of action. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the existing non-antidepressant treatment of PD as well as the recent advances in the treatment of PD. Methods: 38 articles discussing pharmacological treatment of PD were selected for this review. They were mainly open-label studies, case-reports and review articles. Results: we reviewed the studies on anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, gamma amino butyric acid (GABAergic) products, atypical antipsychotics, clonidine, as well as emerging drugs in the treatment of PD such as metabotropic glutamate II agonists, and D-cycloserine. Conclusion: although most of the drugs tested were proven effective and well tolerated, the studies on the non-conventional agents are restricted to open-label trials and case reports. Further studies are required to establish their efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of panic disorder.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Separation of Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from a Chinese Herb by HSCCC

Authors: Chen, C; Zhao, XH; Yue, HL; Li, YL; Chen, T (In Press) HERO ID: 2283081

[Less] An effective high-speed counter-current chromatography method was established for the preparative isolation . . . [More] An effective high-speed counter-current chromatography method was established for the preparative isolation and purification of two phenylpropanoid glycosides from the Tibetan medicinal plant Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph. var. tubiformis (Klotz). Tsoong. With a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-n-butanol-methanol-water (4:3:4:5, v/v), 40 mg of an extract of Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph. var. tubiformis (Klotz). Tsoong was separated to yield 20 mg of verbascoside and 18 mg of isoacteoside, with purity values of 97 and 98%, respectively. The chemical structures of these two components were identified by proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the two phenylpropanoid glycosides was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-high-performance liquid chromatography, and the results showed that the two components exhibited strong antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 values of 15.6 and 18.9 µg/mL, respectively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of two novel butanol dehydrogenases involved in butanol degradation in syngas-utilizing bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528

Authors: Tan, Y; Liu, J; Liu, Z; Li, F (In Press) HERO ID: 2283108

[Less] Syngas utilizing bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528 is a promising platform organism for a . . . [More] Syngas utilizing bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528 is a promising platform organism for a whole variety of different biofuels and biochemicals production from syngas. During syngas fermentation, C. ljungdahlii DSM 13528 could convert butanol into butyrate, which significantly reduces productivity of butanol. However, there has been no any enzyme involved in the degradation of butanol characterized in C. ljungdahlii DSM 13528. In this study two genes, CLJU_c24880 and CLJU_c39950, encoding putative butanol dehydrogenase (designated as BDH1 and BDH2) were identified in the genome of C. ljungdahlii DSM 13528 and qRT-PCR analysis showed the expression of bdh1 and bdh2 was significantly upregulated in the presence of 0.25% butanol. And the deduced amino acid sequence for BDH1 and BDH2 showed 69.85 and 68.04% identity with Clostridium acetobutylicum ADH1, respectively. Both BDH1 and BDH2 were oxygen-sensitive and preferred NADP(+) as cofactor and butanol as optimal substrate. The optimal temperature and pH for BDH1 were at 55 °C and pH 7.5 and specific activity was 18.07 ± 0.01 µmol min(-1)  mg(-1) . BDH2 was a thermoactive dehydrogenase with maximum activity at 65 °C and at pH 7.0. The specific activity for BDH2 was 11.21 ± 0.02 µmol min(-1)  mg(-1) . This study provided important information for understanding the molecular mechanism of butanol degradation and determining the targets for gene knockout to improve the productivity of butanol from syngas in C. ljungdahlii DSM 13528 in future.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of glutamine on wound healing

Authors: Kesici, U; Kesici, S; Ulusoy, H; Yucesan, F; Turkmen, AU; Besir, A; Tuna, V (In Press) HERO ID: 2283122

[Less] Studies reporting the need for replacing amino acids such as glutamine (Gln), hydroxymethyl butyrate . . . [More] Studies reporting the need for replacing amino acids such as glutamine (Gln), hydroxymethyl butyrate (HMB) and arginine (Arg) to accelerate wound healing are available in the literature. The primary objective of this study was to present the effects of Gln on tissue hydroxyproline (OHP) levels in wound healing. This study was conducted on 30 female Sprague Dawley rats with a mean weight of 230 ± 20 g. Secondary wounds were formed by excising 2 × 1 cm skin subcutaneous tissue on the back of the rats. The rats were divided into three equal groups. Group C (Control): the group received 1 ml/day isotonic solution by gastric gavage after secondary wound was formed. Group A (Abound): the group received 0·3 g/kg/day/ml Gln, 0·052 g/kg/day/ml HMB and 0·3 g/kg/day/ml Arg by gastric gavage after secondary wound was formed. Group R (Resource): the group received 0·3 g/kg/day/ml Gln by gastric gavage after secondary wound was formed. The OHP levels of the tissues obtained from the upper half region on the 8th day and the lower half region on the 21st day from the same rats in the groups were examined. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistics program SPSS version 17.0. No statistically significant differences were reported with regard to the OHP measurements on the 8th and 21st days (8th day: F = 0·068, P = 0·935 > 0·05; 21st day: F = 0·018, P = 0·983 > 0·05). The increase in mean OHP levels on the 8th and 21st days within each group was found to be statistically significant (F = 1146·34, P = 0·000 < 0·001). We conclude that in adults who eat healthy food, who do not have any factor that can affect wound healing negatively and who do not have large tissue loss at critical level, Gln, Arg and HMB support would not be required to accelerate secondary wound healing.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Butyrate stimulates the early process of the osteogenic differentiation but inhibits the biomineralization in dental follicle cells (DFCs)

Authors: Drees, J; Felthaus, O; Gosau, M; Morsczeck, C (In Press) HERO ID: 2283251

[Less] Dental stem cells, especially dental follicle cells (DFCs) as precursor cells for the periodontium have . . . [More] Dental stem cells, especially dental follicle cells (DFCs) as precursor cells for the periodontium have interesting prospects for regenerative dentistry. During periodontitis, butyrate as a bacterial metabolite and inflammatory agent is often found in millimolar concentrations in periodontal pockets. This study evaluates the effects of butyrate on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of DFCs. We assessed cell viability/proliferation (BCA assay) and osteogenic differentiation (ALP activity, alizarin staining and RT PCR) of DFCs in vitro after butyrate supplementation. Butyrate concentrations of 20 mM or higher are toxic for DFCs. At a non-toxic concentration, butyrate promotes the expression of alkaline phosphatase and collagen type-1 but inhibits the formation of calcified nodules and the induction of RUNX2 and osteocalcin under osteogenic differentiation conditions. In conclusion, DFCs are resistant to physiological high concentrations of butyrate. Butyrate facilitates the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs in early stages but inhibits calcification at later stages of the differentiation process.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of phytochemicals, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of extract and fractions from Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae)

Authors: Rashid, U; Khan, MR; Jan, S; Bokhari, J; Shah, NA (In Press) HERO ID: 2283257

[Less] BACKGROUND: In Pakistan Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae) is commonly used in the indigenous . . . [More] BACKGROUND: In Pakistan Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae) is commonly used in the indigenous system of medicine for treatment of conditions like diabetes, cancer, fever, asthma, toothache, stomach troubles and kidney disorders. This study evaluated the crude methanol extract of F. olivieri (FOM) and its derived fractions for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities as well as the classes of phytochemical.

METHODS: Dried powder of whole plant of F. olivieri was extracted with methanol (FOM) and the resultant was fractionated to give n-hexane fraction (FOH), chloroform fraction (FOC), ethyl acetate fraction (FOE), n-butanol fraction (FOB) and residual aqueous fraction (FOA). Methanol extract and its derived fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. Also the extract and fractions were assayed for antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities using agar well diffusion technique, agar tube dilution method and brine shrimps lethality test, respectively.

RESULTS: The results obtained for phytochemical analysis indicate the presence of saponins and alkaloids in all the tested extract and fractions while anthraquinones were not detected. The results showed that all the bacterial strains tested in this study were susceptible to at least one of the fractions tested. However, FOE and FOB were the best antibacterial fractions and showed antibacterial activity against maximum number of bacterial strains. The results showed that Escherichia coli was the most sensitive bacterium while Bordetella bronchiseptica and Enterobacter aerogenes were less susceptible against various fractions. Maximum percent inhibition for growth was recorded for the fungus Aspergillus flavus with FOE whereas growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani was inhibited by FOM and its all derived fractions. Minimum LC50 (24.07 mg/L) for brine shrimp assay was recorded for FOE followed by LC50 of FOC (26.1 mg/L) and FOB (30.05 mg/L) whereas maximum LC50 was exhibited by FOH (1533 mg/L).

CONCLUSION: These results indicated the use of F. olivieri to treat infections with emphasis to isolate and characterize the active principle responsible for antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities and its exploitation as therapeutic agent.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of butyrate induced production of A Mannose-6-phosphorylated therapeutic enzyme using Parallel Bioreactors

Authors: Madhavarao, CN; Agarabi, CD; Wong, L; Müller-Loennies, S; Braulke, T; Khan, M; Anderson, H; Johnson, GR (In Press) HERO ID: 2283527

[Less] Bioreactor process changes can have a profound effect on the yield and quality of biotechnology products. . . . [More] Bioreactor process changes can have a profound effect on the yield and quality of biotechnology products. Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) glycan content and the enzymatic catalytic kinetic parameters are critical quality attributes (CQAs) of many therapeutic enzymes used to treat lysosomal storage diseases. Here, we have evaluated the effect of adding butyrate to bioreactor production cultures of human recombinant β-glucuronidase produced from CHO-K1 cells, with an emphasis on CQAs. The β-glucuronidase produced in parallel bioreactors was quantified by capillary electrophoresis, the catalytic kinetic parameters were measured using steady-state analysis, and mannose-6-phosphorylation status was assessed using an M6P-specific single chain antibody fragment. Using this approach we found that butyrate treatment increased β-glucuronidase production up to ∼3-fold without significantly affecting the catalytic properties of the enzyme. However, M6P content in β-glucuronidase was inversely correlated with the increased enzyme production induced by butyrate treatment. This assessment demonstrated that although butyrate dramatically increased β-glucuronidase production in bioreactors, it adversely impacted the mannose-6-phosphorylation of this lysosomal storage disease therapeutic enzyme. This strategy may have utility in evaluating manufacturing process changes to improve therapeutic enzyme yields and CQAs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Vertical mother-neonate transfer of maternal gut bacteria via breastfeeding

Authors: Jost, T; Lacroix, C; Braegger, CP; Rochat, F; Chassard, C (In Press) HERO ID: 2283529

[Less] Breast milk has recently been recognized as source of commensal and potential probiotic bacteria. The . . . [More] Breast milk has recently been recognized as source of commensal and potential probiotic bacteria. The present study investigated whether viable strains of gut-associated obligate anaerobes are shared between the maternal and neonatal gut ecosystem via breastfeeding. Maternal faeces, breast milk and corresponding neonatal faeces collected from seven mothers-neonate pairs at three neonatal sampling points were analyzed by culture-independent (pyrosequencing) and culture-dependent methods (16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA and repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction. Pyrosequencing allowed identifying gut-associated obligate anaerobic genera, like Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides and members of the Clostridia (Blautia, Clostridium, Collinsella and Veillonella) shared between maternal faeces, breast milk and neonatal faeces. Using culture, a viable strain of Bifidobacterium breve was shown to be shared between all three ecosystems within one mother-neonate pair. Furthermore, pyrosequencing revealed that several butyrate-producing members of the Clostridia (Coprococcus, Faecalibacterium, Roseburia and Subdoligranulum) were shared between maternal faeces and breast milk. This study shows that (viable) obligate gut-associated anaerobes may be vertically transferred from mother to neonate via breastfeeding. Thus, our data support the recently suggested hypothesis of a novel way of mother-neonate communication, in which maternal gut bacteria reach breast milk via an entero-mammary pathway to influence neonatal gut colonization and maturation of the immune system.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Etomidate evokes synaptic vesicle exocytosis without increasing miniature endplate potentials frequency at the mice neuromuscular junction

Authors: Valadão, PA; Naves, LA; Gomez, RS; Guatimosim, C (In Press) HERO ID: 2283536

[Less] Etomidate is an intravenous anesthetic used during anesthesia induction. This agent induces spontaneous . . . [More] Etomidate is an intravenous anesthetic used during anesthesia induction. This agent induces spontaneous movements, especially myoclonus after its administration suggesting a putative primary effect at the central nervous system or the periphery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presynaptic and postsynaptic effects of etomidate at the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Diaphragm nerve muscle preparations were isolated and stained with the styryl dye FM1-43, a fluorescent tool that tracks synaptic vesicles exo-endocytosis that are key steps for neurotransmission. We observed that etomidate induced synaptic vesicle exocytosis in a dose-dependent fashion, an effect that was independent of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. By contrast, etomidate-evoked exocytosis was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) because its effect was abolished in Ca(2+)-free medium and also inhibited by omega-Agatoxin IVA (30 and 200nM) suggesting the participation of P/Q-subtype Ca(2+) channels. Interestingly, even though etomidate induced synaptic vesicle exocytosis, we did not observe any significant difference in the frequency and amplitude of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) in the presence of the anesthetic. We therefore investigated whether etomidate could act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors labeled with α-bungarotoxin-Alexa 594 and we observed less fluorescence in preparations exposed to the anesthetic. In conclusion, our results suggest that etomidate exerts a presynaptic effect at the NMJ inducing synaptic vesicle exocytosis, likely through the activation of P-subtype voltage gated Ca(2+) channels without interfering with MEPPs frequency. The present data contribute to a better understanding about the effect of etomidate at the neuromuscular synapse and may help to explain some clinical effects of this agent.