Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


n-Butanol


4,146 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of the in Vivo Anti-inflammatory Effects of Extracts from Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd

Authors: Huang, LJ; Gao, WY; Li, X; Zhao, WS; Huang, LQ; Liu, CX (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1455296

[Less] Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd., as a pharmaceutical supplement, is widely used in northern China to treat . . . [More] Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd., as a pharmaceutical supplement, is widely used in northern China to treat respiratory diseases. Our previous studies showed the ethanol extract of P. bretschneideri had significant anti-inflammatory activity. To isolate and identify the active ingredients, the ethanol extract was separated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions. The bioactivity of each fraction was investigated using an in vivo model. Results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory effect. Subsequently, this fraction was subjected to separation and purification using silica gel column chromatography, C(18)-ODS, and recrystallization, leading to two sterols and two triterpenes, which were identified as beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid. Moreover, all of the isolated compounds could significantly inhibit the ear edema induced by xylene. These results indicated that P. bretschneideri had good anti-inflammatory effects and the constituents beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid might well account for it.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Chlorocarbons and chlorohydrocarbons

Authors: Marshall, KA; Pottenger, LH (2016) In Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (4th, pp. 1-29). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. HERO ID: 3828879


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

NOx formation and flame velocity profiles of iso- and n-isomers of butane and butanol

Authors: Chung, GA; Akih-Kumgeh, B; Watson, GMG; Bergthorson, JM (2013) Combustion Institute. Proceedings 34:831-838. HERO ID: 1462780

[Less] NO formation and flame propagation are studied in premixed flames of iso- and n-isomers of butane and . . . [More] NO formation and flame propagation are studied in premixed flames of iso- and n-isomers of butane and butanol through experimental measurements and direct simulation of experimental profiles. The stabilized flame is realized through the impingement of a premixed combustible jet from a contraction nozzle against a temperature-controlled plate. The velocity field is obtained by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and nitric oxide concentration profiles are measured using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF), calibrated using known NO seeding levels. It is found that NO formation in n- and iso-isomers is comparable under the conditions considered, except for rich butanol mixtures, whereby NO formation is higher for iso-butanol. Generally, less NO is formed in butanol flames than in the butane flames. The experiment is simulated by a 1D chemically reacting stagnation flow model, using literature models of C1-C4 hydrocarbons [Wang et al., 2010] and butanol combustion chemistry [Sarathy et al., 2009, 2012]. NO prediction is tested using two of these mechanisms with a previously-published NOx submechanism added into the butane and butanol models. While a good level of agreement is observed in the velocity field prediction under lean and stoichiometric conditions, discrepancies exist under rich conditions. Greater discrepancies are observed in NO prediction, except for the C1-C4 mechanism which shows good agreement with the experiment under lean and stoichiometric conditions. The current study provides data for further development of mechanisms with NOx prediction capabilities for the fuels considered here. (C) 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dopaminergic and GABA-ergic markers of impulsivity in rats: evidence for anatomical localisation in ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex

Authors: Jupp, B; Caprioli, D; Saigal, N; Reverte, I; Shrestha, S; Cumming, P; Everitt, BJ; Robbins, TW; Dalley, JW (2013) European Journal of Neuroscience. HERO ID: 1454255

[Less] Accumulating evidence indicates that impulsivity, in its multiple forms, involves cortical and subcortical . . . [More] Accumulating evidence indicates that impulsivity, in its multiple forms, involves cortical and subcortical mechanisms and abnormal dopamine (DA) transmission. Although decreased DA D2/D3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) predicts trait-like impulsivity in rats it is unclear whether this neurochemical marker extends to both the NAcb core (NAcbC) and shell (NAcbS) and whether markers for other neurotransmitter systems implicated in impulsivity such as serotonin (5-HT), endogenous opioids and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) are likewise altered in impulsive rats. We therefore used autoradiography to investigate DA transporter (DAT), 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) and D1, D2/D3, μ-opioid and GABA(A) receptor binding in selected regions of the prefrontal cortex and striatum in rats expressing low and high impulsive behaviour on the five-choice serial reaction-time task. High-impulsive (HI) rats exhibited significantly lower binding for DAT and D2/D3 receptors in the NAcbS and for D1 receptors in the NAcbC compared with low-impulsive (LI) rats. HI rats also showed significantly lower GABA(A) receptor binding in the anterior cingulate cortex. For all regions where receptor binding was altered in HI rats, binding was inversely correlated with impulsive responding on task. There were no significant differences in binding for 5-HTT or μ-opioid receptors in any of the regions investigated. These results indicate that altered D2/D3 receptor binding is localised to the NAcbS of trait-like impulsive rats and is accompanied by reduced binding for DAT. Alterations in binding for D1 receptors in the NAcbC and GABA(A) receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex demonstrate additional markers and putative mechanisms underlying the expression of behavioural impulsivity.

Journal Article
Journal Article

A platform pathway for production of 3-hydroxyacids provides a biosynthetic route to 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone

Authors: Martin, CH; Dhamankar, H; Tseng, HC; Sheppard, MJ; Reisch, CR; Prather, KL (2013) 4:1414. HERO ID: 1454265

[Less] The replacement of petroleum feedstocks with biomass to produce platform chemicals requires the development . . . [More] The replacement of petroleum feedstocks with biomass to produce platform chemicals requires the development of appropriate conversion technologies. 3-Hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone has been identified as one such chemical; however, there are no naturally occurring biosynthetic pathways for this molecule or its hydrolyzed form, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. Here we design a novel pathway to produce various chiral 3-hydroxyacids, including 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, consisting of enzymes that condense two acyl-CoAs, stereospecifically reduce the resulting β-ketone and hydrolyze the CoA thioester to release the free acid. Acetyl-CoA serves as one substrate for the condensation reaction, whereas the second is produced intracellularly by a pathway enzyme that converts exogenously supplied organic acids. Feeding of butyrate, isobutyrate and glycolate results in the production of 3-hydroxyhexanoate, 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid+3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone, respectively, molecules with potential uses in applications from materials to medicines. We also unexpectedly observe the condensation reaction resulting in the production of the 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid isomer, a potential value-added monomer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of orally applied butyrate bolus on histone acetylation and cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in the liver of chicken - a randomized controlled trial

Authors: Mátis, G; Neogrády, Z; Csikó, G; Kulcsár, A; Kenéz, A; Huber, K (2013) Nutrition and Metabolism 10:12. HERO ID: 1454290

[Less] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Butyrate is known as histone deacetylase inhibitor, inducing histone hyperacetylation . . . [More] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Butyrate is known as histone deacetylase inhibitor, inducing histone hyperacetylation in vitro and playing a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. We hypothesized that butyrate, endogenously produced by intestinal microbial fermentation or applied as a nutritional supplement, might cause similar in vivo modifications in the chromatin structure of the hepatocytes, influencing the expression of certain genes and therefore modifying the activity of hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. METHODS: An animal study was carried out in chicken as a model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of butyrate's epigenetic actions in the liver. Broiler chicks in the early post-hatch period were treated once daily with orally administered bolus of butyrate following overnight starvation with two different doses (0.25 or 1.25 g/kg body weight per day) for five days. After slaughtering, cell nucleus and microsomal fractions were separated by differential centrifugation from the livers. Histones were isolated from cell nuclei and acetylation of hepatic core histones was screened by western blotting. The activity of CYP2H and CYP3A37, enzymes involved in biotransformation in chicken, was detected by aminopyrine N-demethylation and aniline-hydroxylation assays from the microsomal suspensions. RESULTS: Orally added butyrate, applied in bolus, had a remarkable impact on nucleosome structure of hepatocytes: independently of the dose, butyrate caused hyperacetylation of histone H2A, but no changes were monitored in the acetylation state of H2B. Intensive hyperacetylation of H3 was induced by the higher administered dose, while the lower dose tended to increase acetylation ratio of H4. In spite of the observed modification in histone acetylation, no significant changes were observed in the hepatic microsomal CYP2H and CYP3A37 activity. CONCLUSION: Orally added butyrate in bolus could cause in vivo hyperacetylation of the hepatic core histones, providing modifications in the epigenetic regulation of cell function. However, these changes did not result in alteration of drug-metabolizing hepatic CYP2H and CYP3A37 enzymes, so there might be no relevant pharmacoepigenetic influences of oral application of butyrate under physiological conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Different effects of subchronic exposure to low concentrations of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a freshwater gastropod

Authors: Rivadeneira, PR; Agrelo, M; Otero, S; Kristoff, G (2013) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 90:82-88. HERO ID: 1454304

[Less] Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide used for pest control on a number of food crops in many . . . [More] Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide used for pest control on a number of food crops in many parts of the world. In recent years, there has been an important decrease in the number of organisms of Planorbarius corneus. Since the presence of pesticides in the water can be one of the reasons for this decrease, it is very important to study the effect of subchronic exposure to environmental concentrations of pesticides on these organisms. The aim of the present work was to investigate different effects of the subchronic exposure to low concentrations of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos in P. corneus and the possibility to use these as biomarkers. To this end, we have exposed the organisms to 0.4 and 5μgL(-1) of chlorpyrifos for 14 days and recorded the number of egg masses, the number of eggs per mass, the number of eggs without embryo, the time for hatching, and the % of hatching and survival. We have also determined the activities of cholinesterases, carboxylesterases and glutathione S-transferase in whole organism soft tissue and in the gonads. A 14 days exposure to 0.4μgL(-1) caused an increase in the number of egg masses without eggs and a decrease in carboxylesterases measured with p-nitrophenyl butyrate. However the exposure to 5μgL(-1) also caused an increase in the time for hatching, a decrease in the % of hatching and survival and also inhibition of cholinesterases and carboxylesterases with p-nitrophenyl acetate and butyrate. In contrast, the glutathione S-transferase has not been modified with the tested concentrations. We concluded that when P. corneus exposed to chlorpyrifos for 14 days, the CES determined with p-nitrophenyl butyrate proved to be the most sensitive biomarker. However, exposure to environmental concentrations showed a decrease in the reproduction ability which could cause a decrease in the number of organisms of this species.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomics reveals strong association between milk metabolites and somatic cell count in bovine milk

Authors: Sundekilde, UK; Poulsen, NA; Larsen, LB; Bertram, HC (2013) Journal of Dairy Science 96:290-299. HERO ID: 1454450

[Less] Somatic cell count (SCC) is associated with changes in milk composition, including changes in proteins, . . . [More] Somatic cell count (SCC) is associated with changes in milk composition, including changes in proteins, lipids, and milk metabolites. Somatic cell count is normally used as an indicator of mastitis infection. The compositional changes in protein and fat affect milk coagulation properties, and also the metabolite composition is thought to contribute to differential milk properties. Milk somatic cells comprise different cell types, which may contribute to differential milk metabolite fingerprints. In this study, milk from a relatively large number of individual cows, representing significant differences in SCC, were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics, and the milk metabolite profiles were analyzed for differences related to SCC. Global principal component analysis performed on 876 samples from 2 Danish dairy breeds and orthogonal projection of latent structures discriminant analysis performed on a smaller subset (n=70) representing high (SCC >7.2×10(5) cells/mL) and low (SCC <1.4×10(4) cells/mL) milk SCC identified latent variables, which could be attributed to milk with elevated SCC. In addition, partial least squares regression between the NMR milk metabolite profiles and SCC revealed a strong correlation. The orthogonal projection of latent structures discriminant analysis and partial least squares regressions pinpointed specific NMR spectral regions and thereby identification of milk metabolites that differed according to SCC. Relative quantification of the identified metabolites revealed that lactate, butyrate, isoleucine, acetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate were increased, whereas hippurate and fumarate were decreased in milk with high levels of somatic cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Insulinotropic action of Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts in rat pancreatic islets

Authors: Benariba, N; Djaziri, R; Hupkens, E; Louchami, K; Malaisse, WJ; Sener, A (2013) Molecular Medicine Reports 7:233-236. HERO ID: 1445454

[Less] The present study aimed to investigate the direct in vitro effects of several distinct Citrullus colocynthis . . . [More] The present study aimed to investigate the direct in vitro effects of several distinct Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts on glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets isolated from rats. Six extracts were tested, a crude aqueous, defatted aqueous, ethyl acetate, H2O-methanol and n-butanol extract and an extract containing a major component (fraction A) identified by gel chromatography in the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H2O-methanol extracts. Under selected experimental conditions, the majority of extracts exhibited a positive insulinotropic action, at least when tested in the presence of 8.3 mM D-glucose. The concentration-response correlation observed with distinct extracts revealed the participation of distinct chemical compounds, including compounds with an inhibitory insulinotropic potential, in the modulation of the insulin secretory response to D-glucose. The results of the present study are relevant for further investigations which aim to identify compounds exhibiting positive insulinotropic actions. These agents may be suitable for the treatment of human diabetic subjects.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of substitution of wheat starch by potato starch on the performance, digestive physiology and health of growing rabbits

Authors: Pinheiro, V; Falcão E Cunha, L; Mourão, JL; Gidenne, T (2013) 1-9. HERO ID: 1454253

[Less] The goal of this research was to study the effect of the substitution of wheat starch by potato starch . . . [More] The goal of this research was to study the effect of the substitution of wheat starch by potato starch (PS) on the performance, health and digestion of growing rabbits. Three experimental diets were formulated with 0%, 7% and 14% PS (PS0, PS7 and PS14, respectively) and similar starch contents (22% dry matter basis), proteins and fibre. The three diets were administered to three groups of 48 rabbits from weaning (28 days) to slaughter (70 days), and growth and health measurements were made. Another 10 rabbits per diet (30 rabbits at each age), reared under similar conditions, were slaughtered at 6 to 10 weeks of age, and the digesta were collected to analyse the caecal microbial activity (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) levels, fibrolytic activity) and the starch concentration in the ileal digesta. At the same ages, the whole tract digestibility coefficients were measured in 10 other rabbits for each treatment (30 rabbits). The feed intake between 28 and 42 days of age (days) increased by 11% (P < 0.05) in PS0 v. PS14. Over the whole growth period (28 to 70 days), weight gain was similar among diets (40.5 g/day), whereas the feed intake and feed conversion increased (8.5% and 5.2%, respectively; P < 0.05) with the PS14 diet. Mortality and morbidity were not affected by the diets. The starch concentration of the ileal contents increased (P < 0.01) with the addition of PS to the diet (0.39%, 0.77% and 1.08% for diets PS0, PS7 and PS14, respectively). Starch digestibility was 0.8 percentage units higher (99.8% v. 99.0%) with the PS0 diet than the PS14 diet (P = 0.04). The bacterial cellulolytic activity in the caecum tended to be higher with the PS14 diet (P = 0.07). The total VFA caecal concentration increased (P < 0.01) only in 6-week-old rabbits with PS7 compared with PS0 (54.7 v. 74.5 mmol/l). Protein digestibility and ileal starch concentration decreased (P < 0.05) with age (6 v. 10 weeks), and hemicelluloses digestibility increased (P < 0.05). At 10 weeks of age, rabbits showed a higher VFA pool (6.25 mol) and proportion of butyrate (15.9%) and a lower proportion of acetate (79.3%), ammonia level (7.5 mmol/l) and C3/C4 ratio (0.31) than at 6 weeks of age. The intake of potato starch had no effect on the performance, caecal microbial activity or digestive health of growing rabbits.