Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


n-Butanol


3,144 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Non-Antidepressant Pharmacological Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Comprehensive Review

Authors: Abdel-Ahad, P; Kazour, F (In Press) HERO ID: 2282868

[Less] Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with significant morbidity and dysfunction. . . . [More] Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with significant morbidity and dysfunction. First-line OCD treatments - serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and their combination - though widely used, are not sufficient in treating resistant cases. This eventually raises the need for finding novel strategies, whether by adding-on drugs or switching to a different psychopharmacological class. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of non-antidepressant pharmacological treatment that has been evaluated for the management of OCD. Materials and methods: A research has been conducted using MedLine and the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms were used: Obsessive compulsive disorder AND drug therapy. Articles that conformed to specific inclusion criteria were stratified per drug and per quality of evidence. For each drug, articles having the best level of evidence were retained. Results: Sixty-eight articles were reviewed and presented by drug class as follows: antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) analogues and GABA reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, glutamatergic agents and other miscellaneous drugs. Discussion: There is substantial collective evidence supporting the use of antipsychotics as an augmentation treatment of resistant OCD patients. Although not always consistent, the following drugs showed some efficacy upon randomized controlled trials: risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, haloperidol, topiramate, pindolol, morphine, ondansetron and celecoxib. The efficacy of glutamatergic agents is promising. Numerous other pharmacological agents have been studied yet the results are inconclusive due to several limitations mainly of methodological nature.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Non-Antidepressant Pharmacologic Long-Term Treatment of Panic Disorder

Authors: Ibrahim, C; Naja, WJ; Haddad, RS (In Press) HERO ID: 2282870

[Less] Introduction: Panic disorder (PD) is a common anxiety disorder. Despite neurophysiological advances, . . . [More] Introduction: Panic disorder (PD) is a common anxiety disorder. Despite neurophysiological advances, its pathogenesis is still not well elucidated. Although the recommended pharmacological agents have demonstrated efficacy and a rather acceptable tolerability, yet many patients do not respond fully and still suffer from residual symptoms. There is a need for new pharmacological classes with better tolerability and efficacy, and faster onset of action. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the existing non-antidepressant treatment of PD as well as the recent advances in the treatment of PD. Methods: 38 articles discussing pharmacological treatment of PD were selected for this review. They were mainly open-label studies, case-reports and review articles. Results: we reviewed the studies on anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, gamma amino butyric acid (GABAergic) products, atypical antipsychotics, clonidine, as well as emerging drugs in the treatment of PD such as metabotropic glutamate II agonists, and D-cycloserine. Conclusion: although most of the drugs tested were proven effective and well tolerated, the studies on the non-conventional agents are restricted to open-label trials and case reports. Further studies are required to establish their efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of panic disorder.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of glutamine on wound healing

Authors: Kesici, U; Kesici, S; Ulusoy, H; Yucesan, F; Turkmen, AU; Besir, A; Tuna, V (In Press) HERO ID: 2283122

[Less] Studies reporting the need for replacing amino acids such as glutamine (Gln), hydroxymethyl butyrate . . . [More] Studies reporting the need for replacing amino acids such as glutamine (Gln), hydroxymethyl butyrate (HMB) and arginine (Arg) to accelerate wound healing are available in the literature. The primary objective of this study was to present the effects of Gln on tissue hydroxyproline (OHP) levels in wound healing. This study was conducted on 30 female Sprague Dawley rats with a mean weight of 230 ± 20 g. Secondary wounds were formed by excising 2 × 1 cm skin subcutaneous tissue on the back of the rats. The rats were divided into three equal groups. Group C (Control): the group received 1 ml/day isotonic solution by gastric gavage after secondary wound was formed. Group A (Abound): the group received 0·3 g/kg/day/ml Gln, 0·052 g/kg/day/ml HMB and 0·3 g/kg/day/ml Arg by gastric gavage after secondary wound was formed. Group R (Resource): the group received 0·3 g/kg/day/ml Gln by gastric gavage after secondary wound was formed. The OHP levels of the tissues obtained from the upper half region on the 8th day and the lower half region on the 21st day from the same rats in the groups were examined. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistics program SPSS version 17.0. No statistically significant differences were reported with regard to the OHP measurements on the 8th and 21st days (8th day: F = 0·068, P = 0·935 > 0·05; 21st day: F = 0·018, P = 0·983 > 0·05). The increase in mean OHP levels on the 8th and 21st days within each group was found to be statistically significant (F = 1146·34, P = 0·000 < 0·001). We conclude that in adults who eat healthy food, who do not have any factor that can affect wound healing negatively and who do not have large tissue loss at critical level, Gln, Arg and HMB support would not be required to accelerate secondary wound healing.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Vertical mother-neonate transfer of maternal gut bacteria via breastfeeding

Authors: Jost, T; Lacroix, C; Braegger, CP; Rochat, F; Chassard, C (In Press) HERO ID: 2283529

[Less] Breast milk has recently been recognized as source of commensal and potential probiotic bacteria. The . . . [More] Breast milk has recently been recognized as source of commensal and potential probiotic bacteria. The present study investigated whether viable strains of gut-associated obligate anaerobes are shared between the maternal and neonatal gut ecosystem via breastfeeding. Maternal faeces, breast milk and corresponding neonatal faeces collected from seven mothers-neonate pairs at three neonatal sampling points were analyzed by culture-independent (pyrosequencing) and culture-dependent methods (16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA and repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction. Pyrosequencing allowed identifying gut-associated obligate anaerobic genera, like Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides and members of the Clostridia (Blautia, Clostridium, Collinsella and Veillonella) shared between maternal faeces, breast milk and neonatal faeces. Using culture, a viable strain of Bifidobacterium breve was shown to be shared between all three ecosystems within one mother-neonate pair. Furthermore, pyrosequencing revealed that several butyrate-producing members of the Clostridia (Coprococcus, Faecalibacterium, Roseburia and Subdoligranulum) were shared between maternal faeces and breast milk. This study shows that (viable) obligate gut-associated anaerobes may be vertically transferred from mother to neonate via breastfeeding. Thus, our data support the recently suggested hypothesis of a novel way of mother-neonate communication, in which maternal gut bacteria reach breast milk via an entero-mammary pathway to influence neonatal gut colonization and maturation of the immune system.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Medications Affecting Functional Status in Older Persons

Authors: Corsonello, A; Onder, G; Maggio, M; Corica, F; Lattanzio, F (In Press) HERO ID: 2283540

[Less] Current evidence suggests that functional status is an important outcome of pharmacologic treatments . . . [More] Current evidence suggests that functional status is an important outcome of pharmacologic treatments in older people. At the moment, studies have shown diverse effects of medications on functional status. For example, some have shown potentially detrimental effects, while others have found improvements on physical function in elders. Overall, suboptimal prescribing and the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may negatively affect functional status. The use of selected drugs acting on central nervous system (CNS), e.g. benzodiazepines and antipsychotics, is generally associated with an increased risk of functional decline. The greater sensitivity of older people to these drugs, together with age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, account for the observed detrimental effect and suggests a cautious approach to older and frail patients when prescribing CNS agents. On the other hand, selected drugs may slow or delay functional decline in older people. In particular, drugs aimed at targeting sarcopenia (loss in muscle mass and strength), such as testosterone in androgen deficiency, ACE-inhibitors, vitamin D and β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB), as well as the recently developed selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may hold extreme importance. This review will provide available evidence of the diverse impacts of drug medications on functional status in older persons.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of propionate CoA-transferase from Ralstonia eutropha H16

Authors: Volodina, E; Schürmann, M; Lindenkamp, N; Steinbüchel, A (In Press) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 2283558

[Less] In this study, a propionate CoA-transferase (H16_A2718; EC 2.8.3.1) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 (Pct . . . [More] In this study, a propionate CoA-transferase (H16_A2718; EC 2.8.3.1) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 (Pct Re ) was characterized in detail. Glu342 was identified as catalytically active amino acid residue via site-directed mutagenesis. Activity of Pct Re was irreversibly lost after the treatment with NaBH4 in the presence of acetyl-CoA as it is shown for all CoA-transferases from class I, thereby confirming the formation of the covalent enzyme-CoA intermediate by Pct Re . In addition to already known CoA acceptors for Pct Re such as 3-hydroxypropionate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acrylate, succinate, lactate, butyrate, crotonate and 4-hydroxybutyrate, it was found that glycolate, chloropropionate, acetoacetate, valerate, trans-2,3-pentenoate, isovalerate, hexanoate, octanoate and trans-2,3-octenoate formed also corresponding CoA-thioesters after incubation with acetyl-CoA and Pct Re . Isobutyrate was found to be preferentially used as CoA acceptor amongst other carboxylates tested in this study. In contrast, no products were detected with acetyl-CoA and formiate, bromopropionate, glycine, pyruvate, 2-hydroxybutyrate, malonate, fumarate, itaconate, β-alanine, γ-aminobutyrate, levulate, glutarate or adipate as potential CoA acceptor. Amongst CoA donors, butyryl-CoA, crotonyl-CoA, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, succinyl-CoA and valeryl-CoA apart from already known propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA could also donate CoA to acetate. The highest rate of the reaction was observed with 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (2.5 μmol mg(-1) min(-1)). K m values for propionyl-CoA, acetyl-CoA, acetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate were 0.3, 0.6, 4.5 and 4.3 mM, respectively. The rather broad substrate range might be a good starting point for enzyme engineering approaches and for the application of Pct Re in biotechnological polyester production.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of fumaric acid on rumen fermentation, milk composition and metabolic parameters in lactating cows

Authors: Remling, N; Riede, S; Lebzien, P; Meyer, U; Höltershinken, M; Kersten, S; Breves, G; Flachowsky, G; Dänicke, S (In Press) HERO ID: 2283983

[Less] The aim of this study was to determine the influence of fumaric acid (FA) on ruminal fermentation and . . . [More] The aim of this study was to determine the influence of fumaric acid (FA) on ruminal fermentation and its effects on the acid-base balance of seven ruminally and duodenally fistulated multiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment was conducted in a change-over design with three periods in which the animals were randomly arranged in one of three treatments: Control (C; without FA), 300 or 600 g FA per day. The diets consisted of 7.4 kg DM grass silage, 4.2 kg concentrate mixture and 0, 300 or 600 g FA or wheat starch as isocaloric compensation per day and cow. FA supplementation decreased the rumen pH, acetic acid and butyric acid and increased propionic acid in rumen fluid. The results of the single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) did not show an influence of FA on the microbial population in the rumen. The beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in blood and the pH of the urine decreased, while the blood gases were unaffected by supplementation of the acid. The microbial protein per MJ ME decreased in the duodenum with FA supplementation. The milk fat concentration decreased after addition of FA. We conclude that in this study feeding of up to 600 g FA per day did not result in an acidosis. It seems that up to 600 g FA per day did not have a significant influence on the acid-base balance of dairy cows.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Summer Meeting 2013: growth and physiology of bifidobacteria

Authors: De Vuyst, L; Moens, F; Selak, M; Rivière, A; Leroy, F (In Press) HERO ID: 2283986

[Less] Bifidobacteria are a minor fraction of the human colon microbiota with interesting properties for carbohydrate . . . [More] Bifidobacteria are a minor fraction of the human colon microbiota with interesting properties for carbohydrate degradation. Monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose are degraded through the bifid shunt, a dedicated pathway involving phosphoketolase activity. Its stoechiometry learns that three moles of acetate and two moles of lactate are produced per two moles of glucose or fructose that are degraded. However, deviations from this 3 : 2 ratio occur, depending on the rate of substrate consumption. Slower growth rates favour the production of acetate and pyruvate catabolites (such as formate) at the cost of lactate. Interestingly, bifidobacteria are capable to degrade inulin-type fructans (ITF) (oligofructose and inulin) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS). Beta-fructofuranosidase activity enables bifidobacteria to degrade ITF. However, this property is strain-dependent. Some strains consume both fructose and oligofructose, with different preferences and degradation rates. Small oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization or DP of 2-7) are taken up, in a sequential order, indicating intracellular degradation and as such giving these bacteria a competitive advantage towards other inulin-type fructan degraders such as lactobacilli, bacteroides and roseburias. Other strains consume long fractions of oligofructose and inulin. Exceptionally, oligosaccharides with a DP of up to 20 (long-chain inulin) are consumed by specific strains. Also, the degradation of AXOS by α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase is strain-dependent. Particular strains consume the arabinose substituents, whether or not together with a consumption of the xylose backbones of AXOS, either up to xylotetraose or higher and either extra- or intracellularly. The production of high amounts of acetate that accompanies inulin-type fructan degradation by bifidobacteria cross-feeds other colon bacteria involved in the production of butyrate. However, bifidobacterial strain-dependent differences in prebiotic degradation indicate the existence of niche-specific adaptations and hence mechanisms to avoid competition among each other and to favour coexistence with other colon bacteria.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Polysaccharide from Seeds of Plantago asiatica L. Affects Lipid Metabolism and Colon Microbiota of Mouse

Authors: Hu, JL; Nie, SP; Wu, QM; Li, C; Fu, ZH; Gong, J; Cui, SW; Xie, MY (In Press) HERO ID: 2284056

[Less] Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. was given via oral administration to mice (0.4 . . . [More] Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. was given via oral administration to mice (0.4 g/kg body weight, 30 days) to observe its effects on mouse nutrient metabolism and colon microbiota. It was found the polysaccharide intake could lower the apparent absorption of lipid. Total triglyceride, cholesterol, and atherogenic index in blood serum with total lipid and cholesterol levels in liver of polysaccharide group mice were all significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the effect of the polysaccharide intake on mouse colon bacterial communities was investigated. Mice from the polysaccharide group showed a higher colon bacterial diversity than the control group. Bacteroides sp., Eubacterium sp., butyrate-producing bacteria Butyrivibrio sp., and probiotics Bifidobacterium bifidum , Lactobacillus fermentum , and Lactobacillus reuteri in mouse colon were all increased after polysaccharide intake. These indicated that the intake of polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. could be beneficial for lipid metabolism and colon microbiota.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Motor neuropathy-associated mutation impairs Seipin functions in neurotransmission

Authors: Wei, S; Soh, SL; Xia, J; Ong, WY; Pang, ZP; Han, W (In Press) HERO ID: 2284073

[Less] Gain-of-toxic-function mutations in Seipin (Asparagine 88 to Serine (N88S) and Serine 90 to Leucine . . . [More] Gain-of-toxic-function mutations in Seipin (Asparagine 88 to Serine (N88S) and Serine 90 to Leucine (S90L) mutations, both of which disrupt the N-glycosylation) cause autosomal dominant motor neuron diseases. However, the mechanism of how these missense mutations lead to motor neuropathy is unclear. Here, we analyze the impact of disruption of N-glycosylation of Seipin on synaptic transmission by over-expressing mutant Seipin in cultured cortical neurons via lentiviral infection. Immunostaining shows that over-expressed Seipin is partly colocalized with synaptic vesicle marker synaptophysin. Electrophysiological recordings reveal that the Seipin mutation significantly decreases the frequency, but not the amplitudes of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents and miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents. The amplitude of both evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents and inhibitory post-synaptic current is also compromised by mutant Seipin over-expression. The readily releasable pool and vesicular release probability of synaptic vesicles are both altered in neurons over-expressing Seipin-N88S, whereas neither γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) nor α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) induced whole cell currents are affected. Moreover, electron microscopy analysis reveals decreased number of morphologically docked synaptic vesicles in Seipin-N88S-expressing neurons. These data demonstrate that Seipin-N88S mutation impairs synaptic neurotransmission, possibly by regulating the priming and docking of synaptic vesicles at the synapse. Motoneuropathy-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein Seipin-N88S mutation disrupts N-glycosylation and decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic currents (PSCs), and the amplitude of evoked excitatory and inhibitory PSCs. The readily releasable pool and synaptic vesicle (SV) release probability were reduced in neurons over-expressing Seipin-N88S, along with decreased number of docked vesicles. We propose that Seipin-N88S mutation impairs synaptic neurotransmission by regulating the docking of synaptic vesicles.