Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


n-Butanol


1,230 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effects of dynamic changes of malonyl ginsenosides on evaluation and quality control of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer

Authors: Liu, Z; Li, Y; Li, X; Ruan, CC; Wang, LJ; Sun, GZ (In Press) Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. HERO ID: 1037908

[Less] To clarify the effects of malonyl ginsenosides (MGR) on evaluation and quality control of Panax ginseng, . . . [More] To clarify the effects of malonyl ginsenosides (MGR) on evaluation and quality control of Panax ginseng, the contents of neutral and malonyl ginsenosides from P. ginseng were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with UV-VIS detector (HPLC-UV) during extraction, processing and storage. Several solvents, including water, ethanol, methanol, and n-butanol were used in the cold-soaked extraction (CSE). Among the four extraction solvents, methanol was found to be the most efficient. CSE was compared with other extraction methods such as Soxhlet extraction (SE), heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The content of MGR showed significant differences, higher in CSE and UAE; lower in MAE and HRE; no MGR could be detected after SE. However, the total contents of neutral and malonyl ginsenosides were not different. Meanwhile, white ginseng, stored at 25°C in air of low humidity, showed a marked decrease in the concentration of MGR from 1.19% to 0.63% but with an increase in the neutral ginsenosides from 1.12% to 1.53% after 0-9-month storage. The results indicated that MGR changed dynamically in P. ginseng with different extraction solvents, extraction methods and increasing storage time. The total ginsenosides was not only underestimated but also determined imprecisely by ignoring malonyl ginsenosides. On the basis of our results, we suggest that malonyl ginsenosides should be transformed into the corresponding neutral ginsenosides during sample preparation for quality control and evaluation of P. ginseng. Then the content of six neutral ginsenosides in samples was used as the true level of total ginsenosides. The results reported here might provide useful information for accurate evaluation and quality control of P. ginseng.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Calcium is involved in nitric oxide- and auxin-induced lateral root formation in rice

Authors: Chen, YH; Kao, CH (In Press) Protoplasma. HERO ID: 871432

[Less] In the present study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of lateral root (LR) formation . . . [More] In the present study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of lateral root (LR) formation in rice was examined. Application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA; a naturally occurring auxin) to rice seedlings induced LR formation. The effect is specific for NO because the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3- oxide (cPTIO) blocked the action of SNP and IBA. Endogenous NO was detected by the specific fluorescence probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate. SNP- and IBA-induced NO fluorescence was specifically suppressed by cPTIO. Nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor sodium tungstate completely inhibited IBA-induced LR formation and NO fluorescence. However, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N (G)-nitro-L: -arginine methyl ester hydrochloride slightly reduced IBA-induced LR formation and NO generation. It appears that NO generation that occurs in response to IBA might primarily involve NR activity. Moreover, NO production caused by SNP and IBA was localized in root area corresponding to LR emergence. The effects of Ca(2+) chelators, Ca(2+)-channel inhibitors, and calmodulin antagonists on LR formation induced by SNP and IBA were also examined. All these inhibitors were effective in reducing the action of SNP and IBA. However, Ca(2+) chelators and Ca(2+)-channel inhibitors had no effect on SNP- and IBA-induced NO generation. It is concluded that cytosolic levels of Ca(2+) may regulate SNP and IBA action through calmodulin-dependent mechanism.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bicarbonate-dependent transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of sheep rumen epithelium

Authors: Dengler, F; Rackwitz, R; Benesch, F; Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G (In Press) Acta Physiologica. HERO ID: 2235334

[Less] AIM: This study aimed to assess the role of HCO3- in the transport of acetate and butyrate . . . [More] AIM: This study aimed to assess the role of HCO3- in the transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of rumen epithelium and to identify transport proteins involved.

METHODS: The effects of basolateral variation in HCO3- concentrations on acetate and butyrate efflux out of the epithelium and the transepithelial flux of these short-chain fatty acids were tested in Ussing chamber experiments using (14) C-labelled substrates. HCO3--dependent transport mechanisms were characterized by adding specific inhibitors of candidate proteins to the serosal side.

RESULTS: Effluxes of acetate and butyrate out of the epithelium were higher to the serosal side than to the mucosal side. Acetate and butyrate effluxes to both sides of rumen epithelium consisted of HCO3--independent and -dependent parts. HCO3--dependent transport across the basolateral membrane was confirmed in studies of transepithelial fluxes. Mucosal to serosal fluxes of acetate and butyrate decreased with lowering serosal HCO3- concentrations. In the presence of 25 mm HCO3-, transepithelial flux of acetate was inhibited effectively by p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid or α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, while butyrate flux was unaffected by the blockers. Fluxes of both acetate and butyrate from the serosal to the mucosal side were diminished largely by the addition of NO3- to the serosal side, with this effect being more pronounced for acetate.

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate the existence of a basolateral short-chain fatty acid/HCO3- exchanger, with monocarboxylate transporter 1 as a primary candidate for acetate transfer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arginine butyrate: a therapeutic candidate for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Authors: Vianello, S; Yu, H; Voisin, V; Haddad, H; He, X; Foutz, AS; Sebrié, C; Gillet, B; Roulot, M; Fougerousse, F; Perronnet, C; Vaillend, C; Matecki, S; Escolar, D; Bossi, L; Israël, M; de la Porte, S (In Press) FASEB Journal. HERO ID: 1520397

[Less] As a strategy to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we used arginine butyrate, which combines two pharmacological . . . [More] As a strategy to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we used arginine butyrate, which combines two pharmacological activities: nitric oxide pathway activation, and histone deacetylase inhibition. Continuous intraperitoneal administration to dystrophin-deficient mdx mice resulted in a near 2-fold increase in utrophin (protein homologous to dystrophin) in skeletal muscle, heart, and brain, accompanied by an improvement of the dystrophic phenotype in both adult and newborn mice (45 and 70% decrease in creatine kinase level, respectively; 14% increase in tidal volume, 30% decrease in necrotic area in limb and 23% increase in isometric force). Intermittent administration, as performed in clinical trials, was then used to reduce the frequency of injections and to improve safety. This also enhanced utrophin level around 2-fold (EC(50)=284 mg/ml) and alleviated the dystrophic phenotype (inverted grid and grip test performance near to wild-type values, creatine kinase level decreased by 50%). Skin biopsies were used to monitor treatment efficacy, instead of invasive muscle biopsies, and this could be done a few days after the start of treatment. A 2-fold increase in utrophin expression was also shown in cultured human myotubes. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that the drug combination acts synergistically. Together, these data constitute a proof of principle of the beneficial effects of arginine butyrate on muscular dystrophy.-Vianello, S., Yu, H., Voisin, V., Haddad, H., He, X., Foutz, A. S., Sebrié, C., Gillet, B., Roulot, M., Fougerousse, F., Perronnet, C., Vaillend, C., Matecki, S., Escolar, D., Bossi, L., Israël, M., de la Porte, S. Arginine butyrate: a therapeutic candidate for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of Scrophularia extracts on tumor cell proliferation, death and intravasation through lymphoendothelial cell barriers

Authors: Giessrigl, B; Yazici, G; Teichmann, M; Kopf, S; Ghassemi, S; Atanasov, AG; Dirsch, VM; Grusch, M; Jäger, W; Ozmen, A; Krupitza, G (In Press) International journal of oncology. HERO ID: 1038055

[Less] Different studies describe the anti-inflammatory effects of Scrophularia species, a medicinal plant . . . [More] Different studies describe the anti-inflammatory effects of Scrophularia species, a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine since ancient times. As knowledge regarding the anti-neoplastic properties of this species is rather limited, we investigated the influence of methanol extracts of different Scrophularia species on cell proliferation, cell death, and tumour cell intravasation through the lymph endothelial barrier. HL-60 leukaemia cells were treated with methanol extracts of different Scrophularia species leading to strong growth inhibition and high cell death rates. The expression of cell cycle regulators, oncogenes and cell death inducers was determined by Western blot analysis. Furthermore the effect of S. lucida was studied in an NF-κB reporter assay, and in a novel assay measuring 'circular chemo-repellent-induced defects' (CCID) in lymph endothelial monolayers that were induced by MCF-7 breast cancer spheroids. Methanol extracts of Scrophularia species exhibited strong anti-proliferative properties. S. floribunda extract inhibited G2/M- and later on S-phase and S. lucida inhibited S-phase and in both cases this was associated with the down-regulation of c-Myc expression. Extracts of S. floribunda and S. lucida led to necrosis and apoptosis, respectively. Furthermore, S. lucida, but not S. floribunda, effectively attenuated tumour cell intravasation through lymph endothelial cell monolayers, which correlated with the inhibition of NF-κB. S. lucida exhibited promising anti-neoplastic effects and this was most likely due to the down-regulation of various cell cycle regulators, proto-oncogenes and NF-κB and the activation of caspase-3.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of ethanol extract of Alpinia oxyphylla fruits

Authors: Wang, CZ; Yuan, HH; Bao, XL; Lan, MB (In Press) Pharmaceutical Biology. HERO ID: 1859084

[Less] Abstract Context. Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel (Zingiberaceae) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine . . . [More] Abstract Context. Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel (Zingiberaceae) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used for the treatment of intestinal disorders, urosis and diuresis. However, information about antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of its fruits remains to be elucidated. Objective: The ethanol crude extract (CE) and its fractions [petroleum ether fraction (PF), ethyl acetate fraction (EF), n-butanol fraction (BF) and water fraction (WF) extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, respectively] of A. oxyphylla fruits were investigated for their antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity. Materials and methods: The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and reducing power assay. Cytotoxicity of the extracts (0-200 μg/mL) was tested on six human cancer cell lines (breast cancer cell line, cervix carcinoma cell line, lung adenocarcinoma cell line, liver carcinoma cell line, gastric cancer cell line and colon cancer cell line) using the sulforhodamine B assay. Results: The TPC of extracts varied from 8.2 to 20.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. DPPH radical scavenging effect of extracts decreased in the order of EF > BF > CE > PF > WF, with IC50 values ranging from 74.7 to 680.8 μg/mL. 2,2-azo-bis(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfoic acid) diammonium salt scavenging activity ranged from 0.118 to 0.236 mmol Trolox equivalence/mg extract. The extracts exhibited concentration-dependent reducing power, and EF showed the highest reducing ability. A satisfactory correlation (R(2) > 0.826) between TPC and antioxidant activity was observed. In addition, EF, PF and CE exhibited potent anticancer effects on six cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 40.1 to 166.3 μg/mL. Discussion and conclusion: The ethanol extract of A. oxyphylla fruit, especially the EF, was found to possess potent antioxidant and anticancer activities, and thus a great potential for the application in food and drug products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Overexpression of miR-122 promotes the hepatic differentiation and maturation of mouse ESCs through a miR-122/FoxA1/HNF4a-positive feedback loop

Authors: Deng, XG; Qiu, R; Wu, Y; Li, Z; Xie, P; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, J; Zeng, LeX; Tang, J; Maharjan, Anu; Deng, J (2014) Liver International 34:281-295. HERO ID: 2279525

[Less] BACKGROUND & AIMS: microRNA-122 is the only identified liver-specific miRNA and . . . [More] BACKGROUND & AIMS: microRNA-122 is the only identified liver-specific miRNA and plays a crucial role in liver development, maintenance of hepatic homeostasis as well as tumourigenesis. In our previous differentiation of ESCs into hepatocytes, microRNA-122 (miR-122) was expressed at a relatively low level. Here, we aim to elucidate the effect and underlying mechanisms of miR-122 during differentiation of ESCs into hepatocytes.

METHODS: Mouse ESCs were initially induced towards HPCs by activin A, FGF-4 and sodium butyrate and were subsequently transfected with a recombinant adenovirus expressing vector pAV.Ex1d-CMV>miR-122/IRES/eGFP 9 days after induction. Cells were analysed by real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, microscopy and functional assays. Furthermore, microarray analysis was performed.

RESULTS: We demonstrated that overexpression of miR-122 could effectively promote hepatic differentiation and maturation, as assessed by morphological and functional tests. The microarray analysis revealed that 323 genes were down-regulated, whereas 59 were up-regulated. Particularly, two liver-specific transcription factors, FoxA1 and HNF4a, were significantly up-regulated. Moreover, the expression of E-cadherin was dramatically increased and the proliferation of HPCs was suppressed, whereas knockdown of FoxA1 reduced E-cadherin expression and increased the proliferation of HPCs. In addition, the expression levels of FoxA1, HNF4a and E-cadherin in time-course transfection experiments with miR-122 were not significantly increased except in cells in which transfection with miR-122 occurred 9 days after induction.

CONCLUSION: Overexpression of miR-122 at an appropriate stage could promote hepatic differentiation and maturation by regulating the balance between proliferation and differentiation, as well as the balance between EMT and MET, partially through a miR-122/FoxA1/HNF4a-positive feedback loop.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Alteration of cholinesterase activity as possible mechanism of silver nanoparticle toxicity

Authors: Sinko, G; Vrcek, IV; Goessler, W; Leitinger, G; Dijanosic, A; Miljanic, S (2014) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21:1391-1400. HERO ID: 2279527

[Less] Due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used in a . . . [More] Due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used in a large number of commercial and medical products. Such proliferated AgNP production poses toxicological and environmental issues which need to be addressed. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of AgNPs on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), important enzymes in areas of neurobiology, toxicology and pharmacology. Three different AgNPs, prepared by the chemical reduction using trisodium citrate, hydroxylamine hydrochloride (Cl-AgNPs), and borohydride following stabilization with poly(vinyl alcohol), were purified and characterised with respect to their sizes, shapes and optical properties. Their inhibition potential on AChE and BChE was evaluated in vitro using an enzyme assay with o-nitrophenyl acetate or o-nitrophenyl butyrate as substrates, respectively. All three studied AgNPs were reversible inhibitors of ChEs. Among tested nanoparticles, Cl-AgNP was found to be the most potent inhibitor of both AChE and BChE. Although the detailed mechanism by which the AgNPs inhibit esterase activities remains unknown, structural perturbation of the enzyme may be the common mode of ChE inhibition by AgNPs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Alterations of epigenetics and microRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma

Authors: Saito, Y; Hibino, S; Saito, H (2014) HERO ID: 2279530


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Role of CYP2A13 in the bioactivation and lung tumorigenicity of the tobacco-specific lung procarcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone: in vivo studies using a CYP2A13-humanized mouse model

Authors: Megaraj, V; Zhou, Xin; Xie, F; Liu, Z; Yang, W; Ding, X (2014) Carcinogenesis 35:131-137. HERO ID: 2279534

[Less] The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which is abundant . . . [More] The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which is abundant in tobacco smoke, is a potent lung procarcinogen. The present study was aimed to prove that transgenic expression of human cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13), known to be selectively expressed in the respiratory tract and be the most efficient enzyme for NNK bioactivation in vitro, will enhance NNK bioactivation and NNK-induced tumorigenesis in the mouse lung. Kinetic parameters of NNK bioactivation in vitro and incidence of NNK-induced lung tumors in vivo were determined for wild-type, Cyp2a5-null and CYP2A13-humanized (CYP2A13-transgenic/Cyp2a5-null) mice. As expected, in both liver and lung microsomes, the loss of CYP2A5 resulted in significant increases in Michaelis constant (K m) values for the formation of 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanal, representing the reactive intermediate that can lead to the formation of O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)-mG) DNA adducts; however, the gain of CYP2A13 at a fraction of the level of mouse lung CYP2A5 led to recovery of the activity in the lung, but not in the liver. The levels of O(6)-mG, the DNA adduct highly correlated with lung tumorigenesis, were significantly higher in the lungs of CYP2A13-humanized mice than in Cyp2a5-null mice. Moreover, incidences of lung tumorigenesis were significantly greater in CYP2A13-humanized mice than in Cyp2a5-null mice, and the magnitude of the differences in incidence was greater at low (30mg/kg) than at high (200mg/kg) NNK doses. These results indicate that CYP2A13 is a low K m enzyme in catalyzing NNK bioactivation in vivo and support the notion that genetic polymorphisms of CYP2A13 can influence the risks of tobacco-induced lung tumorigenesis in humans.