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n-Butanol


1,230 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effects of dynamic changes of malonyl ginsenosides on evaluation and quality control of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer

Authors: Liu, Z; Li, Y; Li, X; Ruan, CC; Wang, LJ; Sun, GZ (In Press) Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. HERO ID: 1037908

[Less] To clarify the effects of malonyl ginsenosides (MGR) on evaluation and quality control of Panax ginseng, . . . [More] To clarify the effects of malonyl ginsenosides (MGR) on evaluation and quality control of Panax ginseng, the contents of neutral and malonyl ginsenosides from P. ginseng were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with UV-VIS detector (HPLC-UV) during extraction, processing and storage. Several solvents, including water, ethanol, methanol, and n-butanol were used in the cold-soaked extraction (CSE). Among the four extraction solvents, methanol was found to be the most efficient. CSE was compared with other extraction methods such as Soxhlet extraction (SE), heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The content of MGR showed significant differences, higher in CSE and UAE; lower in MAE and HRE; no MGR could be detected after SE. However, the total contents of neutral and malonyl ginsenosides were not different. Meanwhile, white ginseng, stored at 25°C in air of low humidity, showed a marked decrease in the concentration of MGR from 1.19% to 0.63% but with an increase in the neutral ginsenosides from 1.12% to 1.53% after 0-9-month storage. The results indicated that MGR changed dynamically in P. ginseng with different extraction solvents, extraction methods and increasing storage time. The total ginsenosides was not only underestimated but also determined imprecisely by ignoring malonyl ginsenosides. On the basis of our results, we suggest that malonyl ginsenosides should be transformed into the corresponding neutral ginsenosides during sample preparation for quality control and evaluation of P. ginseng. Then the content of six neutral ginsenosides in samples was used as the true level of total ginsenosides. The results reported here might provide useful information for accurate evaluation and quality control of P. ginseng.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Calcium is involved in nitric oxide- and auxin-induced lateral root formation in rice

Authors: Chen, YH; Kao, CH (In Press) Protoplasma. HERO ID: 871432

[Less] In the present study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of lateral root (LR) formation . . . [More] In the present study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of lateral root (LR) formation in rice was examined. Application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA; a naturally occurring auxin) to rice seedlings induced LR formation. The effect is specific for NO because the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3- oxide (cPTIO) blocked the action of SNP and IBA. Endogenous NO was detected by the specific fluorescence probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate. SNP- and IBA-induced NO fluorescence was specifically suppressed by cPTIO. Nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor sodium tungstate completely inhibited IBA-induced LR formation and NO fluorescence. However, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N (G)-nitro-L: -arginine methyl ester hydrochloride slightly reduced IBA-induced LR formation and NO generation. It appears that NO generation that occurs in response to IBA might primarily involve NR activity. Moreover, NO production caused by SNP and IBA was localized in root area corresponding to LR emergence. The effects of Ca(2+) chelators, Ca(2+)-channel inhibitors, and calmodulin antagonists on LR formation induced by SNP and IBA were also examined. All these inhibitors were effective in reducing the action of SNP and IBA. However, Ca(2+) chelators and Ca(2+)-channel inhibitors had no effect on SNP- and IBA-induced NO generation. It is concluded that cytosolic levels of Ca(2+) may regulate SNP and IBA action through calmodulin-dependent mechanism.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bicarbonate-dependent transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of sheep rumen epithelium

Authors: Dengler, F; Rackwitz, R; Benesch, F; Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G (In Press) Acta Physiologica. HERO ID: 2235334

[Less] AIM: This study aimed to assess the role of HCO3- in the transport of acetate and butyrate . . . [More] AIM: This study aimed to assess the role of HCO3- in the transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of rumen epithelium and to identify transport proteins involved.

METHODS: The effects of basolateral variation in HCO3- concentrations on acetate and butyrate efflux out of the epithelium and the transepithelial flux of these short-chain fatty acids were tested in Ussing chamber experiments using (14) C-labelled substrates. HCO3--dependent transport mechanisms were characterized by adding specific inhibitors of candidate proteins to the serosal side.

RESULTS: Effluxes of acetate and butyrate out of the epithelium were higher to the serosal side than to the mucosal side. Acetate and butyrate effluxes to both sides of rumen epithelium consisted of HCO3--independent and -dependent parts. HCO3--dependent transport across the basolateral membrane was confirmed in studies of transepithelial fluxes. Mucosal to serosal fluxes of acetate and butyrate decreased with lowering serosal HCO3- concentrations. In the presence of 25 mm HCO3-, transepithelial flux of acetate was inhibited effectively by p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid or α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, while butyrate flux was unaffected by the blockers. Fluxes of both acetate and butyrate from the serosal to the mucosal side were diminished largely by the addition of NO3- to the serosal side, with this effect being more pronounced for acetate.

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate the existence of a basolateral short-chain fatty acid/HCO3- exchanger, with monocarboxylate transporter 1 as a primary candidate for acetate transfer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arginine butyrate: a therapeutic candidate for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Authors: Vianello, S; Yu, H; Voisin, V; Haddad, H; He, X; Foutz, AS; Sebrié, C; Gillet, B; Roulot, M; Fougerousse, F; Perronnet, C; Vaillend, C; Matecki, S; Escolar, D; Bossi, L; Israël, M; de la Porte, S (In Press) FASEB Journal. HERO ID: 1520397

[Less] As a strategy to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we used arginine butyrate, which combines two pharmacological . . . [More] As a strategy to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we used arginine butyrate, which combines two pharmacological activities: nitric oxide pathway activation, and histone deacetylase inhibition. Continuous intraperitoneal administration to dystrophin-deficient mdx mice resulted in a near 2-fold increase in utrophin (protein homologous to dystrophin) in skeletal muscle, heart, and brain, accompanied by an improvement of the dystrophic phenotype in both adult and newborn mice (45 and 70% decrease in creatine kinase level, respectively; 14% increase in tidal volume, 30% decrease in necrotic area in limb and 23% increase in isometric force). Intermittent administration, as performed in clinical trials, was then used to reduce the frequency of injections and to improve safety. This also enhanced utrophin level around 2-fold (EC(50)=284 mg/ml) and alleviated the dystrophic phenotype (inverted grid and grip test performance near to wild-type values, creatine kinase level decreased by 50%). Skin biopsies were used to monitor treatment efficacy, instead of invasive muscle biopsies, and this could be done a few days after the start of treatment. A 2-fold increase in utrophin expression was also shown in cultured human myotubes. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that the drug combination acts synergistically. Together, these data constitute a proof of principle of the beneficial effects of arginine butyrate on muscular dystrophy.-Vianello, S., Yu, H., Voisin, V., Haddad, H., He, X., Foutz, A. S., Sebrié, C., Gillet, B., Roulot, M., Fougerousse, F., Perronnet, C., Vaillend, C., Matecki, S., Escolar, D., Bossi, L., Israël, M., de la Porte, S. Arginine butyrate: a therapeutic candidate for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of Scrophularia extracts on tumor cell proliferation, death and intravasation through lymphoendothelial cell barriers

Authors: Giessrigl, B; Yazici, G; Teichmann, M; Kopf, S; Ghassemi, S; Atanasov, AG; Dirsch, VM; Grusch, M; Jäger, W; Ozmen, A; Krupitza, G (In Press) International journal of oncology. HERO ID: 1038055

[Less] Different studies describe the anti-inflammatory effects of Scrophularia species, a medicinal plant . . . [More] Different studies describe the anti-inflammatory effects of Scrophularia species, a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine since ancient times. As knowledge regarding the anti-neoplastic properties of this species is rather limited, we investigated the influence of methanol extracts of different Scrophularia species on cell proliferation, cell death, and tumour cell intravasation through the lymph endothelial barrier. HL-60 leukaemia cells were treated with methanol extracts of different Scrophularia species leading to strong growth inhibition and high cell death rates. The expression of cell cycle regulators, oncogenes and cell death inducers was determined by Western blot analysis. Furthermore the effect of S. lucida was studied in an NF-κB reporter assay, and in a novel assay measuring 'circular chemo-repellent-induced defects' (CCID) in lymph endothelial monolayers that were induced by MCF-7 breast cancer spheroids. Methanol extracts of Scrophularia species exhibited strong anti-proliferative properties. S. floribunda extract inhibited G2/M- and later on S-phase and S. lucida inhibited S-phase and in both cases this was associated with the down-regulation of c-Myc expression. Extracts of S. floribunda and S. lucida led to necrosis and apoptosis, respectively. Furthermore, S. lucida, but not S. floribunda, effectively attenuated tumour cell intravasation through lymph endothelial cell monolayers, which correlated with the inhibition of NF-κB. S. lucida exhibited promising anti-neoplastic effects and this was most likely due to the down-regulation of various cell cycle regulators, proto-oncogenes and NF-κB and the activation of caspase-3.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of ethanol extract of Alpinia oxyphylla fruits

Authors: Wang, CZ; Yuan, HH; Bao, XL; Lan, MB (In Press) Pharmaceutical Biology. HERO ID: 1859084

[Less] Abstract Context. Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel (Zingiberaceae) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine . . . [More] Abstract Context. Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel (Zingiberaceae) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used for the treatment of intestinal disorders, urosis and diuresis. However, information about antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of its fruits remains to be elucidated. Objective: The ethanol crude extract (CE) and its fractions [petroleum ether fraction (PF), ethyl acetate fraction (EF), n-butanol fraction (BF) and water fraction (WF) extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, respectively] of A. oxyphylla fruits were investigated for their antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity. Materials and methods: The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and reducing power assay. Cytotoxicity of the extracts (0-200 μg/mL) was tested on six human cancer cell lines (breast cancer cell line, cervix carcinoma cell line, lung adenocarcinoma cell line, liver carcinoma cell line, gastric cancer cell line and colon cancer cell line) using the sulforhodamine B assay. Results: The TPC of extracts varied from 8.2 to 20.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. DPPH radical scavenging effect of extracts decreased in the order of EF > BF > CE > PF > WF, with IC50 values ranging from 74.7 to 680.8 μg/mL. 2,2-azo-bis(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfoic acid) diammonium salt scavenging activity ranged from 0.118 to 0.236 mmol Trolox equivalence/mg extract. The extracts exhibited concentration-dependent reducing power, and EF showed the highest reducing ability. A satisfactory correlation (R(2) > 0.826) between TPC and antioxidant activity was observed. In addition, EF, PF and CE exhibited potent anticancer effects on six cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 40.1 to 166.3 μg/mL. Discussion and conclusion: The ethanol extract of A. oxyphylla fruit, especially the EF, was found to possess potent antioxidant and anticancer activities, and thus a great potential for the application in food and drug products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Migration of odorous compounds from adhesives used in market samples of food packaging materials by chromatography olfactometry and mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS)

Authors: Vera, P; Canellas, E; Nerin, C (2014) Food Chemistry 145:237-244. HERO ID: 2279642

[Less] Adhesives are commonly used in the manufacture of multilayer food packaging materials. Although they . . . [More] Adhesives are commonly used in the manufacture of multilayer food packaging materials. Although they are not in direct contact with the packed food, their compounds may migrate from the adhesive through the substrates to the food. The aim of this work is to determine the migrant concentration in order to evaluate the possible human risk and also to determine if this migration could affect the organoleptic properties of packed food. For this purpose, a total of 12 market samples of multilayer materials (laminates) for packaging dry food (tomatoes, cakes, cookies, breadcrumbs, flour or salt) or fresh food (pizza and pastry) produced with 5 different adhesives were analysed by GC-O-MS. A total of 25 different compounds from adhesives were detected in these laminates. Seventy-six percentage of these compounds migrated into a dry food simulant (Tenax®). Furthermore, compounds with concentrations below the MS detection limit were detected by sniffers with a high modified frequency (MF%). Acetic acid, butyric acid and cyclohexanol with vinegar, cheese and camphor odours were the most abundant compounds. All migration data were below the specific migration limits (SML) and threshold toxicological concern (TTC) recommended values according to the Cramer classification.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fatty acids found in dairy, protein and unsaturated fatty acids are associated with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study

Authors: Jansen, RJ; Robinson, DP; Frank, RD; Anderson, KE; Bamlet, WR; Oberg, AL; Rabe, KG; Olson, JE; Sinha, R; Petersen, GM; Stolzenberg-Solomon, RZ (2014) International Journal of Cancer 134:1935-1946. HERO ID: 2279418

[Less] Although many studies have investigated meat and total fat in relation to pancreatic cancer risk, few . . . [More] Although many studies have investigated meat and total fat in relation to pancreatic cancer risk, few have investigated dairy, fish and specific fatty acids (FAs). We evaluated the association between intake of meat, fish, dairy, specific FAs and related nutrients and pancreatic cancer. In our American-based Mayo Clinic case-control study 384 cases and 983 controls frequency matched on recruitment age, race, sex and residence area (Minnesota, Wisconsin or Iowa, USA) between 2004 and 2009. All subjects provided demographic information and completed 144-item food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression-calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking, body mass index and diabetes mellitus. Significant inverse association (trend p-value < 0.05) between pancreatic cancer and the groupings (highest vs. lowest consumption quintile OR [95% CI]) was as follows: meat replacement (0.67 [0.43-1.02]), total protein (0.58 [0.39-0.86]), vitamin B12 (0.67 [0.44, 1.01]), zinc (0.48 [0.32, 0.71]), phosphorus (0.62 [0.41, 0.93]), vitamin E (0.51 [0.33, 0.78]), polyunsaturated FAs (0.64 [0.42, 0.98]) and linoleic acid (FA 18:2) (0.62 [0.40-0.95]). Increased risk associations were observed for saturated FAs (1.48 [0.97-2.23]), butyric acid (FA 4:0) (1.77 [1.19-2.64]), caproic acid (FA 6:0) (2.15 [1.42-3.27]), caprylic acid (FA 8:0) (1.87 [1.27-2.76]) and capric acid (FA 10:0) (1.83 [1.23-2.74]). Our study suggests that eating a diet high in total protein and certain unsaturated FAs is associated with decreased risk of developing pancreatic cancer in a dose-dependent manner, whereas fats found in dairy increase risk.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Role of GABAergic activity of sodium valproate against ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury in rats

Authors: Brar, R; Singh, J; Kaur, T; Arora, S; Singh, A (2014) Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 387:143-151. HERO ID: 2279439

[Less] Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) has been reported to be renoprotective in various preclinical studies. . . . [More] Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) has been reported to be renoprotective in various preclinical studies. Sodium valproate (SVP) is documented to protect against renal injury through its histone deacetylase-inhibiting activity. The present study investigated the involvement of GABAA receptors and the role of GABAergic activity of SVP against ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h to induce AKI. The creatinine clearance, serum urea, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria were measured to assess kidney injury. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, reduced glutathione level, myeloperoxidase, and catalase activity were assayed to assess oxidative stress in renal tissues along with hematoxylin-eosin staining to observe histopathological changes. The ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI witnessed an increase in serum parameters, microproteinuria, oxidative stress, and histopathological changes in renal tissues. Picrotoxin aggravated ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced AKI confirming the role of GABAA receptors in AKI. The SVP treatment afforded protection against AKI that was blocked by concurrent treatment with picrotoxin. Hence, it is concluded that regulation of GABAA receptors is important for management of AKI. Moreover, the GABAergic activity of SVP is important for its renoprotective effect.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Role of NADPH oxidase-4 in saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in SK-Hep-1 cells

Authors: Oh, JM; Choi, JM; Lee, JY; Oh, SJ; Kim, BH; Kim, SK (2014) Food and Chemical Toxicology 63:128-135. HERO ID: 2232822

[Less] We aimed to develop a cell culture model of type 2 diabetes by treating SK-Hep-1 cells with four free . . . [More] We aimed to develop a cell culture model of type 2 diabetes by treating SK-Hep-1 cells with four free fatty acids [i.e., palmitic acid, stearic acid (SA), linoleic acid and oleic acid]. The results showed that Akt phosphorylation was increased in SK-Hep-1 cells treated with insulin in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by saturated fatty acids, but not by unsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, protein levels of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 4 but not NOX2 were increased following SA treatment and, consequently, increased reactive oxygen species production and decreased cellular glutathione were observed. Apocynin, a NOX4 inhibitor, restored the SA-induced inhibition of Akt phosphorylation, suggesting the role of NOX4 in insulin resistance induced by SA. Neither phosphorylation level nor protein level of the stress signaling kinases, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase or p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, was changed by SA treatment. Although binding immunoglobulin protein, a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress, was transiently increased in SKHep-1 cells treated with SA, 4-phenyl butyric acid, a chemical chaperone, had no effect on the insulin-mediated Akt phosphorylation inhibited by SA. The present study provides a useful model for screening anti-insulin resistance drugs and finding new drug targets for treatment of diabetes.