Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Libby Amphibole Asbestos (Draft, 2011)


1,032 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Understanding the complexity of IgE-related phenotypes from childhood to young adulthood: A Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL) Seminar

Authors: Antó, JM; Pinart, M; Akdis, M; Auffray, C; Bachert, C; Basagaña, X; Carlsen, KH; Guerra, S; von Hertzen, L; Illi, S; Kauffmann, F; Keil, T; Kiley, JP; Koppelman, GH; Lupinek, C; Martinez, FD; Nawijn, MC; Postma, DS; Siroux, V; Smit, HA; Sterk, PJ; Sunyer, J; Valenta, R; Valverde, S; Akdis, CA; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ballester, F; Benet, M; Cambon-Thomsen, A; Chatzi, L; Coquet, J; Demoly, P; Gan, W; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gimeno-Santos, E; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, C; Haahtela, T; Heinrich, J; Herr, M; Hohmann, C; Jacquemin, B; Just, J; Kerkhof, M; Kogevinas, M; Kowalski, ML; Lambrecht, BN; Lau, S; Lødrup Carlsen, KC; Maier, D; Momas, I; Noel, P; Oddie, S; Palkonen, S; Pin, I; Porta, D; Punturieri, A; Rancière, F; Smith, RA; Stanic, B; Stein, RT; van De Veen, W; van Oosterhout, AJ; Varraso, R; Wickman, M; Wijmenga, C; Wright, J; Yaman, G; Zuberbier, T; Bousquet, J (In Press) Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. [Review] HERO ID: 1056065

[Less] Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL), a Seventh Framework Program European Union project, . . . [More] Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL), a Seventh Framework Program European Union project, aims to generate novel knowledge on the mechanisms of initiation of allergy. Precise phenotypes of IgE-mediated allergic diseases will be defined in MeDALL. As part of MeDALL, a scientific seminar was held on January 24, 2011, to review current knowledge on the IgE-related phenotypes and to explore how a multidisciplinary effort could result in a new integrative translational approach. This article provides a summary of the meeting. It develops challenges in IgE-related phenotypes and new clinical and epidemiologic approaches to the investigation of allergic phenotypes, including cluster analysis, scale-free models, candidate biomarkers, and IgE microarrays; the particular case of severe asthma was reviewed. Then novel approaches to the IgE-associated phenotypes are reviewed from the individual mechanisms to the systems, including epigenetics, human in vitro immunology, systems biology, and animal models. The last chapter deals with the understanding of the population-based IgE-associated phenotypes in children and adolescents, including age effect in terms of maturation, observed effects of early-life exposures and shift of focus from early life to pregnancy, gene-environment interactions, cohort effects, and time trends in patients with allergic diseases. This review helps to define phenotypes of allergic diseases in MeDALL.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Email from Ivan Smith to Dr. Bob Benson. Re: Letter to Aubrey Miller, EPA Region 8, dated June 7, 2007

Author: Smith, I (2014) [Personal Communication] HERO ID: 2225807


Technical Report
Technical Report

Email from Bob Benson to James Lockey, cc Timothy Hilbert. Personal communications

Author: Benson, B (2014) HERO ID: 2225865


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of body mass index on the detection of radiographic localized pleural thickening

Authors: Larson, TC; Franzblau, A; Lewin, M; Goodman, AB; Antao, VC (2014) Academic Radiology 21:3-10. HERO ID: 2225734

[Less] RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Subpleural fat can be difficult to distinguish from localized . . . [More] RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Subpleural fat can be difficult to distinguish from localized pleural thickening (LPT), a marker of asbestos exposure, on chest radiographs. The aims of this study were to examine the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the performance of radiograph readers when classifying LPT and to model the risk of false test results with varying BMI.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects (n = 200) were patients being screened or treated for asbestos-related health outcomes. A film chest radiograph, a digital chest radiograph, and a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest scan were collected from each subject. All radiographs were independently read by seven B readers and scored using the International Labour Office system. HRCT scans, read by three experienced thoracic radiologists, served as the gold standard for the presence of LPT. We calculated measures of radiograph reader performance, including sensitivity and specificity, for each image modality. We also used logistic regression to estimate the probability of a false-positive and a false-negative result while controlling for covariates.

RESULTS: The proportion of false-positive readings correlated with BMI. While controlling for covariates, regression modeling showed the probability of a false-positive result increased with increasing BMI category, younger age, not having pleural calcification, and among subjects not reporting occupational or household contact asbestos exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be cautious when evaluating radiographs of younger obese persons for the presence of asbestos-related pleural plaque, particularly in populations having an anticipated low or background prevalence of LPT.

Archival Material
Archival Material

[Email from Timothy Hilbert to Bob Benson, cc James Lockey RE: Personal communications]

Author: Hilbert, T (2014) [Personal Communication] HERO ID: 2225864


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro determinants of asbestos fiber toxicity: effect on the relative toxicity of Libby amphibole in primary human airway epithelial cells

Authors: Duncan, KE; Cook, PM; Gavett, SH; Dailey, LA; Mahoney, RK; Ghio, AJ; Roggli, VL; Devlin, RB (2014) Particle and Fibre Toxicology 11:2. HERO ID: 2342642

[Less] BACKGROUND: An abnormally high incidence of lung disease has been observed in the residents . . . [More] BACKGROUND: An abnormally high incidence of lung disease has been observed in the residents of Libby, Montana, which has been attributed to occupational and environmental exposure to fibrous amphiboles originating from a nearby contaminated vermiculite mine. The composition of Libby amphibole (LA) is complex and minimal toxicity data are available. In this study, we conduct a comparative particle toxicity analysis of LA compared with standard reference asbestiform amphibole samples.

METHODS: Primary human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to two different LA samples as well as standard amphibole reference samples. Analysis of the samples included a complete particle size distribution analysis, calculation of surface area by electron microscopy and by gas adsorption and quantification of surface-conjugated iron and hydroxyl radical production by the fibers. Interleukin-8 mRNA levels were quantified by qRT-PCR to measure relative pro-inflammatory response induced in HAEC in response to amphibole fiber exposure. The relative contribution of key physicochemical determinants on the observed pro-inflammatory response were also evaluated.

RESULTS: The RTI amosite reference sample contained the longest fibers and demonstrated the greatest potency at increasing IL-8 transcript levels when evaluated on an equal mass basis. The two LA samples and the UICC amosite reference sample consisted of similar particle numbers per milligram as well as similar particle size distributions and induced comparable levels of IL-8 mRNA. A strong correlation was observed between the elongated particle (aspect ratio ≥3:1) dose metrics of length and external surface area. Expression of the IL-8 data with respect to either of these metrics eliminated the differential response between the RTI amosite sample and the other samples that was observed when HAEC were exposed on an equal mass basis.

CONCLUSIONS: On an equal mass basis, LA is as potent as the UICC amosite reference sample at inducing a pro-inflammatory response in HAEC but is less potent than the RTI amosite sample. The results of this study show that the particle length and particle surface area are highly correlated metrics that contribute significantly to the toxicological potential of these amphibole samples with respect to the inflammogenic response induced in airway epithelial cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of exposure assessment and parameterization on exposure response. Aspects of epidemiologic cohort analysis using the Libby Amphibole asbestos worker cohort

Authors: Bateson, TF; Kopylev, L (2014) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology e-pub:12-17. HERO ID: 2238712

[Less] Recent meta-analyses of occupational epidemiology studies identified two important exposure data quality . . . [More] Recent meta-analyses of occupational epidemiology studies identified two important exposure data quality factors in predicting summary effect measures for asbestos-associated lung cancer mortality risk: sufficiency of job history data and percent coverage of work history by measured exposures. The objective was to evaluate different exposure parameterizations suggested in the asbestos literature using the Libby, MT asbestos worker cohort and to evaluate influences of exposure measurement error caused by historically estimated exposure data on lung cancer risks. Focusing on workers hired after 1959, when job histories were well-known and occupational exposures were predominantly based on measured exposures (85% coverage), we found that cumulative exposure alone, and with allowance of exponential decay, fit lung cancer mortality data similarly. Residence-time-weighted metrics did not fit well. Compared with previous analyses based on the whole cohort of Libby workers hired after 1935, when job histories were less well-known and exposures less frequently measured (47% coverage), our analyses based on higher quality exposure data yielded an effect size as much as 3.6 times higher. Future occupational cohort studies should continue to refine retrospective exposure assessment methods, consider multiple exposure metrics, and explore new methods of maintaining statistical power while minimizing exposure measurement error.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

IRIS summary sheet for asbestos (CASRN 1332-21-4).

Author: U.S. EPA (2014) Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System. HERO ID: 2343623


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Pleural plaques and their effect on lung function in Libby vermiculite miners

Authors: Clark, KA; Flynn, JJ; Goodman, JE; Zu, K; Karmaus, WJ; Mohr, LC (2014) Chest 146:786-794. HERO ID: 2337853

[Less] ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have investigated the relationship between asbestos-related . . . [More] ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have investigated the relationship between asbestos-related pleural plaques (PP) and lung function with disparate and inconsistent results. Most use chest radiographs to identify PP and simple spirometry to measure lung function. High resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) improves the accuracy of PP identification. Complete pulmonary function testing (PFT), including spirometry, lung volumes and diffusion capacity (DLCO), provides a more definitive assessment of lung function. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of PP on lung function in Libby vermiculite miners using HRCT and complete PFT.

METHODS: The results of HRCT and complete PFT performed between January 2000 and August 2012 were obtained from medical records of 166 Libby vermiculite miners. Multivariate regression analyses with Tukey multivariate adjustment was used to assess statistical associations between the presence of PP and lung function. Adjustments were made for age, BMI, smoking history, duration of employment and years since last occupational asbestos exposure.

RESULTS: Nearly 90% of miners (n=149) had evidence of PP on HRCT. No significant differences in spirometry results, lung volumes, or DLCO were found between miners with PP alone and miners with normal HRCT studies. Miners with both interstitial fibrosis and the presence of PP had a significantly decreased total lung capacity in comparison to miners with normal HRCT studies (p=0.03). Age, cumulative smoking history, and BMI were significant covariates that contributed to abnormal lung function.

CONCLUSION: Asbestos-related pleural plaques alone have no significant effect on lung function in Libby vermiculite miners.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A review and critique of U.S. EPA's risk assessments for asbestos

Authors: Moolgavkar, SH; Anderson, EL; Chang, ET; Lau, EC; Turnham, P; Hoel, DG (2014) Critical Reviews in Toxicology 44:499-522. [Review] HERO ID: 2347320

[Less] Abstract U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently conducted a risk assessment for exposure . . . [More] Abstract U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently conducted a risk assessment for exposure to Libby amphibole asbestos that is precedent-setting for two reasons. First, the Agency has not previously conducted a risk assessment for a specific type of asbestos fiber. Second, the risk assessment includes not only an inhalation unit risk (IUR) for the cancer endpoints, but also a reference concentration (RfC) for nonmalignant disease. In this paper, we review the procedures used by the Agency for both cancer and nonmalignant disease and discuss the strengths and limitations of these procedures. The estimate of the RfC uses the benchmark dose method applied to pleural plaques in a small subcohort of vermiculite workers in Marysville, Ohio. We show that these data are too sparse to inform the exposure-response relationship in the low-exposure region critical for estimation of an RfC, and that different models with very different exposure-response shapes fit the data equally well. Furthermore, pleural plaques do not represent a disease condition and do not appear to meet the EPA's definition of an adverse condition. The estimation of the IUR for cancer is based on a subcohort of Libby miners, discarding the vast majority of lung cancers and mesotheliomas in the entire cohort and ignoring important time-related factors in exposure and risk, including effect modification by age. We propose that an IUR based on an endpoint that combines lung cancer, mesothelioma, and nonmalignant respiratory disease (NMRD) in this cohort would protect against both malignant and nonmalignant disease. However, the IUR should be based on the entire cohort of Libby miners, and the analysis should properly account for temporal factors. We illustrate our discussion with our own independent analyses of the data used by the Agency.