Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Libby Amphibole Asbestos (Draft, 2011)


156 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Longitudinal decline in lung function in former asbestos exposed workers

Authors: Algranti, E; Mendonça, EM; Hnizdo, E; De Capitani, EM; Freitas, JB; Raile, V; Bussacos, MA (2013) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 70:15-21. HERO ID: 2078956

[Less] BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the effect of asbestos exposure on longitudinal . . . [More] BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the effect of asbestos exposure on longitudinal lung function decline.

METHODS: A group of 502 former asbestos-cement workers with at least two spirometry tests 4 years apart. Repeated evaluations included respiratory symptoms questionnaire, spirometry and chest imaging. Asbestos exposure was ascertained as years of exposure, an index of cumulative exposure and latency time. The mixed effects model was used to evaluate the effect of exposure on the level and rate of change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC).

RESULTS: Mean age at entry was 51 (SD 9.9) years, mean latency time 25.6 (SD 10.0) years, mean follow-up time 9.1 (SD 2.8) years and mean number of spirometry tests 3.5. The FEV(1) level was significantly related to pack-years of smoking at entry and during the follow-up, the index of cumulative asbestos exposure at entry, and the presence of asbestosis at follow-up. The FVC level was significantly related to pack-years of smoking during the follow-up, cumulative asbestos exposure at entry, asbestosis and pleural thickening at follow-up, and body mass index at entry. Asbestos exposure was not associated with increasing rates of FEV(1) and FVC decline. However, FEV(1) regression slopes with age, estimated by terciles of cumulative exposure, showed significant differences. Combined effects of smoking and exposure conferred further acceleration in lung function decline.

CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure in asbestos-cement industry was a risk factor for increased lung function decline. The effect seems to be mostly concentrated during the working period. Smoking and exposure had synergic effects.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between radiographic findings and spirometry in a community exposed to Libby amphibole

Authors: Larson, TC; Lewin, M; Gottschall, EB; Antao, VC; Kapil, V; Rose, CS (2012) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 69:361-366. HERO ID: 1257852

[Less] BACKGROUND: Among asbestos-exposed individuals, abnormal spirometry is usually associated . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Among asbestos-exposed individuals, abnormal spirometry is usually associated with parenchymal abnormalities or diffuse pleural thickening. Localised pleural thickening (LPT), the most common abnormality associated with asbestos exposure, is typically thought to be a marker of exposure with little clinical consequence. Our objective was to determine if abnormal spirometry is associated with LPT independent of other abnormalities, using data from community-based screening conducted in Libby, Montana.

METHODS: Subjects were a subset of screening participants comprising persons with interpretable spirometry and chest radiograph results (n=6475). Chest radiographs were independently evaluated by two or three B readers, and participants were classified by mutually exclusive categories of spirometry outcome: normal, restriction, obstruction or mixed defect.

RESULTS: Restrictive spirometry was strongly associated with parenchymal abnormalities (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 6.0) and diffuse pleural thickening (OR 4.1; 95% CI 2.1 to 7.8). Controlling for the presence of these abnormalities as well as age, smoking status and other covariates, restrictive spirometry was also associated with LPT (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8). The risk of restrictive spirometric findings correlated with the severity of LPT.

CONCLUSIONS: In this large community-based screening cohort, restrictive spirometry is significantly associated with LPT, indicating that this abnormality may result in lung function impairment. Physicians treating patients exposed to Libby amphibole should be aware that LPT may have functional consequences.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Continued progression of asbestos-related respiratory disease after more than 15 years of non-exposure

Authors: Bar-Shai, A; Tiran, B; Topilsky, M; Greif, J; Fomin, I; Schwarz, Y (2012) IMAJ 14:560-565. [Abstract] HERO ID: 2078962

[Less] BACKGROUND: Most studies on asbestos-related diseases describe the associations between . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Most studies on asbestos-related diseases describe the associations between exposure and disease and the factors influencing that association. It is recognized that there is a long latency period between exposure and disease, but the health status of affected individuals after long-term non-exposure is uncertain.

OBJECTIVES: To describe the changes in pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and computed tomographic imaging of the thorax over a 15 year period after cessation of exposure to asbestos in a cohort of Israeli power plant workers.

METHODS: Israeli power plant workers whose PFTs and thoracic CT imaging between 1993 and 1998 revealed asbestos-related disease underwent a second clinical, functional and imaging evaluation up to 15 years later. The two sets of results were compared.

RESULTS: Of the original cohort of 59 males, 35 were still alive and 18 of them agreed to take part in the current study. The mean length of their exposure was 30 +/- 10.06 years (range 7-43 years). Comparison of the initial and follow-up examination findings revealed a significant increase in calcification of the pleural plaques (from 37% to 66%, P = 0.008) and a deterioration in PFT results (P= 0.04). Of the 24 men who died, malignant disease was the cause of death in 53%, mostly in sites other than the respiratory system.

CONCLUSIONS: PFTs declined and CT findings worsened in subjects who were formerly exposed to asbestos and had not been exposed to it for over a decade. Continued monitoring of individuals exposed to asbestos, even decades after the cessation of exposure, is recommended.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association between cumulative fiber exposure and respiratory outcomes among Libby vermiculite workers

Authors: Larson, TC; Antao, VC; Bove, FJ; Cusack, C (2012) Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 54:56-63. HERO ID: 1005289

[Less] Objective: To examine the association between cumulative fiber exposure and health outcomes in workers . . . [More] Objective: To examine the association between cumulative fiber exposure and health outcomes in workers (n = 336) with Libby amphibole exposure. Methods: Exposure response relationships were explored by the use of logistic regression, with cumulative fiber exposure modeled in categories and as a continuous variable. Results: The use of spline functions with lifetime cumulative fiber exposure as a continuous variable showed that the odds of localized pleural thickening were significantly elevated at less than I f/cc-y. Odds of parenchymal abnormalities, restrictive spirometry, and chronic bronchitis were also significantly elevated at 108, 166, and 24. f/cc-y, respectively. Conclusions: The odds of several pulmonary health outcomes are correlated with cumulative exposure to Libby amphibole. That relatively low-lifetime cumulative exposures are associated with localized pleural thickening has implications for the non cancer-risk assessment for Libby amphibole.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chest imaging and lung function impairment after long-term occupational exposure to low concentrations of chrysotile

Authors: Spyratos, D; Chloros, D; Haidich, B; Dagdilelis, L; Markou, S; Sichletidis, L (2012) Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health 67:84-90. HERO ID: 2079028

[Less] The aim of the present study was the investigation of radiographic findings in relation to lung function . . . [More] The aim of the present study was the investigation of radiographic findings in relation to lung function after occupational exposure to permissible levels of relatively pure chrysotile (0.5-3% amphiboles). We studied 266 out of the total 317 employees who have worked in an asbestos cement factory during the period 1968-2004 with chest x-ray, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and lung function tests. Sensitivity of chest x-ray was 43% compared to HRCT. Abnormal HRCT findings were found in 75 subjects (67%) and were related to age, occupational exposure duration, and spirometric data. The presence of parenchymal or visceral pleural lesions (exclusively or as the predominant abnormality) was being accompanied by lower total lung capacity and diffusion capacity. HRCT was much more sensitive than chest x-ray for occupational chrysotile exposure. Lung function impairment was related with parenchymal but not with pleural HRCT abnormalities.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Descriptive analysis of the respiratory health status of persons exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos

Authors: Winters, CA; Hill, WG; Rowse, K; Black, B; Kuntz, SW; Weinert, C (2012) British Medical Journal 2. HERO ID: 2079078

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Describe respiratory health and quality of life in persons exposed to Libby . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Describe respiratory health and quality of life in persons exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA) contaminated vermiculite.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive.

SETTING: Asbestos-related disease clinic in Libby, Montana USA.

PARTICIPANTS: 329 individuals exposed to LAA; mostly men, married, between 50 and 69 years; two-thirds lived in the surrounding county; one-third lived elsewhere in the state and USA.

PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Chest radiograph (CXR), pulmonary function data and the St George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ).

RESULTS: Exposure categories included vermiculite workers=7.6%; family/household contact of vermiculite worker=32%; and environmental exposure only=60%. Of the participants, 55% had only pleural abnormalities; 5.4% had only interstitial abnormalities; nearly 21% had both abnormalities and 18% had no lung abnormality on chest x-ray. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) 95.3% (SD=18.7); forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) mean 87% (SD=20.2); ratio of FEV1(1)/FVC 95.5% (SD=12.0); and diffusing capacity (DLCO) of 83% (SD=21.7) of the percent predicted. The mean total SGRQ (38.5; SD=22.1) indicated a lower quality of life than healthy persons and persons with other chronic conditions. SGRQ subscale means were Symptoms 52.1 (SD=24.9), activity 49.4 (SD=26.9) and impacts 27.5 (SD=21.9). Participants with normal CXR differed significantly from those with both interstitial and pleural abnormalities on total, activity and impacts scores. For activity alone, subjects with normal CXR differed significantly from those with pleural disease; no differences were found for those with interstitial disease. Significant findings were found for smoking history across all pulmonary measures, and for exposure status, radiographic findings, age and gender for select pulmonary parameters. Subjects with any smoking history had significantly worse average total and subscale scores on the SGRQ.

CONCLUSIONS: Of 329 persons exposed to LAA, the majority (182) had pleural abnormalities identified on CXR. SGRQ scores for persons with abnormalities (pleural, interstitial or both) (269) differed significantly from those with a normal CXR.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The validity of static lung compliance in asbestos-induced diseases

Authors: Schneider, J; Arhelger, R; Raab, W; Hering, KG (2012) Lung 190:441-449. HERO ID: 1937478

[Less] BACKGROUND: Pulmonary compliance can be viewed as an indicator of distensibility of . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Pulmonary compliance can be viewed as an indicator of distensibility of the lungs, not only in asbestos-induced pulmonary disorders but also in visceral pleural fibrosis extending into the lung parenchyma. In this study we evaluated static compliance measurements in asbestos-derived diseases, especially in patients with parietal pleura plaques. Lung function analyses, especially static lung compliance, were correlated with high-resolution computer tomography examinations.

METHODS: Sixty-three patients with parietal pleural plaques, 10 with visceral pleural fibrosis, 39 with parenchymal pulmonary asbestosis together with parietal pleural plaques, and 42 with parenchymal pulmonary asbestosis together with visceral pleural fibrosis were enrolled in the study.

RESULTS: In comparison with patients having only parietal pleural plaques, those having asbestosis and visceral pleural fibrosis showed significant decreases in static lung compliance, diffusing capacity, and vital capacity. Visceral pleural thickening was also associated with significantly reduced FEV(1), MEF(50), and FEV(1)/FVC ratios. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the existence of visceral pleural fibrosis (p = 0.017) is the most important factor accounting for a decrease in static compliance. Reference values of static lung compliance differ notably. In comparison with mean reference values, the sensitivity of detecting reduced lung compliance was calculated to be between 9.7 and 45.5 %. Other respiratory function variables failed to show any significant differences.

CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the measurement of static compliance is not sufficient for early detection of pulmonary function impairment in patients with parietal pleural plaques.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lung function in asbestos-exposed workers, a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors: Wilken, D; Velasco Garrido, M; Manuwald, U; Baur, X (2011) Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 6:21. HERO ID: 1005409

[Less] BACKGROUND: A continuing controversy exists about whether, asbestos exposure is associated . . . [More] BACKGROUND: A continuing controversy exists about whether, asbestos exposure is associated with significant lung function impairments when major radiological abnormalities are lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to assess whether asbestos exposure is related to impairment of lung function parameters independently of the radiological findings.

METHODS: MEDLINE was searched from its inception up to April 2010. We included studies that assessed lung function parameters in asbestos exposed workers and stratified subjects according to radiological findings. Estimates of VC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC with their dispersion measures were extracted and pooled.

RESULTS: Our meta-analysis with data from 9,921 workers exposed to asbestos demonstrates a statistically significant reduction in VC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC, even in those workers without radiological changes. Less severe lung function impairments are detected if the diagnoses are based on (high resolution) computed tomography rather than the less sensitive X-ray images. The degree of lung function impairment was partly related to the proportion of smokers included in the studies.

CONCLUSIONS: Asbestos exposure is related to restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment. Even in the absence of radiological evidence of parenchymal or pleural diseases there is a trend for functional impairment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Genetic susceptibility to asbestos-related fibrotic pleuropulmonary changes

Authors: Kukkonen, MK; Hamalainen, S; Kaleva, S; Vehmas, T; Huuskonen, MS; Oksa, P; Vainio, H; Piirila, P; Hirvonen, A (2011) European Respiratory Journal 38:672-678. HERO ID: 2079062

[Less] The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolise . . . [More] The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolise oxidative agents modify the individual susceptibility to developing asbestos and smoking-related pleuropulmonary changes. Nine polymorphisms of six genes (EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTP1, GSTT1 and NAT2) were genotyped from 1,008 Finnish asbestos-exposed workers. The genotype data were compared to signs of lung fibrosis and pleural thickenings, as well as with total lung capacity, single-breath diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D(L,CO)) and specific diffusing capacity (expressed as D(L,CO) per unit of alveolar volume (V(A))). The GSTT1 deletion polymorphism was associated with fibrotic changes (p=0.003), and decreased D(L,CO) (p=0.02) and D(L,CO)/V(A) (p=0.002), and the GSTM1 deletion polymorphism was associated with the greatest thickness of pleural plaques (p=0.009). On further analysis, the GSTT1 null genotype was found to pose over a three-fold risk for severe fibrotic changes (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.51-6.43), and around two-fold risks for decreased D(L,CO) (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.06-2.95) and D(L,CO)/V(A) (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.33-4.23). In addition, the GSTM1 null genotype showed an elevated risk (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.80) for thicker pleural plaques. Our data suggest that inherited detoxification capacity may affect the development and severity of asbestos and smoking-related nonmalignant pulmonary changes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Do asbestos-related pleural plaques on HRCT scans cause restrictive impairment in the absence of pulmonary fibrosis

Authors: Clin, B; Paris, C; Ameille, J; Brochard, P; Conso, F; Gislard, A; Laurent, F; Letourneux, M; Luc, A; Schorle, E; Pairon, JC (2011) Thorax 66:985-991. HERO ID: 1005283

[Less] BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether isolated pleural plaques cause functional impairment.
[More] BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether isolated pleural plaques cause functional impairment.

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relationship between isolated pleural plaques confirmed by CT scanning and lung function in subjects with occupational exposure to asbestos.

METHODS: The study population consisted of 2743 subjects presenting with no parenchymal interstitial abnormalities on the high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan. Asbestos exposure was evaluated by calculation of an individual cumulative exposure index (CEI). Each subject underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and HRCT scanning. Variables were adjusted for age, smoking status, body mass index, CEI to asbestos and the centres in which the pulmonary function tests were conducted.

RESULTS: All functional parameters studied were within normal limits for subjects presenting with isolated pleural plaques and for those presenting with no pleuropulmonary abnormalities. However, isolated parietal and/or diaphragmatic pleural plaques were associated with a significant decrease in total lung capacity (TLC) (98.1% predicted in subjects with pleural plaques vs. 101.2% in subjects free of plaques, p=0.0494), forced vital capacity (FVC) (96.6% vs. 100.4%, p<0.001) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) (97.9% vs. 101.9%, p=0.0032). In contrast, no significant relationship was observed between pleural plaques and FEV1/FVC ratio, forced expiratory flow at 25-75% FVC and residual volume. A significant correlation was found between the extent of pleural plaques and the reduction in FVC and TLC, whereas plaque thickness was not related to functional impairment.

CONCLUSIONS: The results show a relationship between isolated parietal and/or diaphragmatic pleural plaques and a trend towards a restrictive pattern, although the observed decrease in FVC and TLC is unlikely to be of real clinical relevance for the majority of subjects in this series.