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  • 1.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Long-term inhalable particles and other air pollutants related to mortality in nonsmokers

    Authors: Abbey, DE; Nishino, N; McDonnell, WF; Burchette, RJ; Knutsen, SF; Beeson, WL; Yang, JX
    (1999) American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 159:373-382.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Long-term ambient concentrations of inhalable particles less than 10 mum in diameter (PM10) (1973-1992) . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Long-term ambient concentrations of inhalable particles less than 10 mum in diameter (PM10) (1973-1992) and other air pollutants-total suspended sulfates, sulfur dioxide, ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide-were related to 1977-1992 mortality in a cohort of 6,338 nonsmoking California Seventh-day Adventists. In both sexes, PM10 showed a strong association with mortality for any mention of nonmalignant respiratory disease on the death certificate, adjusting for a wide range of potentially confounding factors, including occupational and indoor sources of air pollutants. The adjusted relative risk (RR) for this cause of death as associated with an interquartile range (IQR) difference of 43 d/yr when PM10 exceeded 100 mug/m3 was 1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.36). In males, PM10 showed a strong association with lung cancer deaths-RR for an IQR was 2.38 (95% CI: 1.42, 3.97). Ozone showed an even stronger association with lung cancer mortality for males with an RR of 4.19 (95% CI: 1.81, 9.69) for the IQR difference of 551 h/yr when O3 exceeded 100 parts per billion. Sulfur dioxide showed strong associations with lung cancer mortality for both sexes. Other pollutants showed weak or no association with mortality.
    Tagged With: 1st Draft, 2nd Draft, Chapter Review, Cited in First ERD Nov2015, Cited Second ERD Dec2016, Considered, Exposure, Final, Health Effects, Health Effects
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    CHARGED DROPLET COLLISION EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENTS

    Author: Abbott, CE
    (1975)
    Tagged With: Considered, 2nd Draft

    Details
       
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Effects of repeated intermittent exposures to nitrous oxide on central neurotransmitters and hepatic methionine synthetase activity in CD-1 mice

    Authors: Abdul-Kareem, HS; Sharma, RP; Brown, DB
    (1991) Toxicology and Industrial Health 7:97-108.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The central neurotransmitters and hepatic methionine synthetase (MS) appear to play an important role . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The central neurotransmitters and hepatic methionine synthetase (MS) appear to play an important role in mediating the side effects associated with N2O exposure. Male CD-1 mice were exposed to 0, 50, 500, and 5,000 ppm of N2O 6 hr per day, 5 days a week for 2 or 13 weeks. One day after the last day of exposure, the animals were decapitated and steady state concentrations of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-mandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl glycol (MOPEG), dihydroxphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were determined in six discreet brain regions using electrochemical high-performance liquid chromatography. Hepatic MS activity was measured using a newly developed non-isotopic method. After a 2-week exposure to 5,000 ppm N2O, levels of NE and DA in some brain regions were significantly increased and were accompanied by significant decreases in the levels of their major metabolites. Serotonin levels were significantly decreased in certain brain regions. After the 13-week exposure to 5,000 ppm N2O, levels of NE, DA, and 5-HT significantly increased in the hypothalamus. Hepatic MS activity was not affected at any dose level of N2O used. The alterations in neurotransmitter levels may be related to the reported clinical and behavioral effects associated with N2O misuse or occupational exposures.
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Evaluating the performance of an integrated CALPUFF-MM5 modeling system for predicting SO2 emission from a refinery

    Authors: Abdul-Wahab, SA; Ali, S; Sardar, S; Irfan, N; Al-Damkhi, Ali
    (2011) Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 13:841-854.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Oil refineries are one of the proven sources of environmental pollution as they emit more than 100 chemicals . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Oil refineries are one of the proven sources of environmental pollution as they emit more than 100 chemicals into the atmosphere including sulfur dioxide (SO2). The dispersion patterns of SO2 from emissions of Sohar refinery was simulated by employing California Puff (CALPUFF) model integrated with state of the art meteorological Mesoscale Model (MM5). The results of this simulation were used to quantify the ground level concentrations of SO2 in and around the refinery. The evaluation of the CALPUFF and MM5 modeling system was carried out by comparing the estimated results with that of observed data of the same area. The predicted concentrations of SO2 agreed well with the observed data, with minor differences in magnitudes. In addition, the ambient air quality of the area was checked by comparing the model results with the regulatory limits for SO2 set by the Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs (MECA) in Oman. From the analysis of results, it was found that the concentration of SO2 in the nearby communities of Sohar refinery is well within the regulatory limits specified by MECA. Based on these results, it was concluded that no health risk, due to SO2 emissions, is present in areas adjacent to the refinery.
    Tagged With: Atmospheric Chemistry, Cited Second ERD Dec2016, Considered, Exposure
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Effects of mixed NO2-SO2 gas on human pulmonary functions: effects of air pollution on the human body

    Author: Abe, M
    (1967) Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences 14:415-433.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Experimental studies on the effects of SO2, NO2 and a mixed SO2-NO2 gas--the most important air pollutants . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Experimental studies on the effects of SO2, NO2 and a mixed SO2-NO2 gas--the most important air pollutants at present--on the human pumonary functions were carried out, measuring the values of ventilatory mechaincs, of spiromentry and of peak flow rate, and following results were obtained. The effects of SO2 are immediate but not durable. Those of NO2, on the contratry, are late-acting and durable. As for those of a mixed SO2-NO2 gas, they are intermediate between those for single NO2 and SO2, showing no cumulative actions of the two gases, but only additive ones. Such differences of the effects between two gases are supposed to be attributed to the grade of water solubility of each gas--SO2 is easy soluble and NO2 difficult soluble.
    Tagged With: Chapter Review, Cited in First ERD Nov2015, Cited Second ERD Dec2016, Considered, Health Effects, Health Effects
  • 6.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Lichen acids as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation of mouse-liver mitochondria

    Authors: Abo-Khatwa, AN; Al-Robai, AA; Al-Jawhari, DA
    (1996) Natural Toxins 4:96-102.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Three lichen acids-namely, (+)usnic acid, vulpinic acid, and atranorin- were isolated from three lichen . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Three lichen acids-namely, (+)usnic acid, vulpinic acid, and atranorin- were isolated from three lichen species (Usnea articulata, Letharia vulpina, and Parmelia tinctorum, respectively). The effects of these lichen products on mice-liver mitochondrial oxidative functions in various respiratory states and on oxidative phosphorylation were studied polarographically in vitro. The lichen acids exhibited characteristics of the 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a classical uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, they released respiratory control and oligomycin inhibited respiration, hindered ATP synthesis, and enhanced Mg(+2)-ATPase activity. (+)Usnic acid at a concentration of 0.75 microM inhibited ADP/O ratio by 50%, caused maximal stimulation of both state-4 respiration (100%) and ATPase activity (300%). Atranorin was the only lichen acid with no significant effect on ATPase. The uncoupling effect was dose-dependent in all cases. The minimal concentrations required to cause complete uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation were as follows: (+)usnic acid (1 microM), vulpinic acid, atranorin (5 microM) and DNP (50 microM). It was postulated that the three lichen acids induce uncoupling by acting on the inner mitochondrial membrane through their lipophilic properties and protonophoric activities.
    Tagged With: Considered, Health Effects, Health Effects
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
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    Article
    Differences in airway reactivity in normal and allergic sheep after exposure to sulfur dioxide

    Authors: Abraham, WM; Oliver, W, Jr; Welker, MJ; King, MM; Wanner, A; Sackner, MA
    (1981) Journal of Applied Physiology 51:1651-1656.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The effect of breathing 5 ppm sulfur dioxide (SOZ) on airway reactivity was studied in both normal and . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The effect of breathing 5 ppm sulfur dioxide (SOZ) on airway reactivity was studied in both normal and allergic conscious sheepreactivity was studied in both normal and allergic conscious sheep. Allergic sheep were defined as animals in which inhalation of Ascaris suum extract resulted in bronchospasm as evidenced by an increase in mean pulmonary flow resistance (RL), hyperinflation, and a fall in dynamic compliance. Airway reactivity was assessed by measuring the increase of RL after 18 breaths of 0.25% carbachol (c), from an initial RL value obtained after 18 breaths of buffered saline (s) [RL(c-s)]. RL and RL(c-S) were determined prior to, immediately after, and 24 h after exposure to 5 ppm SO2 for 4 h. In both groups RL remained unchanged after SO2 exposure. Prior to exposure, RL(c.s) was not significantly different in seven normal (0.3 +/- 0.1) and seven allergic sheep [0.4 +/- 0.2 (SD) cmH20 l(-1) s], and there was no significant change in RL (c.s) immediately after SO2 exposure in either group. Twenty-four h later, RL(c.s) RL(c-s) increased to 0.7 +/- 0.8 (P < 0.2) in normal and to 1.8 +/- 0.9 cmH2O l(-1) s (P < 0.01) in allergic sheep. Because the increase in RL(c.S) after 24 h was greater (P < 0.01) in allergic than in normal sheep, we conclude that SO2 exposure increased airway reactivity more in the former than in the latter.
    Tagged With: Chapter Review, Cited in First ERD Nov2015, Cited Second ERD Dec2016, Considered, Health Effects, Health Effects
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Is potroom asthma due more to sulphur dioxide than fluoride? An inception cohort study in the Australian aluminium industry

    Authors: Abramson, MJ; Benke, GP; Cui, J; de Klerk, NH; Del Monaco, A; Dennekamp, M; Fritschi, L; Musk, AW; Sim, MR
    (2010) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 67:679-685.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. OBJECTIVES: Although an asthma-like syndrome has been recognised in aluminium smelter . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. OBJECTIVES: Although an asthma-like syndrome has been recognised in aluminium smelter workers for over 70 years, the causal agent has been difficult to identify.

    METHODS: An inception cohort study was conducted at two Australian aluminium smelters where 446 employees participated over a period of 9 years. Cumulative exposures between interviews were estimated from job histories using a task exposure matrix based on measurements in the smelters. Participants completed an MRC respiratory questionnaire, spirometry and methacholine challenge test. Data were analysed with generalised estimating equations to allow for repeated measurements of each participant.

    RESULTS: Wheeze and chest tightness, the two symptoms most closely related to asthma, showed associations with occupational exposures. SO(2) exposure was significantly associated with these symptoms, bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) to methacholine (a feature of asthma), airflow limitation (reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio) and longitudinal decline in lung function. Fluoride exposure was associated with the same outcomes, but less strongly. Inhalable dust and the benzene soluble fraction (BSF) were associated with symptoms of asthma and BHR. Although many of the exposures were highly correlated, further modelling suggested that of the known respiratory irritants, SO(2) was more likely than fluoride to be primarily responsible for the symptoms observed. Fluoride, inhalable dust and SO(2) were the most important airborne contaminants associated with effects on lung function.

    CONCLUSIONS: The observed effects were detected at contaminant levels within occupational exposure standards, so further reductions are required, particularly in SO(2) exposures.
    Tagged With: Considered, Exposure, Health Effects, Health Effects
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Atmospheric H2O2 measurement and modeling campaign during summer 2004 in Zagreb, Croatia

    Authors: Acker, K; Kezele, N; Klasinc, L; Moller, D; Pehnec, G; Sorgo, G; Wieprecht, W; Zuzul, S
    (2008) Atmospheric Environment 42:2530-2542.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the gas phase and a number of other atmospheric components and variables . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the gas phase and a number of other atmospheric components and variables (O-3, CO, SO2, NO, NO,, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX)) were simultaneously measured during a field study performed in Zagreb, Croatia, from May until July 2004 (for selected variables until October 2004). Meteorological data from the nearby stations were provided by the Geophysical Institute and by Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia. The collected data adjusted to hourly averages were used for modeling diurnal concentration behavior and development over a couple of days using Master Mechanism model developed by S. Madronich (NCAR, Boulder, CO). The H2O2 mixing ratios were found to vary between < 0.05 and 6.2 ppb and also exhibited a strong diurnal pattern very similar to that of ozone, with concentration maxima in the afternoon, between 15:00 and 16:00 h, CET. Linear regression analysis showed that, during daytime, H2O2 positively correlated with ozone (r = 0.4) and solar radiation (r = 0.52), but showed only very weak negative correlations with NO2, CO and BTEX. Our H2O2 data are the first such reported data for the region and their modeling, along with ozone data, gives a valuable insight into the interplay of pollutants that affect their concentrations. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Tagged With: Atmospheric Chemistry, Considered, Exposure, Health Effects, Health Effects
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Lung function and long term exposure to air pollutants in Switzerland

    Authors: Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Leuenberger, P; Schwartz, J; Schindler, C; Monn, C; Bolognini, G; Bongard, JP; Brändli, O; Domenighetti, G; Elsasser, S; Grize, L; Karrer, W; Keller, R; Keller-Wossidlo, H; Künzli, N; Martin, BW; Medici, TC; Perruchoud, AP; Schöni, MH; Tschopp, JM; Villiger, B; Wüthrich, B; Zellweger, JP; Zemp, E
    (1997) American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 155:122-129.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The effect of long-term exposure to air pollutants was studied in a cross-sectional population-based . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The effect of long-term exposure to air pollutants was studied in a cross-sectional population-based sample of adults (aged 18 to 60 yr; n = 9,651) residing in eight different areas in Switzerland. Standardized medical examination included questionnaire data, lung function tests, skin-prick testing, and end-expiratory CO concentration. The impact of annual means of air pollutants on FVC and FEV1 was tested (controlling for age and age squared, sex, height, weight, educational level, nationality, and workplace exposure). Analyses were done separately for healthy never-smokers, ex-smokers (controlling for pack-yr), for current smokers (controlling for cigarettes per day and pack-yr smoked), and for the whole population. Significant and consistent effects on FVC and FEV1 were found for NO2, SO2, and particulate matter < 10 microm (PM10) in all subgroups and in the total population, with PM10 showing the most consistent effect of a 3.4% change in FVC per 10 microg/m3. Results for ozone were less consistent. Atopy did not influence this relationship. The limited number of study areas and high intercorrelation between the pollutants make it difficult to assess the effect of one single pollutant. Our conclusion is that air pollution from fossil fuel combustion, which is the main source of air pollution with SO2, NO2, and PM10 in Switzerland, is associated with decrements in lung function parameters in this study.
    Tagged With: 1st Draft, 2nd Draft, Chapter Review, Cited in First ERD Nov2015, Cited Second ERD Dec2016, Considered, Exposure, Final, Health Effects, Health Effects
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