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852 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Anthropogenic contributions to global carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide and organosulfides fluxes

Authors: Lee, CL; Brimblecombe, P (2016) Earth-Science Reviews 160:1-18. HERO ID: 3353770

[Less] Previous studies of the global sulfur cycle have focused almost exclusively on oxidized species and . . . [More] Previous studies of the global sulfur cycle have focused almost exclusively on oxidized species and just a few sulfides. This focus is expanded here to include a wider range of reduced sulfur compounds. Inorganic sulfides tend to be bound into sediments, and sulfates are present both in sediments and the oceans. Sulfur can adopt polymeric forms that include Ssingle bondS bonds. This review examines the global anthropogenic sources of reduced sulfur, updating emission inventories and widening the consideration of industrial sources. It estimates the anthropogenic fluxes of key sulfides to the atmosphere (units Gg S a− 1) as: carbonyl sulfide (total 591: mainly from pulp and pigment 171, atmospheric oxidation of carbon disulfide 162, biofuel and coal combustion, 133, natural 898 Gg S a− 1), carbon disulfide (total 746: rayon 395, pigment 205, pulp 78, natural 330 Gg S a− 1), methanethiol (total 2119: pulp 1680, manure 330, rayon and wastewater 102, natural 6473 Gg S a− 1), dimethyl sulfide (total 2197: pulp 1462, manure 660 and rayon 36, natural 31,657 Gg S a− 1), dimethyl disulfide (total 1103: manure 660, pulp 273, natural 1081 Gg S a− 1). The study compares the magnitude of the natural sources: marine, vegetation and soils, volcanoes and rain water with the key anthropogenic sources: paper industry, rayon-cellulose manufacture, agriculture and pigment production. Industrial sources could be reduced by better pollution control, so their contribution may lessen over time. Anthropogenic emissions dominate the global budget of carbon disulfide, and some aromatic compounds such as thiophene, with emissions of methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide also relatively important. Furthermore, industries related to coal and bitumen are key sources of multi-ringed thiophenes, while food production and various wastes may account for the release of significant amounts of dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

Table 5S-6. Study-specific details of experimental studies of SO2 and cardiovascular effects

Author: U.S. EPA (2015) HERO ID: 3001877


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Data/ Software

Table 5S-8. Corresponding risk estimates of ambient sulfur dioxide for hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in studies conducting copollutants models with NO2 presented in Figure 5S-2.

Author: U.S. EPA (2015) HERO ID: 3001881


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Differences in birth weight associated with the 2008 Beijing olympic air pollution reduction: results from a natural experiment

Authors: Rich, DQ; Liu, K; Zhang, J; Thurston, SW; Stevens, TP; Pan, Y; Kane, C; Weinberger, B; Ohman-Strickland, P; Woodruff, TJ; Duan, X; Assibey-Mensah, V; Zhang, J (2015) Environmental Health Perspectives 123:880-887. HERO ID: 2826636

[Less] BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported decreased birth weight associated with increased . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported decreased birth weight associated with increased air pollutant concentrations during pregnancy. However, it is not clear when during pregnancy increases in air pollution are associated with the largest differences in birth weight.

OBJECTIVES: Using the natural experiment of air pollution declines during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, we evaluated whether having specific months of pregnancy (i.e. 1st…8th) during the 2008 Olympic period was associated with larger birth weights, compared with pregnancies during the same dates in 2007 or 2009.

METHODS: Using n=83,672 term births to mothers residing in 4 urban districts of Beijing, we estimated the difference in birth weight associated with having individual months of pregnancy during the 2008 Olympics (8/8/08-9/24/08) compared to the same dates in 2007/2009. We also estimated the difference in birth weight associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in mean ambient particulate matter <2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations during each pregnancy month.

RESULTS: Babies with their 8th month of pregnancy during the 2008 Olympics were, on average, 23g larger (95% CI: 5g, 40g) than babies having their 8th month in 2007 or 2009. IQR increases in PM2.5 (19.8 µg/m(3)), CO (0.3 ppm), SO2 (1.8 ppb), and NO2 (13.6 ppb) concentrations during the 8th month of pregnancy were associated with 18g (-32g, -3g), 17g (95% CI: -28g, -6g), 23g (95% CI: -36g, -10g), and 34g (95% CI: -70g, 3g) decreases in birth weight, respectively. We did not see significant associations for months 1-7.

CONCLUSIONS: Short-term decreases in air pollution late in pregnancy in Beijing during the 2008 Summer Olympics, a normally heavily polluted city, were associated with higher birth weight.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Short term exposure to air pollution and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors: Shah, AS; Lee, KK; Mcallister, DA; Hunter, A; Nair, H; Whiteley, W; Langrish, JP; Newby, DE; Mills, NL (2015) BMJ 350:h1295. [Review] HERO ID: 2823464

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for the short term association between air pollution . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for the short term association between air pollution and stroke.

DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Global Health, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Web of Science searched to January 2014 with no language restrictions.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies investigating the short term associations (up to lag of seven days) between daily increases in gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone) and particulate matter (<2.5 µm or <10 µm diameter (PM2.5 and PM10)), and admission to hospital for stroke or mortality.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Admission to hospital and mortality from stroke.

RESULTS: From 2748 articles, 238 were reviewed in depth with 103 satisfying our inclusion criteria and 94 contributing to our meta-estimates. This provided a total of 6.2 million events across 28 countries. Admission to hospital for stroke or mortality from stroke was associated with an increase in concentrations of carbon monoxide (relative risk 1.015 per 1 ppm, 95% confidence interval 1.004 to 1.026), sulphur dioxide (1.019 per 10 ppb, 1.011 to 1.027), and nitrogen dioxide (1.014 per 10 ppb, 1.009 to 1.019). Increases in PM2.5 and PM10 concentration were also associated with admission and mortality (1.011 per 10 μg/m(3) (1.011 to 1.012) and 1.003 per 10 µg/m(3) (1.002 to 1.004), respectively). The weakest association was seen with ozone (1.001 per 10 ppb, 1.000 to 1.002). Strongest associations were observed on the day of exposure with more persistent effects observed for PM2·5.

CONCLUSION: Gaseous and particulate air pollutants have a marked and close temporal association with admissions to hospital for stroke or mortality from stroke. Public and environmental health policies to reduce air pollution could reduce the burden of stroke.

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO-CRD42014009225.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Size-fractioned ultrafine particles and black carbon associated with autonomic dysfunction in subjects with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in Shanghai, China

Authors: Sun, Y; Song, X; Han, Y; Ji, Y; Gao, S; Shang, Y; Lu, SE; Zhu, T; Huang, W (2015) Particle and Fibre Toxicology 12:8. HERO ID: 2828320

[Less] BACKGROUND: Particles in smaller size fractions, such as ultrafine particles (UFPs) (with diameter less . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Particles in smaller size fractions, such as ultrafine particles (UFPs) (with diameter less than 100 nm), has become of significant cardiovascular health concerns. However, the biological plausibility underlying potential relationship between UFPs and cardiovascular outcomes is less studied.

METHODS: Fifty-three subjects living in Shanghai with type-2 diabetes (T2D) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were followed for autonomic dysfunctions with three repeated measurements in 2010. Minute-to-minute concentrations of ambient particles in small size-fractions (5-560 nm), black carbon (BC), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) were monitored using a central monitoring laboratory equipped with real-time air monitors close to residential area of the subjects. Generalized linear mixed models, with adjustment for individual risk factors, were applied to assess the effects of air pollution on autonomic dysfunctions in subjects.

RESULTS: Our study showed that significant reduction in the standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN) ranging from 3.4% to 8.1% were associated with interquartile range (IQR) increase of number concentration of particles (PNC) in size fractions <100 nm, and reduction from 1.3% to 4.6% with particles of diameter 100-200 nm, in subjects with diabetes or glucose tolerance. Increased exposure to traffic-related pollutants BC, NO2 and CO, and combustion pollutant SO2, were also significantly associated with HRV reductions. However, no effect was observed for particles in size fraction of 200-560 nm and O3. Diabetic risk factor and gender appeared to have significant interactions on autonomic dysfunction associated with UFPs and traffic pollution exposures in certain time-window.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that underlying diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance may confer reduced autonomic function of heart due to traffic pollution exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of sulfur dioxide on the respiratory system of Miyakejima child residents 6 years after returning to the island

Authors: Iwasawa, S; Nakano, M; Tsuboi, T; Kochi, T; Tanaka, S; Katsunuma, T; Morikawa, A; Omae, K (2015) International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 88:1111-1118. HERO ID: 2826726

[Less] This study investigated the health effects of volcanic gas, mainly sulfur dioxide (SO2), exposure on . . . [More] This study investigated the health effects of volcanic gas, mainly sulfur dioxide (SO2), exposure on the children of Miyakejima Island.

Health checkups were conducted in November from 2006 to 2011. Health effects were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire on respiratory and irritative symptoms, and spirometry. SO2 was measured continuously from February 2005 onward at six fixed monitoring stations in inhabitable areas. Based on mean SO2 concentration during 3 months before each health checkup, inhabitable areas were classified into three categories: (1) lower (area L); (2) higher (area H-1); and (3) highest (area H-2).

Average concentrations (ppb) of SO2 decreased year-by-year and ranged from 11.3 to 2.47 in area L, from 32.2 to 12.2 in area H-1, and from 75.1 to 12.1 in area H-2, respectively. In general, prevalence of respiratory and irritative symptoms was higher in area H-2, and the prevalence decreased year-by-year in all three areas by Cochran-Armitage test for trend. We defined a study population in area L in 2008 as a reference population because we had no unexposed population. Applying a logistic regression model, age-, sex-, and hypersusceptibility-adjusted prevalence odds ratios to the reference population showed clear exposure-dependent increases in some irritative symptoms such as "Irritation and/or pain in throat" and "in eyes," and approximately 30 ppb seemed to be the threshold concentration. Spirometry did not show any significant differences.

Though no pulmonary functions were affected, some subjective symptoms were detected dose-dependently by SO2 exposure concentration in child residents during the 6 years after the eruption.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Outdoor air pollution and term low birth weight in Japan

Authors: Yorifuji, T; Kashima, S; Doi, H (2015) Environment International 74:106-111. HERO ID: 2533383

[Less] INTRODUCTION: Evidence has accumulated on the association between ambient air pollution . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: Evidence has accumulated on the association between ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes. However, most of the previous studies were conducted in geographically distinct areas and suffer from lack of important potential covariates. We examined the effect of ambient air pollution on term low birth weight (LBW) using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan that began in 2001.

METHODS: We restricted participants to term singletons (n=44,109). Air pollution concentrations during the 9months before birth were obtained at the municipality level and were assigned to the participants who were born in the corresponding municipality. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses adjusting for individual and municipality-level variables.

RESULTS: We found that air pollution exposure during pregnancy was positively associated with the risk of term LBW. In the fully adjusted models, odds ratios following one interquartile range increase in each pollutant were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.19) for suspended particulate matter (SPM), 1.11 (0.99, 1.26) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 1.71 (1.18, 2.46) for sulfur dioxide (SO2). Specifically, effect estimates for SPM and NO2 exposure at the first trimester were higher than those at other trimesters, while SO2 was associated with the risk at all trimesters. Nonsmoking mothers were more susceptible to SPM and NO2 exposure compared with smoking mothers.

CONCLUSIONS: Ambient air pollution increases the risk of term LBW in a nationally representative sample in Japan.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Do group responses mask the effects of air pollutants on potentially sensitive individuals in controlled human exposure studies?

Authors: Goodman, JE; Seeley, M; Mattuck, R; Thakali, S (2015) Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 71:552-564. [Review] HERO ID: 2826792

[Less] To establish primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria air pollutants such . . . [More] To establish primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), US EPA relies in part on controlled human exposure studies. It has been suggested that evaluating average responses for all participants in these studies may not reflect the responses of sensitive participants in these studies. To evaluate this, we identified controlled exposure studies with multiple exposure concentrations or durations that provided individual-level lung function data. Based on individual lung function responses at specific exposure concentrations and the slope of individual concentration-response curves, we identified 12 participants out of a total of 208 participants in 12 studies who were potentially sensitive to O3, SO2, or sulfuric acid (H2SO4). We did not identify any participants sensitive to NO2. All of these participants were found to be potentially sensitive only at concentrations that were well above the NAAQS (SO2), above likely ambient concentrations (H2SO4), or at concentrations at which the study reported significant lung function effects for all participants (O3). Based on our analysis, average responses for all participants combined adequately reflect lung function responses for potentially sensitive study participants at concentrations in the range of the current NAAQS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a national English cohort

Authors: Atkinson, RW; Carey, IM; Kent, AJ; van Staa, TP; Anderson, HR; Cook, DG (2015) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 72:42-48. HERO ID: 2535732

[Less] OBJECTIVES: The role of outdoor air pollution in the incidence of chronic obstructive . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: The role of outdoor air pollution in the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear. We investigated this question using a large, nationally representative cohort based on primary care records linked to hospital admissions.

METHODS: A cohort of 812 063 patients aged 40-89 years registered with 205 English general practices in 2002 without a COPD diagnosis was followed from 2003 to 2007. First COPD diagnoses recorded either by a general practitioner (GP) or on admission to hospital were identified. Annual average concentrations in 2002 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) and <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone and sulfur dioxide (SO2) at 1 km(2) resolution were estimated from emission-based dispersion models. Hazard ratios (HRs) per interquartile range change were estimated from Cox models adjusting for age, sex, smoking, body mass index and area-level deprivation.

RESULTS: 16 034 participants (1.92%) received a COPD diagnosis from their GP and 2910 participants (0.35%) were admitted to hospital for COPD. After adjustment, HRs for GP recorded COPD and PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 were close to unity, positive for SO2 (HR=1.07 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.11) per 2.2 µg/m(3)) and negative for ozone (HR=0.94 (0.89 to 1.00) per 3 µg/m(3)). For admissions HRs for PM2.5 and NO2 remained positive (HRs=1.05 (0.98 to 1.13) and 1.06 (0.98 to 1.15) per 1.9 µg/m(3) and 10.7 µg/m(3), respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: This large population-based cohort study found limited, inconclusive evidence for associations between air pollution and COPD incidence. Further work, utilising improved estimates of air pollution over time and enhanced socioeconomic indicators, is required to clarify the association between air pollution and COPD incidence.