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1,017 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sulfur dioxide contributes to the cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction in rats

Authors: Qin, G; Wu, M; Wang, J; Xu, Z; Xia, J; Sang, N (2016) Toxicological Sciences 151:334-346. HERO ID: 3224103

[Less] Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between sulfur dioxide (SO2) and an increase . . . [More] Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between sulfur dioxide (SO2) and an increase of morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and arrhythmia. Mitochondrion is the most sensitive organelle in myocardium of animals exposed to SO2 Here we study the molecular characterization of mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac muscles of rat after SO2exposure. We found that the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), ATP contents, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents, and mRNA expression of complexes IV and V subunits encoded by mtDNA were decreased after NaHSO3treatmentin vitroor SO2inhalationin vivo The mitochondrial dysfunctions were accompanied by depressions of co-activator of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) mRNA and protein. We observed swollen mitochondria and lower amounts of cristae in hearts of rats after 3.5 mg/m(3)SO2inhalation for 30 days. Interestingly, NaHSO3induced mitochondrial dysfunctions marked by ΔΨm and ATP reduction could be inhibited by an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC), accompanied by the restoration of transcriptional factors expressions. The cardiac mitochondrial dysfunctions could also be alleviated by overexpression of TFAM. SO2induced abnormal left ventricular function was restored by NALC in vivo Our findings demonstrate that SO2induces cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction. And inhibition of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the transcriptional network controlling mitochondrial biogenesis can mitigate the SO2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Volcanic air pollution over the Island of Hawai'i: Emissions, dispersal, and composition. Association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in Hawai'i Island school children

Authors: Tam, E; Miike, R; Labrenz, S; Sutton, AJ; Elias, T; Davis, J; Chen, YL; Tantisira, K; Dockery, D; Avol, E (2016) Environment International 92-93:543-552. HERO ID: 3358859

[Less] BACKGROUND: Kilauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai'i has erupted continuously since . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Kilauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai'i has erupted continuously since 1983, releasing approximately 300-12000metrictons per day of sulfur dioxide (SO2). SO2 interacts with water vapor to produce an acidic haze known locally as "vog". The combination of wind speed and direction, inversion layer height, and local terrain lead to heterogeneous and variable distribution of vog over the island, allowing study of respiratory effects associated with chronic vog exposure.

OBJECTIVES: We characterized the distribution and composition of vog over the Island of Hawai'i, and tested the hypotheses that chronic vog exposure (SO2 and acid) is associated with increased asthma prevalence, respiratory symptoms, and reduced pulmonary function in Hawai'i Island schoolchildren.

METHODS: We compiled data of volcanic emissions, wind speed, and wind direction over Hawai'i Island since 1992. Community-based researchers then measured 2- to 4-week integrated concentrations of SO2 and fine particulate mass and acidity in 4 exposure zones, from 2002 to 2005, when volcanic SO2 emissions averaged 1600metrictons per day. Concurrently, community researchers recruited schoolchildren in the 4th and 5th grades of 25 schools in the 4 vog exposure zones, to assess determinants of lung health, respiratory symptoms, and asthma prevalence.

RESULTS: Environmental data suggested 4 different vog exposure zones with SO2, PM2.5, and particulate acid concentrations (mean±s.d.) as follows: 1) Low (0.3±0.2ppb, 2.5±1.2μg/m(3), 0.6±1.1nmolH+/m(3)), 2) Intermittent (1.6±1.8ppb, 2.8±1.5μg/m(3), 4.0±6.6nmolH+/m(3)), 3) Frequent (10.1±5.2ppb, 4.8±1.9μg/m(3), 4.3±6.7nmolH+/m(3)), and 4) Acid (1.2±0.4ppb, 7.2±2.3μg/m(3), 25.3±17.9nmolH+/m(3)). Participants (1957) in the 4 zones differed in race, prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, presence of mold in the home, and physician-diagnosed asthma. Multivariable analysis showed an association between Acid vog exposure and cough and strongly suggested an association with FEV1/FVC <0.8, but not with diagnosis of asthma, or chronic persistent wheeze or bronchitis in the last 12months.

CONCLUSIONS: Hawai'i Island's volcanic air pollution can be very acidic, but contains few co-contaminants originating from anthropogenic sources of air pollution. Chronic exposure to acid vog is associated with increased cough and possibly with reduced FEV1/FVC, but not with asthma or bronchitis. Further study is needed to better understand how volcanic air pollution interacts with host and environmental factors to affect respiratory symptoms, lung function, and lung growth, and to determine acute effects of episodes of increased emissions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The relationship of exposure to air pollutants in pregnancy with surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction in umbilical cord

Authors: Poursafa, P; Baradaran-Mahdavi, S; Moradi, B; Haghjooy Javanmard, S; Tajadini, M; Mehrabian, F; Kelishadi, R (2016) Environmental Research 146:154-160. HERO ID: 3072403

[Less] BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the association of exposure to ambient air . . . [More] BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the association of exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy with cord blood concentrations of surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction.

METHODS: This population-based cohort was conducted from March 2014 to March 2015 among 250 mother-neonate pairs in urban areas of Isfahan, the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. We analyzed the association between the ambient carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particular matter 10 (PM10), and air quality index (AQI) with cord blood levels of endothelin-1, vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM), and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM). Multiple regression analysis was conducted after adjustment for potential confounding factors and covariates. The regression coefficient (beta), standard error of the estimate (SE), and 95% confidence intervals for each regression coefficient (95% CI) are reported.

RESULTS: Data of 233 mother-neonate pairs were complete, and included in the analysis. Multiple regression analyses showed that AQI, CO and O3 had significant correlation with cord blood ICAM-1 [Beta (SE), 95%CI: 2.93 (0.72), 1.33,5.54; 2.28(1.44), 1.56,5.12; and 2.02(0.01), 1.03,2.04, respectively] as well as with VCAM-1 [2.78(0.91), 1.69,4.57; 2.47(1.47), 1.43,5.37; and 2.01(0.01),1.07,2.04, respectively]. AQI, PM10, and SO2 were significantly associated with Endothelin-1 concentrations [Beta (SE), 95%CI: 10.16(5.08),7.61,14.28; 9.70(3.46), 2.88,16.52; and 1.07(0.02), 1.03,2.11, respectively].

CONCLUSIONS: The significant associations of air pollutants with markers of endothelial dysfunction during fetal period may provide another evidence on the adverse health effects of air pollutants on early stages of atherosclerosis from fetal period. Our findings underscore the importance of considering environmental factors in primordial prevention of chronic diseases.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Different effects of long-term exposures to SO2 and NO2 air pollutants on asthma severity in young adults

Authors: Greenberg, N; Carel, RS; Derazne, E; Bibi, H; Shpriz, M; Tzur, D; Portnov, BA (2016) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 79:1-10. HERO ID: 3224029

[Less] Numerous studies demonstrated that exposure to ambient air pollutants contributes to severity and frequency . . . [More] Numerous studies demonstrated that exposure to ambient air pollutants contributes to severity and frequency of asthma exacerbations. However, whether common air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), exert differential effects on asthma occurrence and severity is unclear. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether exposure to NO2 and/or SO2 may initiate different long-term effects on prevalence and severity of asthma in young adults. Medical records of 137,040 males, 17 years old, who underwent standard premilitary service health examinations during 1999-2008 were examined. Air-pollution data for NO2 and SO2 were linked to the place of residence of each subject. The influence of specific air pollutants on asthma prevalence and severity was evaluated using bivariate logistic regression, controlling for individuals' sociodemographic attributes. For both ambient air pollutants, there was a significant dose-response effect on severity of asthma at ambient concentrations below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards. However, in residential areas with high levels of SO2 (13.3-592.7µg/m(3)) and high levels of NO2 (27.2-43.2µg/m(3)) the risk of asthma occurrence was significantly higher than that in residential areas with high levels of NO2 (27.2-43.2 µg/m(3)) and intermediate levels (6.7-13.3 µg/m(3)) of SO2 pollution. The effects of exposure to SO2 and NO2 air pollutants on the respiratory airways system appear to differ, with possible implications regarding medical management, even in cases of exposure to mixtures of these pollutants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ambient air pollution and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Authors: Kang, SH; Heo, J; Oh, IY; Kim, J; Lim, WH; Cho, Y; Choi, EK; Yi, SM; Do Shin, S; Kim, H; Oh, S (2016) International Journal of Cardiology 203:1086-1092. HERO ID: 3070651

[Less] BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of cardiovascular death. This . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of cardiovascular death. This study aimed at investigating the impact of short-term exposure to air pollutants on the incidence of OHCA.

METHODS: We identified OHCA cases that occurred in Seoul between 2006 and 2013 from the nationwide emergency medical service database. The association of the daily incidence of OHCA with air pollutants including PM2.5 (particles ≤2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter), PM10, CO, O3, NO2, and SO2 was analyzed with the use of time-series and case-crossover analyses.

RESULTS: A total of 21,509 OHCAs of presumed cardiac origin were identified. An elevation in PM2.5 by 10μg/m(3) at a moving average of lag 1 and 2days was shown to increase the risk of OHCA by 1.30% (95% confidence intervals, 0.20-2.41%). An exposure-response relationship was present: the risk of OHCA increased significantly with even a mild elevation of PM2.5 (10-15μg/m(3)) and further increased with higher levels. While PM10, NO2, CO, and SO2 also showed significant associations with OHCA in single-pollutant models, only PM2.5 remained significant after adjustment for other pollutants. Subgroup analyses showed male sex, advanced age, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and history of stroke were risk factors for OHCA in response to elevations in PM2.5.

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that increased ambient levels of PM2.5 were significantly associated with increased risk of OHCA within 1 to 2days of exposure, which had a dose-response relationship. Subjects with conventional cardiovascular risk factors were more susceptible to harm of PM2.5.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Tumour necrosis factor α polymorphism (TNF-308α G/A) in association with asthma related phenotypes and air pollutants among children in KwaZulu-Natal

Authors: Makamure, MT; Reddy, P; Chuturgoon, A; Naidoo, RN; Mentz, G; Batterman, S; Robins, TG (2016) Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy & Immunology 34:217-222. HERO ID: 3214568

[Less] BACKGROUND: The study of gene-environment interactions enables us to further understand . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The study of gene-environment interactions enables us to further understand the pathogenesis of asthma and inflammation. The TNF-α gene has been associated with airway pathology in asthma but there is limited information in relation to pollutant exposure and the TNF-α 308G/A polymorphism.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk conferred by the TNF-α 308(G/A) polymorphism on respiratory outcome and to evaluate whether the association between exposure to ambient air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, NO, and PM10 and variation in lung function measures is modified by genotype.

METHODS: The sample comprised 129 African children (between 9-11 years old). A questionnaire based on guidelines from the British Medical Research Council and the American Thoracic Society was administered to all caregivers to evaluate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Atopy was evaluated by skin prick testing. Bihourly measures of lung function (spirometry) were collected at school five days per week over three week periods in each of four seasons (2004-2005) using digital hand-held devices. During each of the four intensive 3-week phases, gaseous air pollutant concentrations were monitored continuously. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-PFLP) analysis was used to detect the TNF-α 308 genotype and plasma TNF-α levels were measured using the human TNF-α Max Standard™ Enzyme-linked immuno-absorbent assay (ELISA) kit.

RESULTS: The TNF-α variant A allele was common among this sample of African children (40% with an allelic frequency of 0.24). There was no significant association with the TNF-α G/A polymorphism and any respiratory linked phenotype, nor cytokine levels. However, when exposure to pollutants were analyzed with genotypic and phenotypic data, we found relatively modest interaction effects for the TNF-α 308 genotype. GEE models showed that children with the TNF-α 308 A allele had increased deterioration of lung function post pollution exposure to SO2 [β=2.62, CI:0.51-4.71, p=0.02 and pint=0.03] and NO [β=3.28, CI:0.68-5.89, p=0.01, pint=0.03].

CONCLUSION: The TNF-α 308 (G/A) polymorphism may be associated with increased pollutant-associated effects on FEV1 intraday variability for both SO2 and NO. The A allele may increase susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollutants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Historic air pollution exposure and long-term mortality risks in England and Wales: prospective longitudinal cohort study

Authors: Hansell, A; Ghosh, RE; Blangiardo, M; Perkins, C; Vienneau, D; Goffe, K; Briggs, D; Gulliver, J (2016) Thorax 71:330-338. HERO ID: 3224165

[Less] INTRODUCTION: Long-term air pollution exposure contributes to mortality but there are . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: Long-term air pollution exposure contributes to mortality but there are few studies examining effects of very long-term (>25 years) exposures.

METHODS: This study investigated modelled air pollution concentrations at residence for 1971, 1981, 1991 (black smoke (BS) and SO2) and 2001 (PM10) in relation to mortality up to 2009 in 367 658 members of the longitudinal survey, a 1% sample of the English Census. Outcomes were all-cause (excluding accidents), cardiovascular (CV) and respiratory mortality.

RESULTS: BS and SO2 exposures remained associated with mortality decades after exposure-BS exposure in 1971 was significantly associated with all-cause (OR 1.02 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.04)) and respiratory (OR 1.05 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.09)) mortality in 2002-2009 (ORs expressed per 10 μg/m(3)). Largest effect sizes were seen for more recent exposures and for respiratory disease. PM10 exposure in 2001 was associated with all outcomes in 2002-2009 with stronger associations for respiratory (OR 1.22 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.44)) than CV mortality (OR 1.12 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.25)). Adjusting PM10 for past BS and SO2 exposures in 1971, 1981 and 1991 reduced the all-cause OR to 1.16 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.26) while CV and respiratory associations lost significance, suggesting confounding by past air pollution exposure, but there was no evidence for effect modification. Limitations include limited information on confounding by smoking and exposure misclassification of historic exposures.

CONCLUSIONS: This large national study suggests that air pollution exposure has long-term effects on mortality that persist decades after exposure, and that historic air pollution exposures influence current estimates of associations between air pollution and mortality.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ozone-induced type 2 immunity in nasal airways. Development and lymphoid cell dependence in mice

Authors: Ong, CB; Kumagai, K; Brooks, PT; Brandenberger, C; Lewandowski, RP; Jackson-Humbles, DN; Nault, R; Zacharewski, TR; Wagner, JG; Harkema, JR (2016) American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 54:331-340. HERO ID: 3183112

[Less] Inhalation exposures to ozone commonly encountered in photochemical smog cause airway injury and inflammation. . . . [More] Inhalation exposures to ozone commonly encountered in photochemical smog cause airway injury and inflammation. Elevated ambient ozone concentrations have been epidemiologically associated with nasal airway activation of neutrophils and eosinophils. In the present study, we elucidated the temporal onset and lymphoid cell dependency of eosinophilic rhinitis and associated epithelial changes in mice repeatedly exposed to ozone. Lymphoid cell-sufficient C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0 or 0.5 parts per million (ppm) ozone for 1, 2, 4, or 9 consecutive weekdays (4 h/d). Lymphoid cell-deficient, Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice were similarly exposed for 9 weekdays. Nasal tissues were taken at 2 or 24 hours after exposure for morphometric and gene expression analyses. C57BL/6 mice exposed to ozone for 1 day had acute neutrophilic rhinitis, with airway epithelial necrosis and overexpression of mucosal Ccl2 (MCP-1), Ccl11 (eotaxin), Cxcl1 (KC), Cxcl2 (MIP-2), Hmox1, Il1b, Il5, Il6, Il13, and Tnf mRNA. In contrast, 9-day ozone exposure elicited type 2 immune responses in C57BL/6 mice, with mucosal mRNA overexpression of Arg1, Ccl8 (MCP-2), Ccl11, Chil4 (Ym2), Clca1 (Gob5), Il5, Il10, and Il13; increased density of mucosal eosinophils; and nasal epithelial remodeling (e.g., hyperplasia/hypertrophy, mucous cell metaplasia, hyalinosis, and increased YM1/YM2 proteins). Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice exposed to ozone for 9 days, however, had no nasal pathology or overexpression of transcripts related to type 2 immunity. These results provide a plausible paradigm for the activation of eosinophilic inflammation and type 2 immunity found in the nasal airways of nonatopic individuals subjected to episodic exposures to high ambient ozone.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollution and pulmonary tuberculosis: A nested case-control study among members of a northern california health plan

Authors: Smith, GS; Van Den Eeden, SK; Garcia, C; Shan, J; Baxter, R; Herring, AH; Richardson, DB; Van Rie, A; Emch, M; Gammon, MD (2016) Environmental Health Perspectives 124:761-768. HERO ID: 3224164

[Less] BACKGROUND: Ecologic analyses, case-case comparisons, and animal experiments suggest . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Ecologic analyses, case-case comparisons, and animal experiments suggest positive associations between air pollution and tuberculosis.

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated this hypothesis in a large sample which yields results more applicable to the general population.

METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within a cohort of Kaiser Permanente of Northern California members. All active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases newly diagnosed from 1996-2010 (n=2309) were matched to two controls (n=4604) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity on the index date corresponding with the case diagnosis date. Average individual-level concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) and 10µm (PM10) for two years prior to diagnosis/entry into the study were estimated using measurements from the California Air Resources Board monitor closest to the subject's residence.

RESULTS: In single-pollutant adjusted conditional logistic regression models the pulmonary TB odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the highest quintile (vs. lowest) were 1.50 (1.15, 1.95) for CO and 1.42 (1.10, 1.84) for NO2. Corresponding estimates were higher among never ((1.68 (1.26, 2.24) than ever smokers (1.19 (0.74, 1.92)) for CO. In contrast, for NO2, estimates were higher among ever (1.81 (1.13, 2.91)) than never smokers (1.29 (0.97, 1.71)). O3 was inversely associated for smokers (0.66 (0.43, 1.02)) and never smokers (0.65 (0.52, 0.81)). No other consistent patterns were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: In this first U.S. nested case-control study on air pollution and pulmonary TB to our knowledge, we observed positive associations with ambient CO and NO2, which require confirmation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollution impact on pregnancy outcomes in Como, Italy

Authors: Capobussi, M; Tettamanti, R; Marcolin, L; Piovesan, L; Bronzin, S; Gattoni, ME; Polloni, I; Sabatino, G; Tersalvi, CA; Auxilia, F; Castaldi, S (2016) Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 58:47-52. HERO ID: 3073724

[Less] OBJECTIVE: This retrospective observational study investigates the association between . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: This retrospective observational study investigates the association between maternal exposure to air pollutants and pregnancy adverse outcomes in low urbanization areas.

METHODS: We used multivariate regression analysis to estimate, in the Como province (2005-2012), the effects of NOx, NO2, SO2, O3, CO, and PM10 on low birth weight (LBW), babies small for gestational age (SGA), and preterm birth (PTB).

RESULTS: PTB was inversely associated with high (5.5 μg/m) exposure to SO2 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.58-0.95) and to CO (1.8 mg/m, aOR = 0.84, CI = 0.72-0.99). PTB risk increased with second trimester exposure to NOx (118.3 μg/m, aOR = 1.53, CI = 1.25-1.87), while LBW risk increased with third trimester PM10 (56.1 μg/m, aOR = 1.44, CI = 1.03-2.02). SGA was inversely associated with third trimester NOx (115.8 μg/m, aOR = 0.89, CI = 0.79-0.99).

CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to SO2 and CO seems to postpone delivery: a longer gestation could compensate for maternal hypoxemic-hypoxic damage.