Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-Ozone (2013)

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4,489 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of bromine chemistry on natural tropospheric ozone: Improved simulation of observations from the turn of the 20th century

Authors: Parrella, JP; Evans, MJ; Jacob, DJ; Liang, Q; Mickley, LJ; Miller, B; Pyle, JA; Yang, X (In Press) HERO ID: 664506

[Less] Ozone is a toxic gas in surface air and a major anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the troposphere. Current . . . [More] Ozone is a toxic gas in surface air and a major anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the troposphere. Current models systematically overestimate the low surface ozone concentrations measured in the late 19th and early 20th century1,2,3,4. This suggests that current values of the natural ozone background used as baseline for air quality and climate policy are too high. Here we show that inclusion of tropospheric bromine chemistry in two different global models for the preindustrial atmosphere significantly improves agreement with ozone measurements of a century ago, both in terms of magnitude and seasonal variation. A natural surface ozone background of 13 ± 4 ppb is computed for the US, lower than current estimates and implying a greater margin for ozone reduction by emission controls.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

AMP-activated protein kinase deficiency reduces ozone-induced lung injury and oxidative stress in mice

Authors: Hulo, S; Tiesset, H; Lancel, S; Edme, JL; Viollet, B; Sobaszek, A; Neviere, R (In Press) Respiratory Research. HERO ID: 749260

[Less] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Acute ozone exposure causes lung oxidative stress and inflammation leading to . . . [More] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Acute ozone exposure causes lung oxidative stress and inflammation leading to lung injury. At least one mechanism underlying the lung toxicity of ozone involves excessive production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates such as peroxynitrite. In addition and beyond its major prooxidant properties, peroxynitrite may nitrate tyrosine residues altering phosphorylation of many protein kinases involved in cell signalling. It was recently proposed that peroxynitrite activates 5'-AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) which regulates metabolic pathways and the response to cell stress. AMPK activation as a consequence of ozone exposure has not been previously evaluated. First, we tested whether acute ozone exposure in mice would impair alveolar fluid clearance, increase lung tissue peroxynitrite production and activate AMPK. Second, we tested whether loss of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha1 subunit in mouse would prevent enhanced oxidative stress and lung injury induced by ozone exposure. METHODS: Control and AMPKalpha1 deficient mice were exposed to ozone at a concentration of 2.0 ppm for 3 h in glass cages. Evaluation was performed 24 h after ozone exposure. Alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) was evaluated using fluorescein isothiocyanate tagged albumin. Differential cell counts, total protein levels, cytokine concentrations, myeloperoxidase activity and markers of oxidative stress, i.e. malondialdehyde and peroxynitrite, were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung homogenates (LH). Levels of AMPK-Thr172 phosphorylation and basolateral membrane Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase abundance were determined by Western blot. RESULTS: In control mice, ozone exposure induced lung inflammation as evidence by increased leukocyte count, protein concentration in BAL and myeloperoxidase activity, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in LH. Increases in peroxynitrite levels (3 vs 4.4 nM, p=0.02) and malondialdehyde concentrations (110 vs 230 umole/g wet tissue) were detected in LH obtained from ozone-exposed control mice. Ozone exposure consistently increased phosphorylated AMPK-Thr172 to total AMPK ratio by 80% in control mice. Ozone exposure causes increases in AFC and basolateral membrane Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase abundance in control mice which did not occur in AMPKalpha1 deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results collectively suggest that AMPK activation participates to ozone-induced increases in AFC, inflammation and oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to understand how the AMPK pathway may provide a novel approach for the prevention of ozone-induced lung injury.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Neighborhood poverty, urban residence, race/ethnicity, and asthma: Rethinking the inner-city asthma epidemic

Authors: Keet, CA; Mccormack, MC; Pollack, CE; Peng, RD; Mcgowan, E; Matsui, EC (2015) HERO ID: 2919634

[Less] BACKGROUND: Although it is thought that inner-city areas have a high burden of asthma, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Although it is thought that inner-city areas have a high burden of asthma, the prevalence of asthma in inner cities across the United States is not known.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the prevalence of current asthma in US children living in inner-city and non-inner-city areas and to examine whether urban residence, poverty, or race/ethnicity are the main drivers of asthma disparities.

METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey 2009-2011 was linked by census tract to data from the US Census and the National Center for Health Statistics. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for sex; age; race/ethnicity; residence in an urban, suburban, medium metro, or small metro/rural area; poverty; and birth outside the United States, with current asthma and asthma morbidity as outcome variables. Inner-city areas were defined as urban areas with 20% or more of households at below the poverty line.

RESULTS: We included 23,065 children living in 5,853 census tracts. The prevalence of current asthma was 12.9% in inner-city and 10.6% in non-inner-city areas, but this difference was not significant after adjusting for race/ethnicity, region, age, and sex. In fully adjusted models black race, Puerto Rican ethnicity, and lower household income but not residence in poor or urban areas were independent risk factors for current asthma. Household poverty increased the risk of asthma among non-Hispanics and Puerto Ricans but not among other Hispanics. Associations with asthma morbidity were very similar to those with prevalent asthma.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of asthma is high in some inner-city areas, this is largely explained by demographic factors and not by living in an urban neighborhood.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ozone exposure and systemic biomarkers: Evaluation of evidence for adverse cardiovascular health impacts

Authors: Goodman JE; Prueitt R; Sax SN; Pizzurro DM; Lynch HN; Zu K; Venditti FJ (2015) Critical Reviews in Toxicology 45:412-452. [Review] HERO ID: 2993261

[Less] The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently concluded that there is likely to be a causal . . . [More] The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently concluded that there is likely to be a causal relationship between short-term (< 30 days) ozone exposure and cardiovascular (CV) effects; however, biological mechanisms to link transient effects with chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been established. Some studies assessed changes in circulating levels of biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation, vasoreactivity, lipidology, and glucose metabolism after ozone exposure to elucidate a biological mechanism. We conducted a weight-of-evidence (WoE) analysis to determine if there is evidence supporting an association between changes in these biomarkers and short-term ozone exposure that would indicate a biological mechanism for CVD below the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 parts per billion (ppb). Epidemiology findings were mixed for all biomarker categories, with only a few studies reporting statistically significant changes and with no consistency in the direction of the reported effects. Controlled human exposure studies of 2 to 5 hours conducted at ozone concentrations above 75 ppb reported small elevations in biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress that were of uncertain clinical relevance. Experimental animal studies reported more consistent results among certain biomarkers, although these were also conducted at ozone exposures well above 75 ppb and provided limited information on ozone exposure-response relationships. Overall, the current WoE does not provide a convincing case for a causal relationship between short-term ozone exposure below the NAAQS and adverse changes in levels of biomarkers within and across categories, but, because of study limitations, they cannot not provide definitive evidence of a lack of causation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to medium and high ambient levels of ozone causes adverse systemic inflammatory and cardiac autonomic effects

Authors: Arjomandi M; Wong H; Donde A; Frelinger J; Dalton S; Ching W; Power K; Balmes JR (2015) American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology 308:H1499-1509. HERO ID: 2993265

[Less] Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to ozone increases cardiovascular morbidity. However, . . . [More] Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to ozone increases cardiovascular morbidity. However, the specific biological mechanisms mediating ozone-associated cardiovascular effects are unknown. To determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of ozone causes changes in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease including heart rate variability (HRV), systemic inflammation, and coagulability, 26 subjects were exposed to 0, 100, and 200 ppb ozone in random order for 4 h with intermittent exercise. HRV was measured and blood samples were obtained immediately before (0 h), immediately after (4 h), and 20 h after (24 h) each exposure. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 20 h after exposure. Regression modeling was used to examine dose-response trends between the endpoints and ozone exposure. Inhalation of ozone induced dose-dependent adverse changes in the frequency domains of HRV across exposures consistent with increased sympathetic tone [increase of (parameter estimate +/- SE) 0.4 +/- 0.2 and 0.3 +/- 0.1 in low-to high-frequency domain HRV ratio per 100 ppb increase in ozone at 4 h and 24 h, respectively (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01)] and a dosedependent increase in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) across exposures at 24 h [increase of 0.61 +/- 0.24 mg/l in CRP per 100 ppb increase in ozone (P = 0.01)]. Changes in HRV and CRP did not correlate with ozone-induced local lung inflammatory responses (BAL granulocytes, IL-6, or IL-8), but changes in HRV and CRP were associated with each other after adjustment for age and ozone level. Inhalation of ozone causes adverse systemic inflammatory and cardiac autonomic effects that may contribute to the cardiovascular mortality associated with short-term exposure.

Technical Report
Technical Report

A toxicological review oth the ozone NAAQS

Authors: Honeycutt, M; Shirley, S (2014) HERO ID: 2993238


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Enhancing the Characterization of Epistemic Uncertainties in PM2.5 Risk Analyses

Authors: Smith, AE; Gans, W (2014) Risk Analysis 35:361-378. HERO ID: 2537926

[Less] The Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) is a software tool developed by the . . . [More] The Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) is a software tool developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that is widely used inside and outside of EPA to produce quantitative estimates of public health risks from fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ). This article discusses the purpose and appropriate role of a risk analysis tool to support risk management deliberations, and evaluates the functions of BenMAP in this context. It highlights the importance in quantitative risk analyses of characterization of epistemic uncertainty, or outright lack of knowledge, about the true risk relationships being quantified. This article describes and quantitatively illustrates sensitivities of PM2.5 risk estimates to several key forms of epistemic uncertainty that pervade those calculations: the risk coefficient, shape of the risk function, and the relative toxicity of individual PM2.5 constituents. It also summarizes findings from a review of U.S.-based epidemiological evidence regarding the PM2.5 risk coefficient for mortality from long-term exposure. That review shows that the set of risk coefficients embedded in BenMAP substantially understates the range in the literature. We conclude that BenMAP would more usefully fulfill its role as a risk analysis support tool if its functions were extended to better enable and prompt its users to characterize the epistemic uncertainties in their risk calculations. This requires expanded automatic sensitivity analysis functions and more recognition of the full range of uncertainty in risk coefficients.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

2013 ASHRAE handbook: Fundamentals

Author: ASHRAE (2013) HERO ID: 3554036


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Chapter 16 - Ventilation and infiltration (TC 4.3, ventilation requirements and infiltration)

Author: ASHRAE (2013) HERO ID: 3554059


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Chapter 13 - Indoor environmental modeling (TC 4.10, indoor environmental modeling)

Author: ASHRAE (2013) HERO ID: 3554053