Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-Ozone (2013)

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4,482 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of bromine chemistry on natural tropospheric ozone: Improved simulation of observations from the turn of the 20th century

Authors: Parrella, JP; Evans, MJ; Jacob, DJ; Liang, Q; Mickley, LJ; Miller, B; Pyle, JA; Yang, X (In Press) HERO ID: 664506

[Less] Ozone is a toxic gas in surface air and a major anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the troposphere. Current . . . [More] Ozone is a toxic gas in surface air and a major anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the troposphere. Current models systematically overestimate the low surface ozone concentrations measured in the late 19th and early 20th century1,2,3,4. This suggests that current values of the natural ozone background used as baseline for air quality and climate policy are too high. Here we show that inclusion of tropospheric bromine chemistry in two different global models for the preindustrial atmosphere significantly improves agreement with ozone measurements of a century ago, both in terms of magnitude and seasonal variation. A natural surface ozone background of 13 ± 4 ppb is computed for the US, lower than current estimates and implying a greater margin for ozone reduction by emission controls.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Neighborhood poverty, urban residence, race/ethnicity, and asthma: Rethinking the inner-city asthma epidemic

Authors: Keet, CA; Mccormack, MC; Pollack, CE; Peng, RD; Mcgowan, E; Matsui, EC (2015) HERO ID: 2919634

[Less] BACKGROUND: Although it is thought that inner-city areas have a high burden of asthma, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Although it is thought that inner-city areas have a high burden of asthma, the prevalence of asthma in inner cities across the United States is not known.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the prevalence of current asthma in US children living in inner-city and non-inner-city areas and to examine whether urban residence, poverty, or race/ethnicity are the main drivers of asthma disparities.

METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey 2009-2011 was linked by census tract to data from the US Census and the National Center for Health Statistics. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for sex; age; race/ethnicity; residence in an urban, suburban, medium metro, or small metro/rural area; poverty; and birth outside the United States, with current asthma and asthma morbidity as outcome variables. Inner-city areas were defined as urban areas with 20% or more of households at below the poverty line.

RESULTS: We included 23,065 children living in 5,853 census tracts. The prevalence of current asthma was 12.9% in inner-city and 10.6% in non-inner-city areas, but this difference was not significant after adjusting for race/ethnicity, region, age, and sex. In fully adjusted models black race, Puerto Rican ethnicity, and lower household income but not residence in poor or urban areas were independent risk factors for current asthma. Household poverty increased the risk of asthma among non-Hispanics and Puerto Ricans but not among other Hispanics. Associations with asthma morbidity were very similar to those with prevalent asthma.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of asthma is high in some inner-city areas, this is largely explained by demographic factors and not by living in an urban neighborhood.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to medium and high ambient levels of ozone causes adverse systemic inflammatory and cardiac autonomic effects

Authors: Arjomandi, M; Wong, H; Donde, A; Frelinger, J; Dalton, S; Ching, W; Power, K; Balmes, JR (2015) American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology 308:H1499-1509. HERO ID: 2993265

[Less] Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to ozone increases cardiovascular morbidity. However, . . . [More] Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to ozone increases cardiovascular morbidity. However, the specific biological mechanisms mediating ozone-associated cardiovascular effects are unknown. To determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of ozone causes changes in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease including heart rate variability (HRV), systemic inflammation, and coagulability, 26 subjects were exposed to 0, 100, and 200 ppb ozone in random order for 4 h with intermittent exercise. HRV was measured and blood samples were obtained immediately before (0 h), immediately after (4 h), and 20 h after (24 h) each exposure. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 20 h after exposure. Regression modeling was used to examine dose-response trends between the endpoints and ozone exposure. Inhalation of ozone induced dose-dependent adverse changes in the frequency domains of HRV across exposures consistent with increased sympathetic tone [increase of (parameter estimate +/- SE) 0.4 +/- 0.2 and 0.3 +/- 0.1 in low-to high-frequency domain HRV ratio per 100 ppb increase in ozone at 4 h and 24 h, respectively (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01)] and a dosedependent increase in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) across exposures at 24 h [increase of 0.61 +/- 0.24 mg/l in CRP per 100 ppb increase in ozone (P = 0.01)]. Changes in HRV and CRP did not correlate with ozone-induced local lung inflammatory responses (BAL granulocytes, IL-6, or IL-8), but changes in HRV and CRP were associated with each other after adjustment for age and ozone level. Inhalation of ozone causes adverse systemic inflammatory and cardiac autonomic effects that may contribute to the cardiovascular mortality associated with short-term exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ozone exposure and systemic biomarkers: Evaluation of evidence for adverse cardiovascular health impacts

Authors: Goodman JE; Prueitt R; Sax SN; Pizzurro DM; Lynch HN; Zu K; Venditti FJ (2015) Critical Reviews in Toxicology 45:412-452. [Review] HERO ID: 2993261

[Less] The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently concluded that there is likely to be a causal . . . [More] The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently concluded that there is likely to be a causal relationship between short-term (< 30 days) ozone exposure and cardiovascular (CV) effects; however, biological mechanisms to link transient effects with chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been established. Some studies assessed changes in circulating levels of biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation, vasoreactivity, lipidology, and glucose metabolism after ozone exposure to elucidate a biological mechanism. We conducted a weight-of-evidence (WoE) analysis to determine if there is evidence supporting an association between changes in these biomarkers and short-term ozone exposure that would indicate a biological mechanism for CVD below the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 parts per billion (ppb). Epidemiology findings were mixed for all biomarker categories, with only a few studies reporting statistically significant changes and with no consistency in the direction of the reported effects. Controlled human exposure studies of 2 to 5 hours conducted at ozone concentrations above 75 ppb reported small elevations in biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress that were of uncertain clinical relevance. Experimental animal studies reported more consistent results among certain biomarkers, although these were also conducted at ozone exposures well above 75 ppb and provided limited information on ozone exposure-response relationships. Overall, the current WoE does not provide a convincing case for a causal relationship between short-term ozone exposure below the NAAQS and adverse changes in levels of biomarkers within and across categories, but, because of study limitations, they cannot not provide definitive evidence of a lack of causation.

Technical Report
Technical Report

A toxicological review oth the ozone NAAQS

Authors: Honeycutt, M; Shirley, S (2014) HERO ID: 2993238


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Enhancing the Characterization of Epistemic Uncertainties in PM2.5 Risk Analyses

Authors: Smith, AE; Gans, W (2014) Risk Analysis 35:361-378. HERO ID: 2537926

[Less] The Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) is a software tool developed by the . . . [More] The Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) is a software tool developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that is widely used inside and outside of EPA to produce quantitative estimates of public health risks from fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ). This article discusses the purpose and appropriate role of a risk analysis tool to support risk management deliberations, and evaluates the functions of BenMAP in this context. It highlights the importance in quantitative risk analyses of characterization of epistemic uncertainty, or outright lack of knowledge, about the true risk relationships being quantified. This article describes and quantitatively illustrates sensitivities of PM2.5 risk estimates to several key forms of epistemic uncertainty that pervade those calculations: the risk coefficient, shape of the risk function, and the relative toxicity of individual PM2.5 constituents. It also summarizes findings from a review of U.S.-based epidemiological evidence regarding the PM2.5 risk coefficient for mortality from long-term exposure. That review shows that the set of risk coefficients embedded in BenMAP substantially understates the range in the literature. We conclude that BenMAP would more usefully fulfill its role as a risk analysis support tool if its functions were extended to better enable and prompt its users to characterize the epistemic uncertainties in their risk calculations. This requires expanded automatic sensitivity analysis functions and more recognition of the full range of uncertainty in risk coefficients.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Chapter 16 - Ventilation and infiltration (TC 4.3, ventilation requirements and infiltration)

Author: ASHRAE (2013) HERO ID: 3554059


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Chapter 13 - Indoor environmental modeling (TC 4.10, indoor environmental modeling)

Author: ASHRAE (2013) HERO ID: 3554053


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Chapter 24 - Airflow around buildings (TC 4.3)

Author: ASHRAE (2013) HERO ID: 3554069


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exploring prenatal outdoor air pollution, birth outcomes and neonatal health care utilization in a nationally representative sample

Authors: Trasande, L; Wong, K; Roy, A; Savitz, DA; Thurston, G (2013) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 23:315-321. HERO ID: 1521270

[Less] The impact of air pollution on fetal growth remains controversial, in part, because studies have been . . . [More] The impact of air pollution on fetal growth remains controversial, in part, because studies have been limited to sub-regions of the United States with limited variability. No study has examined air pollution impacts on neonatal health care utilization. We performed descriptive, univariate and multivariable analyses on administrative hospital record data from 222,359 births in the 2000, 2003 and 2006 Kids Inpatient Database linked to air pollution data drawn from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerometric Information Retrieval System. In this study, air pollution exposure during the birth month was estimated based on birth hospital address. Although air pollutants were not individually associated with mean birth weight, a three-pollutant model controlling for hospital characteristics, demographics, and birth month identified 9.3% and 7.2% increases in odds of low birth weight and very low birth weight for each μg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) (both P<0.0001). PM(2.5) and NO(2) were associated with -3.0% odds/p.p.m. and +2.5% odds/p.p.b. of preterm birth, respectively (both P<0.0001). A four-pollutant multivariable model indicated a 0.05 days/p.p.m. NO(2) decrease in length of the birth hospitalization (P=0.0061) and a 0.13 days increase/p.p.m. CO (P=0.0416). A $1166 increase in per child costs was estimated for the birth hospitalization per p.p.m. CO (P=0.0002) and $964 per unit increase in O(3) (P=0.0448). A reduction from the 75th to the 25th percentile in the highest CO quartile for births predicts annual savings of $134.7 million in direct health care costs. In a national, predominantly urban, sample, air pollutant exposures during the month of birth are associated with increased low birth weight and neonatal health care utilization. Further study of this database, with enhanced control for confounding, improved exposure assessment, examination of exposures across multiple time windows in pregnancy, and in the entire national sample, is supported by these initial investigations.