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Nanoscale Carbon

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  • 1.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Recent advances in textile composites: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Textile Composites

    (2010) Lancaster, PA: DEStech Publications, Inc.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. This book contains published investigations presented at the 10th International Conference on Textile . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. This book contains published investigations presented at the 10th International Conference on Textile Composites that will benefit scientists and engineers in the textile composites industry.
    Tagged With: All References Cited, Introduction, Research Planning, External Review Draft, Introduction, Final Case Study, Introduction

    Details
       
  • 2.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Decabromodiphenyl ether: A prolonged sediment toxicity test with Lumbriculus variegatus using spiked sediment with 2% total organic carbon

    Author: ACC
    (2001) Wildlife International, Ltd..
    Tagged With: All References Cited, Impacts, External Review Draft, Impacts , Priority Area: Ch. 5 and Appendix F

    Details
       
  • 3.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Decabromodiphenyl ether: A prolonged sediment toxicity test with Lumbriculus variegatus using spiked sediment with 5% total organic carbon

    Author: ACC
    (2001) Wildlife International, Ltd..
    Tagged With: All References Cited, Impacts, External Review Draft, Impacts , Priority Area: Ch. 5 and Appendix F

    Details
       
  • 4.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Effect of decabromodiphenyl oxide (DBDPO) on the survival and reproduction of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Author: ACC
    (2001) (Study No. 46540). Coumbia, MO: ABC Laboratories, Inc..
    Tagged With: All References Cited, Impacts, External Review Draft, Impacts , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H, Final Case Study, Product Life Cycle , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Transport & Fate , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Impacts , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H

    Details
       
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010

    Authors: Adler, S; Basketter, D; Creton, S; Pelkonen, O; van Benthem, J; Zuang, V; Andersen, KE; Angers-Loustau, A; Aptula, A; Bal-Price, A; Benfenati, E; Bernauer, U; Bessems, J; Bois, FY; Boobis, A; Brandon, E; Bremer, S; Broschard, T; Casati, S; Coecke, S; Corvi, R; Cronin, M; Daston, G; Dekant, W; Felter, S; Grignard, E; Gundert-Remy, U; Heinonen, T; Kimber, I; Kleinjans, J; Komulainen, H; Kreiling, R; Kreysa, J; Leite, SB; Loizou, G; Maxwell, G; Mazzatorta, P; Munn, S; Pfuhler, S; Phrakonkham, P; Piersma, A; Poth, A; Prieto, P; Repetto, G; Rogiers, V; Schoeters, G; Schwarz, M; Serafimova, R; Tähti, H; Testai, E; van Delft, J; van Loveren, H; Vinken, M; Worth, A; Zaldivar, JM
    (2011)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated.
    Tagged With: All References Cited, Final Case Study, Impacts , Priority Area: Ch. 5 and Appendix F
  • 6.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Toxicological profile for polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    Author: ATSDR
    (2004) Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. [ATSDR Tox Profile]
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for the hazardous substance described here. Each peer-reviewed profile identifies and reviews the key literature that describes a hazardous substance's toxicologic properties. Other pertinent literature is also presented, but is described in less detail than the key studies. The complete list of topics covered (chapter titles) is shown at the left and in more detail further down this page.
    Tagged With: All References Cited, Introduction, Product Life Cycle, Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H, Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H, Final Case Study, Introduction , Product Life Cycle , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Transport & Fate , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Impacts , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Reviewer Comments & Agency Responses: Appendices K and I
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDES) at a solid waste incineration plant I: Atmospheric concentrations

    Authors: Agrell, C; ter Schure, AFH; Sveder, J; Bokenstrand, A; Larsson, P; Zegers, BN
    (2004) Atmospheric Environment 38:5139-5148.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. In the first of two papers, the atmospheric poly brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations at . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. In the first of two papers, the atmospheric poly brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations at a municipal solid waste incineration (MSW) plant with electronic recycling is compared with that at an industrial urban reference site producing asphalt and concrete. In the second paper, atmospheric deposition and washout behaviour is presented (Atmos. Environ. (2004a)). PBDEs (BDE28, -47, -66, -100, -154, -153, -183, -209) in the gaseous and particulate phase were measured with high resolution in time during the colder parts of the year to minimise the influence of potential historical pollution at the sites through volatilisation. This also means that reported levels are lower compared to other reported data. Results of BDE47 (TetraBDE) and BDE209 (DecaBDE) as representatives of "old" vs. "new" PBDEs as well as SigmaPBDE, excluding BDE209, are presented. Median SigmaPBDE, BDE47 and BDE209 concentration were 6.3, 2.1 and 10.4 pg m(-3) at the MSW and 3.5, 1.7 and 6.5 pg m-3 at the reference site. The total concentrations (gaseous and particulate phase) were significantly higher at the MSW compared to the reference site for SigmaPBDE and BDE47 but not for BDE209. The same results were obtained regarding concentrations in the gaseous phase. Particle concentrations were significantly higher at the MSW for SigmaPBDE, BDE47 and BDE209. Within each site, the gaseous-phase concentration was significantly higher than the particulate-phase concentration except for BDE209 at the MSW. Thus, the proportion of BDE209 detected in the particulate phase was higher at the MSW compared to the reference site. Together with the results of the second paper, we suggest that treatment of waste is presently a source of "old" PBDEs to the environment, whereas the rather similar BDE209 concentrations at the two sites are more a result of proximity to potential diffuse sources. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Tagged With: All References Cited, Exposure Uptake Dose, Transport and Fate, Product Life-Cycle, Analytical Methods, External Review Draft, Product Life Cycle, Priority Area: Ch.2 and Appendix C, Transport & Fate, Priority Area: Ch. 3 and Appendix D, Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H, Priority Area: Ch. 4 and Appendix E, Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H, Final Case Study, Product Life Cycle , Priority Area: Ch.2 and Appendix C , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Transport & Fate , Priority Area: Ch. 3 and Appendix D , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Impacts , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) Dispersion and Aerosolization with Hot Water Atomization without Addition of Any Surfactant

    Authors: Ahn, KH; Kim, SM; Yu, IJ
    (2011) Safety and Health at Work 2:65-69.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. OBJECTIVES: Carbon nanotubes are an important new class of technological materials . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. OBJECTIVES: Carbon nanotubes are an important new class of technological materials that have numerous novel and useful properties. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which is a nanomaterial, is now in mass production because of its excellent mechanical and electrical properties. Although MWCNTs appear to have great industrial and medical potential, there is little information regarding their toxicological effects on researchers and workers who could be exposed to them by inhalation during the handling of MWCNTs.

    METHODS: The generation of an untangled MWCNT aerosol with a consistent concentration without using surfactants that was designed to be tested in in vivo inhalation toxicity testing was attempted. To do this, MWCNTs were dispersed in deionized water without the addition of any surfactant. To facilitate the dispersion of MWCNTs in deionized water, the water was heated to 40℃, 60℃, and 80℃ depending on the sample with ultrasonic sonication. Then the dispersed MWCNTs were atomized to generate the MWCNT aerosol. After aerosolization of the MWCNTs, the shapes of the NTs were examined by transmission electron microscopy.

    RESULTS: The aerosolized MWCNTs exhibited an untangled shape and the MWCNT generation rate was about 50 mg/m(3).

    CONCLUSION: Our method provided sufficient concentration and dispersion of MWNCTs to be used for inhalation toxicity testing.
    Tagged With: All References Cited, Research Planning: Ch. 6, Final Case Study, Research Planning: Ch. 6
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Photodegradation of decabromodiphenyl ether adsorbed onto clay minerals, metal oxides, and sediment

    Authors: Ahn, MY; Filley, TR; Jafvert, CT; Nies, L; Hua, I; Bezares-Cruz, J
    (2006) Environmental Science and Technology 40:215-220.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The photodebromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) adsorbed onto six different solid matrixes . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The photodebromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) adsorbed onto six different solid matrixes was investigated in sunlight and by irradiation with 350 +/- 50 nm lamps (four lamps at 24 W each). After 14 days of lamp irradiation, BDE-209 degraded with a half-life of 36 and 44 days, respectively, on montmorillonite or kaolinite, with much slower degradation occurring when sorbed on organic carbon-rich natural sediment (t1/2 = 150 days). In late summer and fall sunlight (40.5 degrees N, elevation 600 ft), the half-lives of BDE-209 sorbed on montmorillonite and kaolinite were 261 and 408 days, respectively. Under both irradiation schemes, no significant loss of BDE-209 occurred when sorbed to aluminum hydroxide, iron oxide (ferrihydrite), or manganese dioxide (birnessite). Upon exposure to both lamp and solar light and in the presence of montmorillonite and kaolinite, numerous lesser brominated congeners (tri- to nonabromodiphenyl ethers) were produced. Nearly identical product distribution was evident on montmorillonite and kaolinite. Dark control experiments for each mineral showed no disappearance of BDE-209 or appearance of degradation products. These results suggest that photodegradation of BDE-209 on mineral aerosols during long-range atmospheric transport may be an important fate process for BDE-209 in the environment.
    Tagged With: All References Cited, Transport and Fate, Analytical Methods, External Review Draft, Transport & Fate, Priority Area: Ch. 3 and Appendix D, Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H, Final Case Study, Product Life Cycle , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Transport & Fate , Priority Area: Ch. 3 and Appendix D , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H , Impacts , Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release

    Author: Alaee, M
    (2003) Environment International 29:683-689. [Review]
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in a variety of consumer products and several of those are . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in a variety of consumer products and several of those are produced in large quantities. These compounds have been detected in environmental samples, which can be attributed to the anthropogenic uses of these compounds. Brominated flame retardants are produced via direct bromination of organic molecules or via addition of bromine to alkenes; hence, an overview of the production and usage of bromine over the past three decades is covered. Production, application, and environmental occurrence of high production brominated flame retardants including Tetrabromobisphenol A, polybrominated biphenyls, Penta-, Octa-, Deca-brominated diphenyl ether (oxide) formulation and hexabromocyclododecane are discussed.
    Tagged With: All References Cited, External Review Draft, Introduction, Exposure, Introduction, Exposure, Final Case Study, Introduction
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All References Cited (654)
External Review Draft (522)
Introduction (64)
Product Life-Cycle (64)
Transport and Fate (83)
Exposure Uptake Dose (141)
Impacts (161)
Research Planning (23)
Analytical Methods (236)
Peer Reviewed Draft (609)
Introduction (100)
Product Life Cycle (76)
Priority Area: Ch.2 and Appendix C (65)
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Transport & Fate (115)
Priority Area: Ch. 3 and Appendix D (91)
Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H (54)
Exposure, Uptake, and Dose (229)
Priority Area: Ch. 4 and Appendix E (168)
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Impacts (209)
Priority Area: Ch. 5 and Appendix F (165)
Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H (80)
Research Planning: Ch. 6 (66)
Analytical Methods: Appendix B (8)
Knowledge Maps: Appendix J (2)
Final Case Study (629)
Introduction (103)
Product Life Cycle (264)
Priority Area: Ch.2 and Appendix C (68)
Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H (217)
Transport & Fate (269)
Priority Area: Ch. 3 and Appendix D (93)
Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H (217)
Exposure, Uptake, and Dose (217)
Priority Area: Ch. 4 and Appendix E (0)
Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H (217)
Impacts (332)
Priority Area: Ch. 5 and Appendix F (165)
Lower Priority Areas: Appendices G and H (217)
Research Planning: Ch. 6 (69)
Analytical Methods: Appendix B (8)
Knowledge Maps: Appendix J (3)
Reviewer Comments & Agency Responses: Appendices K and I (14)