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Nanoscale Carbon

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78 References Were Found:

Data/Software
Data/ Software

ChemIDplus - a TOXNET database

Author: ChemIDplus (2018) National Institutes of Health, U.S. Library of Medicine. HERO ID: 4235826


Data/Software
Data/ Software

ChemIDplus - a TOXNET database

Author: NLM (2016) Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Library of Medicine. HERO ID: 2991424


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Functionalization of textiles with multi-walled carbon nanotubes by a novel dyeing-like process

Authors: Gonçalves, AG; Jarrais, B; Pereira, C; Morgado, J; Freire, C; Pereira, MFR (2012) Journal of Materials Science 47:5263-5275. HERO ID: 1071903

[Less] Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with oxygen-containing surface groups and . . . [More] Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with oxygen-containing surface groups and subsequently incorporated in cotton and polyester fabrics by a process that mimics the traditional industrial dyeing process. The washing fastness, hydrophobicity and flame retardancy of the functional textiles were evaluated. The MWCNTs surface chemistry was modified by three different routes: (i) liquid phase oxidation with nitric acid, in order to introduce acidic oxygen-containing groups, (ii) thermal treatment of the sample oxidized in (i), in order to remove the carboxylic acid functionalities and (iii) gas phase oxidation with 5% oxygen in nitrogen to incorporate basic and neutral groups. All samples were characterized by temperature programmed desorption, pH at the point of zero charge and N-2 adsorption-desorption isotherms at -196 A degrees C. The effect of the MWCNTs acidity/basicity and of the type of substrate in the nanomaterials incorporation efficiencies and in the performance of the final textile materials was assessed. The scanning electron microscopy images and the whiteness degree values of the functional textiles before and after washing indicated that the incorporation efficiency was higher for the textiles containing the most acidic MWCNTs, especially for the polyester textiles. The immobilization of the less acidic MWCNTs in polyester imparted hydrophobic properties to the fabrics surface; in particular, the polyester samples functionalized with unmodified and O-2-oxidized MWCNTs presented an almost superhydrophobic behaviour. In the case of the cotton-based samples, a hydrophobic behaviour was not achieved. Finally, the flame-retardant properties of both substrates improved upon the MWCNTs immobilization.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of exposure risk in the weaving process of MWCNT-coated yarn with real-time particle concentration measurements and characterization of dust particles

Authors: Takaya, M; Ono-Ogasawara, M; Shinohara, Y; Kubota, H; Tsuruoka, S; Koda, S (2012) Industrial Health 50:147-155. HERO ID: 1333756

[Less] Various applications of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been developed. One of these applications . . . [More] Various applications of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been developed. One of these applications is an efficient sheet heating element that is woven from MWCNT-coated yarn. In this research, we assessed the exposure to MWCNT and/or the probability of particle release from broken MWCNT-coated yarn during the weaving process. This was accomplished using particle concentrations, microscopic observation, and carbon analysis. In the weaving process, neither an increase in the number of particles nor a difference in particle-size distribution was observed. In the scanning electron micrographic observation, nanosize MWCNT particles were not detected, but there were micron-size particles containing MWCNT as fragments of the yarn. Carbon analysis showed the concentration of micron-size particles containing MWCNT did not exceed 0.0053 mg-C/m(3) around the loom. This value was much lower than the respirable dust mass concentration. Most of micron-size particles seemed to originate from polyester yarn without MWCNT coating. It is recommended that workers use conventional (even not specialized for nanoparticles) personal protective equipment such as respirators and gloves to prevent exposure to respirable-size MWCNT-containing particles. The probability of MWCNT fall-off from the MWCNT-coated yarn was not detected by transmission electron microscopic observation of MWCNT-coated yarn before or after the weaving process.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Aerosols emitted by the combustion of polymers containing nanoparticles

Authors: Motzkus, C; Chivas-Joly, C; Guillaume, E; Ducourtieux, S; Saragoza, L; Lesenechal, D; Macé, T; Lopez-Cuesta, JM; Longuet, C (2012) Journal of Nanoparticle Research 14:687. HERO ID: 1071942

[Less] The fire behavior and the characterization of solid and gaseous fire effluents of polymers [polymethyl . . . [More] The fire behavior and the characterization of solid and gaseous fire effluents of polymers [polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyamide-6 (PA-6)] filled with nanoparticles (silica, alumina, and carbon nanotubes) used to improve their flame retardancy were investigated. To determine the impact of these composites on the emission of airborne particles produced during their combustion in accidental fire scenarios, an experimental setup was developed to measure the mass distribution in the 30 nm-10 mu m range, and the concentrations of submicrometric particles in the aerosol. Comparisons were made between unfilled and filled polymers, and the influence of filler surface treatments (silane-based), as well as combinations with a flame retardant [ammonium polyphosphate (APP)], was investigated. The presence of nano-oxides in PMMA shows a significant effect on the rate of particle emission with a decrease in the concentration of the emitted submicrometric particles. APP in PMMA led to a decrease in the mass fraction of ultrafine particles and an increase in the rate of submicrometric particle emission compared to filled compositions with nano-oxides. Atomic force microscopy was used as a complementary tool for the characterization of the particles emitted during combustion, allowing direct observation of nanoparticle morphology, detection of carbon nanotubes in the aerosol, and visualization of the effect of APP on nanoparticle morphology.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Potential scenarios for nanomaterial release and subsequent alteration in the environment

Authors: Nowack, B; Ranville, JF; Diamond, S; Gallego-Urrea, JA; Metcalfe, C; Rose, J; Horne, N; Koelmans, AA; Klaine, SJ (2012) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31:50–59. [Review] HERO ID: 1071892

[Less] The risks associated with exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) will be determined in part by the . . . [More] The risks associated with exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) will be determined in part by the processes that control their environmental fate and transformation. These processes act not only on ENM that might be released directly into the environment, but more importantly also on ENM in consumer products and those that have been released from the product. The environmental fate and transformation are likely to differ significantly for each of these cases. The ENM released from actual direct use or from nanomaterial-containing products are much more relevant for ecotoxicological studies and risk assessment than pristine ENM. Released ENM may have a greater or lesser environmental impact than the starting materials, depending on the transformation reactions and the material. Almost nothing is known about the environmental behavior and the effects of released and transformed ENM, although these are the materials that are actually present in the environment. Further research is needed to determine whether the release and transformation processes result in a similar or more diverse set of ENM and ultimately how this affects environmental behavior. This article addresses these questions, using four hypothetical case studies that cover a wide range of ENM, their direct use or product alications, and their likely fate in the environment. Furthermore, a more definitive classification scheme for ENM should be adopted that reflects their surface condition, which is a result of both industrial and environmental processes acting on the ENM. The authors conclude that it is not possible to assess the risks associated with the use of ENM by investigating only the pristine form of the ENM, without considering alterations and transformation processes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

New perspectives on nanomaterial aquatic ecotoxicity: production impacts exceed direct exposure impacts for carbon nanotoubes

Authors: Eckelman, MJ; Mauter, MS; Isaacs, JA; Elimelech, M (2012) Environmental Science and Technology 46:2902-2910. HERO ID: 1060396

[Less] Environmental impacts due to engineered nanomaterials arise both from releases of the nanomaterials . . . [More] Environmental impacts due to engineered nanomaterials arise both from releases of the nanomaterials themselves as well as from their synthesis. In this work, we employ the USEtox model to quantify and compare aquatic ecotoxicity impacts over the life cycle of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). USEtox is an integrated multimedia fate, transport, and toxicity model covering large classes of organic and inorganic substances. This work evaluates the impacts of non-CNT emissions from three methods of synthesis (arc ablation, CVD, and HiPco), and compares these to the modeled ecotoxicity of CNTs released to the environment. Parameters for evaluating CNT ecotoxicity are bounded by a highly conservative "worst case" scenario and a "realistic" scenario that draws from existing literature on CNT fate, transport, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that the ecotoxicity impacts of nanomaterial production processes are roughly equivalent to the ecotoxicity of CNT releases under the unrealistic worst case scenario, while exceeding the results of the realistic scenario by 3 orders of magnitude. Ecotoxicity from production processes is dominated by emissions of metals from electricity generation. Uncertainty exists for both production and release stages, and is modeled using a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and scenario analysis. The results of this analysis underscore the contributions of existing work on CNT fate and transport, as well as the importance of life cycle considerations in allocating time and resources toward research on mitigating the impacts of novel materials.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Carbon nanotubes: Exposure, toxicology and protective measures in the work environment

Authors: Gustavsson, P; Hedmer, M; Rissler, J (2011) HERO ID: 1090804


Meeting/Symposium
Presentation

Characterizing particle release from polymer nanocomposites

Authors: Uddin, NM; Nyden, MR (2011) National Institute of Standards and Technology, Engineering Laboratory. HERO ID: 1104487

[Less] Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly being used as fire retardants and performance additives in . . . [More] Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly being used as fire retardants and performance additives in polymeric materials.
Size and ability to interact with biological molecules, nanoadditives may pose significant health and environmental risks if they are released into the environment.
In an effort to gain a better understanding of the potential hazards associated with the commercialization of polymer nanocomposites, we have undertaken an investigation into the nature of the particles that may be released during routine use of these materials.

Meeting/Symposium
Presentation

Characterization of nanoparticle release from burning polymer nanocomposites

Authors: Uddin, N; Nyden, M (2011) presented at NSTI-Nanotech 2011, -. HERO ID: 1104504