Aerosols emitted by the combustion of polymers containing nanoparticles
Authors: Motzkus, C; Chivas-Joly, C; Guillaume, E; Ducourtieux, S; Saragoza, L; Lesenechal, D; Macé, T; Lopez-Cuesta, JM; Longuet, C
Journal of Nanoparticle Research 14:687.
HERO ID: 1071942
The fire behavior and the characterization of solid and gaseous fire effluents of polymers [polymethyl . . .
The fire behavior and the characterization of solid and gaseous fire effluents of polymers [polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyamide-6 (PA-6)] filled with nanoparticles (silica, alumina, and carbon nanotubes) used to improve their flame retardancy were investigated. To determine the impact of these composites on the emission of airborne particles produced during their combustion in accidental fire scenarios, an experimental setup was developed to measure the mass distribution in the 30 nm-10 mu m range, and the concentrations of submicrometric particles in the aerosol. Comparisons were made between unfilled and filled polymers, and the influence of filler surface treatments (silane-based), as well as combinations with a flame retardant [ammonium polyphosphate (APP)], was investigated. The presence of nano-oxides in PMMA shows a significant effect on the rate of particle emission with a decrease in the concentration of the emitted submicrometric particles. APP in PMMA led to a decrease in the mass fraction of ultrafine particles and an increase in the rate of submicrometric particle emission compared to filled compositions with nano-oxides. Atomic force microscopy was used as a complementary tool for the characterization of the particles emitted during combustion, allowing direct observation of nanoparticle morphology, detection of carbon nanotubes in the aerosol, and visualization of the effect of APP on nanoparticle morphology.