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Nanoscale Carbon

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267 References Were Found:

Data/Software
Data/ Software

ChemIDplus - a TOXNET database

Author: NLM (2019) National Institutes of Health, U.S. Library of Medicine. HERO ID: 6302807


Data/Software
Data/ Software

ChemIDplus - a TOXNET database

Author: ChemIDplus (2018) National Institutes of Health, U.S. Library of Medicine. HERO ID: 4235826


Data/Software
Data/ Software

ChemIDplus - a TOXNET database

Author: NLM (2016) Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Library of Medicine. HERO ID: 2991424


Archival Material
Archival Material

Ecological State of the Science Report on decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE): Summary

Author: Environment Canada (2013) Available online at https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/canadian-environmental-protection-act-registry/publications/ecological-state-science-report-decabromodiphenyl.html. [Website] HERO ID: 4158871

Abstract: Table of contents for EC SOS on Decabromodiphenyl Ether (decaBDE)

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Elastic CNT-polyurethane nanocomposite: synthesis, performance and assessment of fragments released during use

Authors: Wohlleben, W; Meier, MW; Vogel, S; Landsiedel, R; Cox, G; Hirth, S; Tomović, Ž (2013) HERO ID: 1578301

[Less] Intended for use in high performance applications where electrical conductivity is required, we developed . . . [More] Intended for use in high performance applications where electrical conductivity is required, we developed a CNT-TPU composite. Such a composite can be prepared by melt processing (extrusion) on an industrial scale. Due to the known hazard upon inhalation of CNTs, we assessed three degradation scenarios that may lead to the release of CNTs from the composite: normal use, machining and outdoor weathering. Unexpectedly, we find that the relative softness of the material actually enhances the embedding of CNTs also in its degradation fragments. A release of free CNTs was not detected under any condition using several detection methods. However, since machining may induce a high acute dose of human exposure, we assessed the cytotoxicity potential of released fragments in the in vitro model of precision-cut lung slices, and found no additional toxicity due to the presence of CNTs. At very low rates over years, weathering degrades the polymer matrix as expected for polyurethanes, thus exposing a network of entangled CNTs. In a preliminary risk assessment, we conclude that this material is safe for humans in professional and consumer use.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Flame retardants: Textile finishes for flame resistant fabrics

Author: Textile Exchange (2012) HERO ID: 1065584


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of exposure risk in the weaving process of MWCNT-coated yarn with real-time particle concentration measurements and characterization of dust particles

Authors: Takaya, M; Ono-Ogasawara, M; Shinohara, Y; Kubota, H; Tsuruoka, S; Koda, S (2012) Industrial Health 50:147-155. HERO ID: 1333756

[Less] Various applications of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been developed. One of these applications . . . [More] Various applications of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been developed. One of these applications is an efficient sheet heating element that is woven from MWCNT-coated yarn. In this research, we assessed the exposure to MWCNT and/or the probability of particle release from broken MWCNT-coated yarn during the weaving process. This was accomplished using particle concentrations, microscopic observation, and carbon analysis. In the weaving process, neither an increase in the number of particles nor a difference in particle-size distribution was observed. In the scanning electron micrographic observation, nanosize MWCNT particles were not detected, but there were micron-size particles containing MWCNT as fragments of the yarn. Carbon analysis showed the concentration of micron-size particles containing MWCNT did not exceed 0.0053 mg-C/m(3) around the loom. This value was much lower than the respirable dust mass concentration. Most of micron-size particles seemed to originate from polyester yarn without MWCNT coating. It is recommended that workers use conventional (even not specialized for nanoparticles) personal protective equipment such as respirators and gloves to prevent exposure to respirable-size MWCNT-containing particles. The probability of MWCNT fall-off from the MWCNT-coated yarn was not detected by transmission electron microscopic observation of MWCNT-coated yarn before or after the weaving process.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Serum PBDEs in a North Carolina toddler cohort: Associations with hand wipes, house dust and socioeconomic variables

Authors: Stapleton, HM; Eagle, S; Sjödin, A; Webster, TF (2012) Environmental Health Perspectives 120:1049-1054. HERO ID: 1229564

[Less] BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

OBJECTIVES: We used handwipes to estimate exposure to PBDEs in house dust among toddlers and examined sex, age, breast-feeding, race, and parents' education as predictors of serum PBDEs.

METHODS: Eighty-three children from 12 to 36 months of age were enrolled in North Carolina between May 2009 and November 2010. Blood, handwipe, and house dust samples were collected and analyzed for PBDEs. A questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data.

RESULTS: PBDEs were detected in all serum samples (geometric mean for ΣpentaBDE in serum was 43.3 ng/g lipid), 98% of the handwipe samples, and 100% of the dust samples. Serum ΣpentaBDEs were significantly correlated with both handwipe and house dust ΣpentaBDE levels, but were more strongly associated with handwipe levels (r = 0.57; p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.35; p < 0.01). Multivariate model estimates revealed that handwipe levels, child's sex, child's age, and father's education accounted for 39% of the variation in serum ΣBDE3 levels (sum of BDEs 47, 99, and 100). In contrast, age, handwipe levels, and breast-feeding duration explained 39% of the variation in serum BDE 153.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that hand-to-mouth activity may be a significant source of exposure to PBDEs. Furthermore, age, socioeconomic status, and breast-feeding were significant predictors of exposure, but associations varied by congener. Specifically, serum ΣBDE3 was inversely associated with socioeconomic status, whereas serum BDE-153 was positively associated with duration of breast-feeding and mother's education.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Aerosols emitted by the combustion of polymers containing nanoparticles

Authors: Motzkus, C; Chivas-Joly, C; Guillaume, E; Ducourtieux, S; Saragoza, L; Lesenechal, D; Macé, T; Lopez-Cuesta, JM; Longuet, C (2012) Journal of Nanoparticle Research 14:687. HERO ID: 1071942

[Less] The fire behavior and the characterization of solid and gaseous fire effluents of polymers [polymethyl . . . [More] The fire behavior and the characterization of solid and gaseous fire effluents of polymers [polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyamide-6 (PA-6)] filled with nanoparticles (silica, alumina, and carbon nanotubes) used to improve their flame retardancy were investigated. To determine the impact of these composites on the emission of airborne particles produced during their combustion in accidental fire scenarios, an experimental setup was developed to measure the mass distribution in the 30 nm-10 mu m range, and the concentrations of submicrometric particles in the aerosol. Comparisons were made between unfilled and filled polymers, and the influence of filler surface treatments (silane-based), as well as combinations with a flame retardant [ammonium polyphosphate (APP)], was investigated. The presence of nano-oxides in PMMA shows a significant effect on the rate of particle emission with a decrease in the concentration of the emitted submicrometric particles. APP in PMMA led to a decrease in the mass fraction of ultrafine particles and an increase in the rate of submicrometric particle emission compared to filled compositions with nano-oxides. Atomic force microscopy was used as a complementary tool for the characterization of the particles emitted during combustion, allowing direct observation of nanoparticle morphology, detection of carbon nanotubes in the aerosol, and visualization of the effect of APP on nanoparticle morphology.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Potential scenarios for nanomaterial release and subsequent alteration in the environment

Authors: Nowack, B; Ranville, JF; Diamond, S; Gallego-Urrea, JA; Metcalfe, C; Rose, J; Horne, N; Koelmans, AA; Klaine, SJ (2012) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31:50–59. [Review] HERO ID: 1071892

[Less] The risks associated with exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) will be determined in part by the . . . [More] The risks associated with exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) will be determined in part by the processes that control their environmental fate and transformation. These processes act not only on ENM that might be released directly into the environment, but more importantly also on ENM in consumer products and those that have been released from the product. The environmental fate and transformation are likely to differ significantly for each of these cases. The ENM released from actual direct use or from nanomaterial-containing products are much more relevant for ecotoxicological studies and risk assessment than pristine ENM. Released ENM may have a greater or lesser environmental impact than the starting materials, depending on the transformation reactions and the material. Almost nothing is known about the environmental behavior and the effects of released and transformed ENM, although these are the materials that are actually present in the environment. Further research is needed to determine whether the release and transformation processes result in a similar or more diverse set of ENM and ultimately how this affects environmental behavior. This article addresses these questions, using four hypothetical case studies that cover a wide range of ENM, their direct use or product alications, and their likely fate in the environment. Furthermore, a more definitive classification scheme for ENM should be adopted that reflects their surface condition, which is a result of both industrial and environmental processes acting on the ENM. The authors conclude that it is not possible to assess the risks associated with the use of ENM by investigating only the pristine form of the ENM, without considering alterations and transformation processes.