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Nanoscale Carbon

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266 References Were Found:

Data/Software
Data/ Software

ChemIDplus - a TOXNET database

Author: ChemIDplus (2018) National Institutes of Health, U.S. Library of Medicine. HERO ID: 4235826


Data/Software
Data/ Software

ChemIDplus - a TOXNET database

Author: NLM (2016) Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Library of Medicine. HERO ID: 2991424


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Elastic CNT-polyurethane nanocomposite: synthesis, performance and assessment of fragments released during use

Authors: Wohlleben, W; Meier, MW; Vogel, S; Landsiedel, R; Cox, G; Hirth, S; Tomović, Ž (2013) HERO ID: 1578301

[Less] Intended for use in high performance applications where electrical conductivity is required, we developed . . . [More] Intended for use in high performance applications where electrical conductivity is required, we developed a CNT-TPU composite. Such a composite can be prepared by melt processing (extrusion) on an industrial scale. Due to the known hazard upon inhalation of CNTs, we assessed three degradation scenarios that may lead to the release of CNTs from the composite: normal use, machining and outdoor weathering. Unexpectedly, we find that the relative softness of the material actually enhances the embedding of CNTs also in its degradation fragments. A release of free CNTs was not detected under any condition using several detection methods. However, since machining may induce a high acute dose of human exposure, we assessed the cytotoxicity potential of released fragments in the in vitro model of precision-cut lung slices, and found no additional toxicity due to the presence of CNTs. At very low rates over years, weathering degrades the polymer matrix as expected for polyurethanes, thus exposing a network of entangled CNTs. In a preliminary risk assessment, we conclude that this material is safe for humans in professional and consumer use.

Archival Material
Archival Material

Ecological State of the Science Report on decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE): Summary

Author: Environment Canada (2013) Available online at https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/canadian-environmental-protection-act-registry/publications/ecological-state-science-report-decabromodiphenyl.html. [Website] HERO ID: 4158871

Abstract: Table of contents for EC SOS on Decabromodiphenyl Ether (decaBDE)

Technical Report
Technical Report

Flame retardants: Textile finishes for flame resistant fabrics

Author: Textile Exchange (2012) HERO ID: 1065584


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Methodological considerations for testing the ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes: Review

Authors: Petersen, EJ; Henry, TB (2012) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31:60-72. [Review] HERO ID: 1010571

[Less] The recent emergence of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) that are released into the environment and . . . [More] The recent emergence of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) that are released into the environment and lead to exposure in organisms has accelerated the need to determine NP toxicity. Techniques for measuring the toxicity of NPs (nanotoxicology) in ecological receptors (nanoecotoxicology) are in their infancy, however, and establishing standardized ecotoxicity tests for NPs are presently limited by several factors. These factors include the extent of NP characterization necessary (or possible) before, during, and after toxicity tests such that toxic effects can be related to physicochemical characteristics of NPs; determining uptake and distribution of NPs within exposed organisms (does uptake occur or are effects exerted at organism surfaces?); and determining the appropriate types of controls to incorporate into ecotoxicity tests with NPs. In this review, the authors focus on the important elements of measuring the ecotoxicity of carbon NPs (CNPs) and make recommendations for ecotoxicology testing that should enable more rigorous interpretations of collected data and interlaboratory comparisons. This review is intended to serve as a next step toward developing standardized tests that can be incorporated into a regulatory framework for CNPs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Functionalization of textiles with multi-walled carbon nanotubes by a novel dyeing-like process

Authors: Gonçalves, AG; Jarrais, B; Pereira, C; Morgado, J; Freire, C; Pereira, MFR (2012) Journal of Materials Science 47:5263-5275. HERO ID: 1071903

[Less] Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with oxygen-containing surface groups and . . . [More] Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with oxygen-containing surface groups and subsequently incorporated in cotton and polyester fabrics by a process that mimics the traditional industrial dyeing process. The washing fastness, hydrophobicity and flame retardancy of the functional textiles were evaluated. The MWCNTs surface chemistry was modified by three different routes: (i) liquid phase oxidation with nitric acid, in order to introduce acidic oxygen-containing groups, (ii) thermal treatment of the sample oxidized in (i), in order to remove the carboxylic acid functionalities and (iii) gas phase oxidation with 5% oxygen in nitrogen to incorporate basic and neutral groups. All samples were characterized by temperature programmed desorption, pH at the point of zero charge and N-2 adsorption-desorption isotherms at -196 A degrees C. The effect of the MWCNTs acidity/basicity and of the type of substrate in the nanomaterials incorporation efficiencies and in the performance of the final textile materials was assessed. The scanning electron microscopy images and the whiteness degree values of the functional textiles before and after washing indicated that the incorporation efficiency was higher for the textiles containing the most acidic MWCNTs, especially for the polyester textiles. The immobilization of the less acidic MWCNTs in polyester imparted hydrophobic properties to the fabrics surface; in particular, the polyester samples functionalized with unmodified and O-2-oxidized MWCNTs presented an almost superhydrophobic behaviour. In the case of the cotton-based samples, a hydrophobic behaviour was not achieved. Finally, the flame-retardant properties of both substrates improved upon the MWCNTs immobilization.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ecotoxicity test methods for engineered nanomaterials: practical experiences and recommendations from the bench

Authors: Handy, RD; Cornelis, G; Fernandes, T; Tsyusko, O; Decho, A; Sabo-Attwood, T; Metcalfe, C; Steevens, JA; Klaine, SJ; Koelmans, AA; Horne, N (2012) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31:15-31. [Review] HERO ID: 1021709

[Less] Ecotoxicology research is using many methods for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), but the collective . . . [More] Ecotoxicology research is using many methods for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), but the collective experience from researchers has not been documented. This paper reports the practical issues for working with ENMs and suggests nano-specific modifications to protocols. The review considers generic practical issues, as well as specific issues for aquatic tests, marine grazers, soil organisms, and bioaccumulation studies. Current procedures for cleaning glassware are adequate, but electrodes are problematic. The maintenance of exposure concentration is challenging, but can be achieved with some ENMs. The need to characterize the media during experiments is identified, but rapid analytical methods are not available to do this. The use of sonication and natural/synthetic dispersants are discussed. Nano-specific biological endpoints may be developed for a tiered monitoring scheme to diagnose ENM exposure or effect. A case study of the algal growth test highlights many small deviations in current regulatory test protocols that are allowed (shaking, lighting, mixing methods), but these should be standardized for ENMs. Invertebrate (Daphnia) tests should account for mechanical toxicity of ENMs. Fish tests should consider semistatic exposure to minimize wastewater and animal husbandry. The inclusion of a benthic test is recommended for the base set of ecotoxicity tests with ENMs. The sensitivity of soil tests needs to be increased for ENMs and shortened for logistics reasons; improvements include using Caenorhabditis elegans, aquatic media, and metabolism endpoints in the plant growth tests. The existing bioaccumulation tests are conceptually flawed and require considerable modification, or a new test, to work for ENMs. Overall, most methodologies need some amendments, and recommendations are made to assist researchers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of exposure risk in the weaving process of MWCNT-coated yarn with real-time particle concentration measurements and characterization of dust particles

Authors: Takaya, M; Ono-Ogasawara, M; Shinohara, Y; Kubota, H; Tsuruoka, S; Koda, S (2012) Industrial Health 50:147-155. HERO ID: 1333756

[Less] Various applications of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been developed. One of these applications . . . [More] Various applications of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been developed. One of these applications is an efficient sheet heating element that is woven from MWCNT-coated yarn. In this research, we assessed the exposure to MWCNT and/or the probability of particle release from broken MWCNT-coated yarn during the weaving process. This was accomplished using particle concentrations, microscopic observation, and carbon analysis. In the weaving process, neither an increase in the number of particles nor a difference in particle-size distribution was observed. In the scanning electron micrographic observation, nanosize MWCNT particles were not detected, but there were micron-size particles containing MWCNT as fragments of the yarn. Carbon analysis showed the concentration of micron-size particles containing MWCNT did not exceed 0.0053 mg-C/m(3) around the loom. This value was much lower than the respirable dust mass concentration. Most of micron-size particles seemed to originate from polyester yarn without MWCNT coating. It is recommended that workers use conventional (even not specialized for nanoparticles) personal protective equipment such as respirators and gloves to prevent exposure to respirable-size MWCNT-containing particles. The probability of MWCNT fall-off from the MWCNT-coated yarn was not detected by transmission electron microscopic observation of MWCNT-coated yarn before or after the weaving process.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Serum PBDEs in a North Carolina toddler cohort: Associations with hand wipes, house dust and socioeconomic variables

Authors: Stapleton, HM; Eagle, S; Sjödin, A; Webster, TF (2012) Environmental Health Perspectives 120:1049-1054. HERO ID: 1229564

[Less] BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

OBJECTIVES: We used handwipes to estimate exposure to PBDEs in house dust among toddlers and examined sex, age, breast-feeding, race, and parents' education as predictors of serum PBDEs.

METHODS: Eighty-three children from 12 to 36 months of age were enrolled in North Carolina between May 2009 and November 2010. Blood, handwipe, and house dust samples were collected and analyzed for PBDEs. A questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data.

RESULTS: PBDEs were detected in all serum samples (geometric mean for ΣpentaBDE in serum was 43.3 ng/g lipid), 98% of the handwipe samples, and 100% of the dust samples. Serum ΣpentaBDEs were significantly correlated with both handwipe and house dust ΣpentaBDE levels, but were more strongly associated with handwipe levels (r = 0.57; p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.35; p < 0.01). Multivariate model estimates revealed that handwipe levels, child's sex, child's age, and father's education accounted for 39% of the variation in serum ΣBDE3 levels (sum of BDEs 47, 99, and 100). In contrast, age, handwipe levels, and breast-feeding duration explained 39% of the variation in serum BDE 153.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that hand-to-mouth activity may be a significant source of exposure to PBDEs. Furthermore, age, socioeconomic status, and breast-feeding were significant predictors of exposure, but associations varied by congener. Specifically, serum ΣBDE3 was inversely associated with socioeconomic status, whereas serum BDE-153 was positively associated with duration of breast-feeding and mother's education.