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Nanoscale Carbon

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Technical Report
Technical Report

Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT), synthetic graphite in tubular shape

Author: ECHA (2013) European Chemicals Agency. HERO ID: 1578615


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inhalation Toxicity Assessment of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles

Authors: Morimoto, Y; Horie, M; Kobayashi, N; Shinohara, N; Shimada, M (2013) Accounts of Chemical Research 46:770-781. [Review] HERO ID: 1071820

[Less] Although the demand for nanomaterials has grown, researchers have not conclusively determined the effects . . . [More] Although the demand for nanomaterials has grown, researchers have not conclusively determined the effects of nanomaterials on the human body. To understand the effects of nanomaterials on occupational health, we need to estimate the respiratory toxicity of nanomaterials through inhalation studies, intratracheal instillation studies, and pharyngeal aspiration studies. The discrepancies observed among these studies tend to result from differences in the physiochemical properties of nanomaterials, such as aggregation and dispersion. Therefore, in all toxicity studies, identification of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials is essential. This Account reviews the inhalation toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials and compares them with inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of well-characterized fullerene and carbon nanotubes. In many reports, pulmonary inflammation and injury served as pulmonary endpoints for the inhalation toxicity. To assess pulmonary inflammation, we examined neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in the alveolar and/or interstitial space, and the expression of the neutrophil and/or monocyte chemokines. We also reported the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the expression of oxidative stress-related genes characteristic of lung injury, and the presence of granulomatous lesion and pulmonary fibrosis. In the inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of well-characterized fullerenes, exposure to fullerene did not induce pulmonary inflammation or transient inflammation. By contrast, in an inhalation study, a high concentration of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) induced neutrophil inflammation or granulomatous formations in the lung, and intratracheal instillation of MWCNTs and SWCNTs induced persistent inflammation in the lung. Among the physicochemical properties of carbon nanotubes, the increased surface area is associated with inflammatory activity as measured by the increase in the rate of neutrophils measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Metal impurities such as iron and nickel enhanced the pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes, and SWCNTs that included an amorphous carbon induced multifocal granulomas in the lung while purer SWCNTs did not. The aggregation state also affects pulmonary response: Exposure to well-dispersed carbon nanotubes led to the thickening of the alveolar wall and fewer granulomatous lesions in the lung, while agglomerated carbon nanotubes produced granulomatous inflammation. The values of the acceptable exposure concentration in some countries were based on the data of subacute and subchronic inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of well-characterized fullerene and carbon nanotubes. In Japan, the acceptable exposure concentration of fullerene is 0.39 mg/m(3). In Europe, the proposal concentration is 44.4 μg/m(3) for acute toxicity and 0.27 μg/m(3) for chronic toxicity. The proposal acceptable exposure concentrations of carbon nanotubes are 0.03, 0.05, and 0.007 mg/m(3) in Japan, Europe, and the United States, respectively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Genotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in both in vitro and in vivo assay systems

Authors: Kato, T; Totsuka, Y; Ishino, K; Matsumoto, Y; Tada, Y; Nakae, D; Goto, S; Masuda, S; Ogo, S; Kawanishi, M; Yagi, T; Matsuda, T; Watanabe, M; Wakabayashi, K (2013) Nanotoxicology 7:452-461. HERO ID: 1071837

[Less] Abstract The genotoxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were examined by using in vitro . . . [More] Abstract The genotoxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were examined by using in vitro and in vivo assays. MWCNTs significantly induced micronuclei in A549 cells and enhanced the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in CHO AA8 cells. When ICR mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (0.05 or 0.2 mg/animal) of MWCNTs, DNA damage of the lungs, analysed by comet assay, increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, DNA oxidative damage, indicated by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and heptanone etheno-deoxyribonucleosides, occurred in the lungs of MWCNT-exposed mice. The gpt mutation frequencies significantly increased in the lungs of MWCNT-treated gpt delta transgenic mice. Transversions were predominant, and G:C to C:G was clearly increased by MWCNTs. Moreover, many regions immunohistochemically stained for inducible NO synthase and nitrotyrosine were observed in the lungs of MWCNT-exposed mice. Overall, MWCNTs were shown to be genotoxic both in in vitro and in vivo tests; the mechanisms probably involve oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantification of carbon nanomaterials in vivo

Authors: Wang, H; Yang, ST; Cao, A; Liu, Y (2013) Accounts of Chemical Research 46:750-760. HERO ID: 1578547

[Less] A diverse array of carbon nanomaterials (NMs), including fullerene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, . . . [More] A diverse array of carbon nanomaterials (NMs), including fullerene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, nanodiamonds, and carbon nanoparticles, have been discovered and widely applied in a variety of industries. Carbon NMs have been detected in the environment and have a strong possibility of entering the human body. The safety of carbon NMs has thus become a serious concern in academia and society. To achieve strict biosafety assessments, researchers need to fully understand the effects and fates of NMs in the human body, including information about absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME/T). To acquire the ADME data, researchers must quantify NMs, but carbon NMs are very difficult to quantify in vivo. The carbon background in a typical biological system is high, particularly compared with the much lower concentration of carbon NMs. Moreover, carbon NMs lack a specific detection signal. Therefore, isotopic labeling, with its high sensitivity and specificity, is the first choice to quantify carbon NMs in vivo. Previously, researchers have used many isotopes, including (13)C, (14)C, (125)I, (131)I, (3)H, (64)Cu, (111)In, (86)Y, (99m)Tc, and (67)Ga, to label carbon NMs. We used these isotopic labeling methods to study the ADME of carbon NMs via different exposure pathways in animal models. Except for the metabolism of carbon NMs, which has seldom been investigated, significant amounts of data have been reported on the in vivo absorption, distribution, excretion, and toxicity of carbon NMs, which have revealed characteristic behaviors of carbon NMs, such as reticuloendothelial system (RES) capture. However, the complexity of the biological systems and diverse preparation and functionalization of the same carbon NMs have led to inconsistent results across different studies. Therefore, the data obtained so far have not provided a compatible and systematic profile of biosafety. Further efforts are needed to address these problems. In this Account, we review the in vivo quantification methods of carbon NMs, focusing on isotopic labeling and tracing methods, and summarize the related labeling, purification, bio-sampling, and detection of carbon NMs. We also address the advantages, applicable situations, and limits of various labeling and tracing methods and propose guidelines for choosing suitable labeling methods. A collective analysis of the ADME information on various carbon NMs in vivo would provide general principles for understanding the fate of carbon NMs and the effects of chemical functionalization and aggregation of carbon NMs on their ADME/T in vivo and their implications in nanotoxicology and biosafety evaluations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nanomaterial Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Use of a Predictive Toxicological Approach and High-Throughput Screening

Authors: Nel, A; Xia, T; Meng, H; Wang, X; Lin, S; Ji, Z; Zhang, H (2013) Accounts of Chemical Research 46:607-621. HERO ID: 1239939

[Less] The production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is a sci-entific breakthrough in material design and . . . [More] The production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is a sci-entific breakthrough in material design and the development of new consumer products. While the successful implementation of nanotechnology is important for the growth of the global economy, we also need to consider the possible environmental health and safety (EHS) impact as a result of the novel physicochemical properties that could generate hazardous biological outcomes. In order to assess ENM hazard, reliable and reproducible screening approaches are needed to test the basic materials as well as nanoenabled products. A platform is required to investigate the potentially endless number of biophysicochemical interactions at the nano/bio interface, in response to which we have developed a predictive toxicological approach. We define a predictive toxicological approach as the use of mechanisms-based high-throughput screening in vitro to make predictions about the physicochemical properties of ENMs that may lead to the generation of pathology or disease outcomes in vivo. The in vivo results are used to validate and improve the in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) and to establish structure-activity relationships (SARs) that allow hazard ranking and modeling by an appropriate combination of in vitro and in vivo testing. This notion is in agreement with the landmark 2007 report from the US National Academy of Sciences, "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy" ( http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11970 ), which advocates increased efficiency of toxicity testing by transitioning from qualitative, descriptive animal testing to quantitative, mechanistic, and pathway-based toxicity testing in human cells or cell lines using high-throughput approaches. Accordingly, we have implemented HTS approaches to screen compositional and combinatorial ENM libraries to develop hazard ranking and structure-activity relationships that can be used for predicting in vivo injury outcomes. This predictive approach allows the bulk of the screening analysis and high-volume data generation to be carried out in vitro, following which limited, but critical, validation studies are carried out in animals or whole organisms. Risk reduction in the exposed human or environmental populations can then focus on limiting or avoiding exposures that trigger these toxicological responses as well as implementing safer design of potentially hazardous ENMs. In this Account, we review the tools required for establishing predictive toxicology paradigms to assess inhalation and environmental toxicological scenarios through the use of compositional and combinatorial ENM libraries, mechanism-based HTS assays, hazard ranking, and development of nano-SARs. We will discuss the major injury paradigms that have emerged based on specific ENM properties, as well as describing the safer design of ZnO nanoparticles based on characterization of dissolution chemistry as a major predictor of toxicity.

Technical Report
Technical Report

External peer review of EPA’s letter peer review draft report: Nanomaterial case study: A comparison of multiwalled carbon nanotube and decabromodiphenyl ether flame-retardant coatings applied to upholstery textiles

Author: Versar (2013) (Contract No. EP-C-12-045, Task Order 10). HERO ID: 1597019


Archival Material
Archival Material

Marina: Managing risks of nanomaterials

Author: IOM (2013) HERO ID: 1592174

[Less] The aim of MARINA is to develop and validate the Risk Management Methods for Nanomaterials. To do . . . [More] The aim of MARINA is to develop and validate the Risk Management Methods for Nanomaterials.

To do this, MARINA will address the four central themes for the Risk Assessment and Management of Nanomaterials: Materials, Exposure, Hazard, and Risk. In MARINA we will develop beyond state-of-the-art referential tools from each of these themes and integrate them into a Risk Management Toolbox and Strategy for both human and environmental health.

There is a need to evaluate and develop specific reference methods for all the fundamental steps in managing the potential risk of ENM. The methods must be integrated in an overarching, coherent strategy for regulators and industry to adapt them. Thus, a safe and environmentally responsible nanotechnology will safeguard current and future global investments and will be the key to the sustainability of this industry.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of diameter on carbon nanotube transport in sand

Authors: O'Carroll, DM; Liu, X; Mattison, NT; Petersen, EJ (2013) HERO ID: 1578299

[Less] Carbon nanotubes are the subject of intense research due to their unique properties: light weight, significant . . . [More] Carbon nanotubes are the subject of intense research due to their unique properties: light weight, significant strength, excellent conductivity, and outstanding chemical resistance. This has led to their application in a wide variety of industries (e.g., in composite materials). As a result of their potential impact to humans and ecosystems, there is increasing interest in understanding the factors that control the transport of carbon nanotubes in the environment, and of particular interest to this study, their transport in porous media. In this work, the transport behavior of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is investigated in sand packed column experiments. To determine the importance of MWCNT diameter, experiments were conducted using four commercially available MWCNTs. Results suggest that smaller MWCNTs are less mobile than their larger counterparts, likely due to the increase in Brownian motion leading to more MWCNT collisions with the porous media with decreasing MWCNT size. A numerical model was used to simulate observed MWCNT transport behavior and facilitate comparison with published studies. These results suggest that careful characterization of MWCNT characteristics (i.e., dimensions and initial MWCNT mass in suspension) is essential to adequately interpret observed results. Results from this study suggest that MWCNTs may be mobile under conditions expected in subsurface aquifers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Elastic CNT-polyurethane nanocomposite: synthesis, performance and assessment of fragments released during use

Authors: Wohlleben, W; Meier, MW; Vogel, S; Landsiedel, R; Cox, G; Hirth, S; Tomović, Ž (2013) HERO ID: 1578301

[Less] Intended for use in high performance applications where electrical conductivity is required, we developed . . . [More] Intended for use in high performance applications where electrical conductivity is required, we developed a CNT-TPU composite. Such a composite can be prepared by melt processing (extrusion) on an industrial scale. Due to the known hazard upon inhalation of CNTs, we assessed three degradation scenarios that may lead to the release of CNTs from the composite: normal use, machining and outdoor weathering. Unexpectedly, we find that the relative softness of the material actually enhances the embedding of CNTs also in its degradation fragments. A release of free CNTs was not detected under any condition using several detection methods. However, since machining may induce a high acute dose of human exposure, we assessed the cytotoxicity potential of released fragments in the in vitro model of precision-cut lung slices, and found no additional toxicity due to the presence of CNTs. At very low rates over years, weathering degrades the polymer matrix as expected for polyurethanes, thus exposing a network of entangled CNTs. In a preliminary risk assessment, we conclude that this material is safe for humans in professional and consumer use.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Investigations on the possible CNT release at the end-of-Life of CNT-composites

Author: Stahlmecke (2013) HERO ID: 1578304