Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


DCM (Dichloromethane) (Final, 2011)


390 References Were Found:

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Chlorocarbons and chlorohydrocarbons

Authors: Marshall, KA; Pottenger, LH (2016) In Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (4th, pp. 1-29). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. HERO ID: 3828879


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of three physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling tools for emergency risk assessment after acute dichloromethane exposure

Authors: Boerleider, RZ; Olie, JDN; van Eijkeren, JCH; Bos, PMJ; Hof, BGH; de Vries, I; Bessems, JGM; Meulenbelt, J; Hunault, CC (2015) Toxicology Letters 232:21-27. HERO ID: 3223538

[Less] Introduction: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models may be useful in emergency risk assessment, . . . [More] Introduction: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models may be useful in emergency risk assessment, after acute exposure to chemicals, such as dichloromethane (DCM). We evaluated the applicability of three PBPK models for human risk assessment following a single exposure to DCM: one model is specifically developed for DCM (Bos) and the two others are semi-generic ones (Mumtaz and Jongeneelen).



Materials and methods: We assessed the accuracy of the models' predictions by simulating exposure data from a previous healthy volunteer study, in which six subjects had been exposed to DCM for 1 h. The time course of both the blood DCM concentration and percentage of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) were simulated.



Results: With all models, the shape of the simulated time course resembled the shape of the experimental data. For the end of the exposure, the predicted DCM blood concentration ranged between 1.52-4.19 mg/L with the Bos model, 1.42-4.04 mg/L with the Mumtaz model, and 1.81-4.31 mg/L with the Jongeneelen model compared to 0.27-5.44 mg/L in the experimental data. % HbCO could be predicted only with the Bos model. The maximum predicted % HbCO ranged between 3.1 and 4.2% compared to 0.4-2.3% in the experimental data. The % HbCO predictions were more in line with the experimental data after adjustment of the Bos model for the endogenous HbCO levels.



Conclusions: The Bos Mumtaz and Jongeneelen PBPK models were able to simulate experimental DCM blood concentrations reasonably well. The Bos model appears to be useful for calculating HbCO concentrations in emergency risk assessment. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

Authors: Olie, JD; Bessems, JG; Clewell, HJ; Meulenbelt, J; Hunault, CC (2015) Chemosphere 132:47-55. HERO ID: 3001596

[Less] BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBTK model built in MS Excel for nine chemicals that are widely-used and often released in a chemical incident.

MATERIAL & METHODS: The semi-generic PBTK model was used to predict blood concentration-time curves using inhalation exposure scenarios from human volunteer studies, case reports and hypothetical exposures at Emergency Response Planning Guideline, Level 3 (ERPG-3) levels.(2) Predictions using this model were compared with measured blood concentrations from volunteer studies or case reports, as well as blood concentrations predicted by chemical-specific models. The performances of the semi-generic model were evaluated on biological rationale, accuracy, and ease of use and range of application.

RESULTS: Our results indicate that the semi-generic model can be easily used to predict blood levels for eight out of nine parent chemicals (dichloromethane, benzene, xylene, styrene, toluene, isopropanol trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene). However, for methanol, 2-propanol and dichloromethane the semi-generic model could not cope with the endogenous production of methanol and of acetone (being a metabolite of 2-propanol) nor could it simulate the formation of HbCO, which is one of the toxic end-points of dichloromethane. The model is easy and intuitive to use by people who are not so familiar with toxicokinetic models.

CONCLUSION: A semi-generic PBTK modeling approach can be used as a 'quick-and-dirty' method to get a crude estimate of the exposure dose.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Geochemical markers of soil anthropogenic contaminants in polar scientific stations nearby (Antarctica, King George Island)

Authors: Prus, W; Fabiańska, MJ; Łabno, R (2015) Science of the Total Environment 518-519:266-279. HERO ID: 3493703

[Less] The organic contamination of Antarctic soils and terrestrial sediments from nearby of five polar scientific . . . [More] The organic contamination of Antarctic soils and terrestrial sediments from nearby of five polar scientific stations on King George Island (Antarctica) was investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to find composition of dichloromethane extracts of soil and terrestrial sediments. The presence of geochemical markers, such as n-alkanes, steranes, pentacyclic triterpenoids, and alkyl PAHs, their distribution types, and values of their ratios indicates the predominating source of organic fossil fuels and products of their refining rather than from the natural Antarctic environment. Fossil fuel-originated compounds well survived in conditions of Antarctic climate over long times thus enabling to characterize geochemical features of source fossil fuel identified as petroleum expelled from kerogen II of algal/bacterial origins deposited in sub-oxic conditions and being in the middle of catagenesis. Both microbial activity and water leaching play an important role in degradation of terrestrial oil spills in the Antarctica climate, and petroleum alteration occurs lowly over long periods of time. Synthetic anthropogenic compounds found in terrestrial Antarctica sediments included diisopropylnaphthalenes, products of their sulfonates degradation in paper combustion, and organophosporus compounds used as retardants and plasticizers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Including exposure variability in the life cycle impact assessment of indoor chemical emissions: the case of metal degreasing

Authors: Golsteijn, L; Huizer, D; Hauck, M; van Zelm, R; Huijbregts, MA (2014) Environment International 71:36-45. HERO ID: 2537636

[Less] The present paper describes a method that accounts for variation in indoor chemical exposure settings . . . [More] The present paper describes a method that accounts for variation in indoor chemical exposure settings and accompanying human toxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA). Metal degreasing with dichloromethane was used as a case study to show method in practice. We compared the human toxicity related to the degreasing of 1m(2) of metal surface in different exposure scenarios for industrial workers, professional users outside industrial settings, and home consumers. The fraction of the chemical emission that is taken in by exposed individuals (i.e. the intake fraction) was estimated on the basis of operational conditions (e.g. exposure duration), and protective measures (e.g. local exhaust ventilation). The introduction of a time-dependency and a correction for protective measures resulted in reductions in the intake fraction of up to 1.5 orders of magnitude, compared to application of existing, less advanced models. In every exposure scenario, the life cycle impacts for human toxicity were mainly caused by indoor exposure to metal degreaser (>60%). Emissions released outdoors contributed up to 22% of the life cycle impacts for human toxicity, and the production of metal degreaser contributed up to 19%. These findings illustrate that human toxicity from indoor chemical exposure should not be disregarded in LCA case studies. Particularly when protective measures are taken or in the case of a short duration (1h or less), we recommend the use of our exposure scenario-specific approach.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of diurnal variability of atmospheric halocarbons and CFC replacements to imply emission strength and sources at an urban site of Lukang in central Taiwan

Authors: Lee, BSun; Chiou, CB; Lin, CYi (2014) Atmospheric Environment 99:112-123. HERO ID: 2800091

[Less] Hourly atmospheric measurements of halocarbons and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacements were conducted . . . [More] Hourly atmospheric measurements of halocarbons and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacements were conducted at an urban site of Lukang, Changhua, in central Taiwan from May to August, 2013. The temporal distribution of different groups of halocarbons in the Lukang urban atmosphere, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), Bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon-1211), and other chlorinated compounds, is presented and discussed. The concentrations (mixing ratios) of HCFC-22, Dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), Halon-1211, Trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), and Trichloroethylene (TCE) were enhanced with respect to the local background levels; the atmospheric mixing ratio of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was slightly higher than its local background level; on the other hand, 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113) was relatively uniform and not very different from background atmospheric level in non-urban areas. Among these compounds, HCFC-22, Halon-1211 and the halogenated compounds, CH2Cl2 and TCE, used as solvents were strongly enhanced. The average mixing ratio of Halon-1211 was higher than the local background of similar to 4.5 ppt by similar to 60% although Halon-1211 production had been phased out by 1996.



Hourly average mixing ratios of halocarbons (HCFC-22, CFC-12, Halon-1211, CFC-11, CH2Cl2, and TCE) illustrated a distinct diurnal cycle characterized with a pattern of elevated mixing ratio and large mixing ratio variability amplitude at night relative to that in daytime. Although emission sources of these halocarbons were complex, hourly average mixing ratios for most of these high variability halocarbons peaked at similar to 5:00 AM when the hourly average wind speed reached the minimum value of the day; by contrast, the hourly average mixing ratio of CO peaked at similar to 8:30 AM when the ambient atmospheric wind condition was strongly influenced by sea breezes during the traffic rush hours. This phenomenon revealed that meteorological factors predominated the distribution of halocarbon mixing ratio in the urban atmosphere and the traffic emission of CFC-12 derived from old vehicles manufactured before 1994 was insignificant to the CFC-12 mixing ratio in the urban atmosphere. The meteorological condition of nighttime atmospheric temperature inversion and low wind speed facilitated the accumulation of terrestrial airborne pollutants near the ground; consequently the hourly average mixing ratios at night were higher than those in daytime by up to similar to 2% (CFC-11), similar to 7% (CFC-12), similar to 75% (HCFC-22), similar to 72% (Halon-1211), similar to 280% (CH2Cl2), and similar to 155% (TCE). (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal of dichloromethane from ground and wastewater: a review

Authors: Shestakova, M; Sillanpää, M (2013) Chemosphere 93:1258-1267. [Review] HERO ID: 2548654

[Less] Dichloromethane (DCM) is a toxic volatile compound which is found in the ground waters and wastewaters . . . [More] Dichloromethane (DCM) is a toxic volatile compound which is found in the ground waters and wastewaters of the pharmaceutical, chemical, textile, metal-working and petroleum industries. DCM inhibits the growth of aquatic organisms, induces cancer in animals and is potentially carcinogenic for humans. This article aims to review existing water treatments for DCM removal, focusing on recent technological advances. Air stripping, adsorption and pervaporation were found to be effective in separating DCM from water with a process efficiency of about 99%, 90% and 80% respectively. Electrocatalysis over Cu-impregnated carbon fiber electrode, photo irradiation over TiO₂ and photo-Fenton process led to the complete decomposition of DCM. Aerobic and anaerobic water treatment achieved 99% and 95% removal of DCM respectively. The maximum efficiencies observed for acoustic cavitation, radiolysis and catalytic degradation of CH₂Cl₂ were 90%, 92% and 99% respectively. Ozonation and persulfate oxidation showed lower DCM degradation efficiencies, not exceeding 20%. Further combination of different water treatment methods will further increase DCM degradation efficiency.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Laetiporus sulphureus, edible mushroom from Serbia: investigation on volatile compounds, in vitro antimicrobial activity and in situ control of Aspergillus flavus in tomato paste

Authors: Petrović, J; Glamočlija, J; Stojković, DS; Ćirić, A; Nikolić, M; Bukvički, D; Guerzoni, ME; Soković, MD (2013) Food and Chemical Toxicology 59:297-302. HERO ID: 3493215

[Less] The volatile compounds of fruiting bodies of wild Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill, growing on . . . [More] The volatile compounds of fruiting bodies of wild Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill, growing on willow trees from Serbia, were isolated and extracted using methanol, acetone and dichloromethane and investigated by GC/MS-SPME. A total of 56 components were identified in the extracts. Hydrocarbons predominated (76.90%, 77.20%, and 43.10%) in dichloromethane, acetone and methanol extracts, respectively. Fatty acids, esters and sesquiterpenes were present in amounts equal or lower than 2.00%. Ketones were represented with moderate amount with the exception of methanol extract where it reached as much as 28.90% of the total investigated compounds. Extracts were also tested for antimicrobial activity with and without the addition of food additive - potassium disulfite in vitro against eight bacterial and eight fungal species, and in situ in tomato paste against Aspergillus flavus. All the tested extracts showed good antimicrobial activity, but methanol extract with addition of E224 showed the best antimicrobial activity in vitro. In situ results indicate complete inhibition of A. flavus growth in tomato paste after 15 days of the treatment. This study is the first report on volatile composition of L. sulphureus growing wild in Serbia. We describe for the first time the application of its extract as antifungal food preservative.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-product formation in the surface and ground water treatment plants using Yellow River as water source

Authors: Hou, Y; Chu, W; Ma, M (2012) Journal of Environmental Sciences 24:1204-1209. HERO ID: 1752748

[Less] This work investigated the formation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-products (C-DBPs, . . . [More] This work investigated the formation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-products (C-DBPs, N-DBPs) upon chlorination of water samples collected from a surface water and a ground water treatment plant (SWTP and GWTP) where the conventional treatment processes, i.e., coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration were employed. Twenty DBPs, including four trihalomethanes, nine haloacetic acids, seven N-DBPs (dichloroacetamide, trichloroacetamide, dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetonitrile and trichloronitromethane), and eight volatile chlorinated compounds (dichloromethane (DCM), 1,2-dichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene) were detected in the two WTPs. The concentrations of these contaminants were all below their corresponding maximum contamination levels (MCLs) regulated by the Standards for Drinking Water Quality of China (GB5749-2006) except for DCM (17.1 microg/L detected vs. 20 microg/L MCL). The SWTP had much higher concentrations of DBPs detected in the treated water as well as the DBP formation potentials tested in the filtered water than the GWTP, probably because more precursors (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen) were present in the water source of the SWTP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of volatile organic compounds in drinking and environmental waters

Authors: Chary, NS; Fernandez-Alba, AR (2012) Trends in Analytical Chemistry 32:60-75. HERO ID: 2517713

[Less] Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of prime concern due to their toxicity and persistence in the . . . [More] Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of prime concern due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment.

We focus on sample-preparation methods, instruments used and concentrations reported in the determination of VOCs in aquatic matrices (e.g., seawater, river water, groundwater and drinking water). We pay special attention to sample-enrichment methods and mention the application of different detectors with respective sensitivities.

We note that, among the sample-pre-concentration methods, purge-and-trap and solid-phase microextraction were the most chosen methods, which enabled excellent recoveries for a wide range of VOCs. Among the detectors, the mass-selective detector was unchallenged, due to the remarkable sensitivity and detection based on mass. Tandem mass spectrometry is still emerging for determining VOCs, since not many papers have been published on it.

The compounds detected most were the halogenated volatiles [e.g., dichloroethane, trichloroethane, bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane (DBCM)], followed by benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX). Trihalomethanes have also been reported as a result of water-disinfection byproducts. Finally, the VOC levels detected most were the trihalo-alkanes (trichloromethane: 1900 ng/L in estuary surface water; tribromomethane: 147-762 ng/L in drinking water; and, DBCM:92-399 ng/L in drinking water), and among BTEX were benzene (3.9-141.7 ng/L in seawater) and xylene (4.3-332 ng/L in seawater).

We also note the need for quality assurance and mention the European Union Directive regarding VOCs. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.