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ISA-Lead (2013)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison of particle-exposure triggered pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice fed with three different diets

Authors: Gotz, AA; Rozman, J; Rodel, HG; Fuchs, H; Gailus-Durner, V; Hrabe de Angelis, M; Klingenspor, M; Stoeger, T (In Press) Particle and Fibre Toxicology. HERO ID: 787217

[Less] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, . . . [More] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, but recently, the adipose tissue (AT) macrophage also emerges as actively participating in inflammation and immune function, producing pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. Connections between the AT and chronic lung diseases, like emphysema and asthma and a protective role of adipocyte-derived proteins against acute lung injury were suggested. In this study we addressed the question, whether a diet challenge increases the inflammatory response in the alveolar and the blood compartment in response to carbon nanoparticles (CNP), as a surrogate for ambient/urban particulate air pollutants. METHODS: Mice were fed a high caloric carbohydrate-rich (CA) or a fat-rich (HF) diet for six weeks and were compared to mice kept on a purified low fat (LF) diet, respectively. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples were taken 24h after intratracheal CNP instillation and checked for cellular and molecular markers of inflammation. Results and Discussion The high caloric diets resulted in distinct effects when compared with LF mice, respectively: CA resulted in increased body and fat mass without affecting blood cellular immunity. Conversely, HF activated the blood system, increasing lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, and resulted in slightly increased body fat content. In contrast to higher pro-inflammatory BAL Leptin in CA and HF mice, on a cellular level, both diets did not lead to an increased pro-inflammatory basal status in the alveolar compartment per se, nor did result in differences in the particle-triggered response. However both diets resulted in a disturbance of the alveolar capillary barrier as indicated by enhanced BAL protein and lactate-dehydrogenase concentrations. Systemically, reduced serum Adiponectin in HF mice might be related to the observed white blood cell increase. CONCLUSION: The increase in BAL pro-inflammatory factors in high caloric groups and reductions in serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory factors in HF mice, clearly show diet-specific effects, pointing towards augmented systemic inflammatory conditions. Our data suggest that extended feeding periods, leading to manifest obesity, are necessary to generate an increased susceptibility to particle-induced lung inflammation; although the diet-challenge already was efficient in driving pro-inflammatory systemic events.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of risks to ground-feeding songbirds from lead in the Coeur d'Alene Basin, Idaho

Authors: Sample, B. E.; Hansen, J.; Dailey, A.; Duncan, B. (In Press) Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. HERO ID: 759650

[Less] Previous assessment of ecological risks within the Coeur d'Alene Basin identified lead as a key risk . . . [More] Previous assessment of ecological risks within the Coeur d'Alene Basin identified lead as a key risk driver for ground-feeding songbirds. As this conclusion was based almost exclusively on literature data, its strength was determined to range from low to moderate. With the support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected site-specific data to address the uncertainty associated with lead risks to songbirds. These data, plus those from the previous Coeur d'Alene Basin ecological risk assessment, were integrated and risks to ground-feeding songbirds were re-evaluated. These site-specific data were also used to develop updated preliminary remedial goals (PRGs) for lead in soils that would be protective of songbirds. Available data included site-specific lead concentrations in blood, liver, and ingesta from three songbird species (American robin, song sparrow, and Swainson's thrush), co-located soil data, and soil data from other locations in the basin. Semi-log regression models based on the association between soil lead and tissue lead concentrations were applied to measured soil concentrations from the previous risk assessment to estimate lead exposures in riparian and adjacent upland habitats throughout the Coeur d'Alene Basin. Measured and estimated tissue or dietary exposure was tabulated for 3 areas plus the reference, and then compared to multiple effects measures. As many as six exposure-effect metrics were available for assessing risk in any one area. Analyses of site-specific tissue- and diet-based exposure data indicate that exposure of ground-feeding songbirds to lead in the Coeur d'Alene Basin is sufficient to result in adverse effects. Because this conclusion is based on multiple exposure-effect metrics that include site-specific data, the strength of this conclusion is high. Ecological PRGs were developed by integrating the site-specific regression models with tissue and dietary effect levels to create exposure models, which were solved for the soil concentration that produced an exposure estimate equal to the effect level (i.e., the ecological PRG). The lowest PRG obtained for any species' exposure-effect measure combination was 490 mg/kg for subclinical effects due to lead in the blood of American robins; the highest was 7200 mg/kg for severe clinical effects due to lead in the blood of song sparrows. Because the lowest ground-feeding songbird PRG was comparable to multiple cleanup goals developed for the Basin (i.e., soil invertebrates, wildlife populations, and human health), in addition to the site-specific cleanup level of 530 mg Pb/kg sediment for the protection of waterfowl (USEPA, 2002) the USEPA has made a risk-management determination that a site-specific Pb cleanup level of 530 mg/kg in soil would be protective of songbirds in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. © 2011 SETAC.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxic effects of lead and nickel nitrate on rat liver chromatin components

Authors: Rabbani-Chadegani Iii, A; Fani, N; Abdossamadi, S; Shahmir, N (In Press) Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology. HERO ID: 1005052

[Less] The biological activity of heavy metals is related to their physicochemical interaction with biological . . . [More] The biological activity of heavy metals is related to their physicochemical interaction with biological receptors. In the present study, the effect of low concentrations of nickel nitrate and lead nitrate (<0.3 mM) on rat liver soluble chromatin and histone proteins was examined. The results showed that addition of various concentrations of metals to chromatin solution preceded the chromatin into aggregation and precipitation in a dose-dependant manner; however, the extent of absorbance changes at 260 and 400 nm was different between two metals. Gel electrophoresis of histone proteins and DNA of the supernatants obtained from the metal-treated chromatin and the controls revealed higher affinity of lead nitrate to chromatin compared to nickel nitrate. Also, the binding affinity of lead nitrate to histone proteins free in solution was higher than nickel. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that lead reacts with chromatin components even at very low concentrations and induce chromatin aggregation through histone-DNA cross-links. Whereas, nickel nitrate is less effective on chromatin at low concentrations, suggesting higher toxicity of lead nitrate on chromatin compared to nickel. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 00:1-8, 2010; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/jbt.20368.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Using watershed characteristics, sediment, and tissue of resident mollusks to identify potential sources of trace elements to streams in a complex agricultural landscape

Authors: Ciparis, S; Schreiber, ME; Voshell, JR, Jr (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 759539

[Less] Trace elements used in animal feed additives can be introduced to aquatic environments through application . . . [More] Trace elements used in animal feed additives can be introduced to aquatic environments through application of manures from animal feeding operations to agricultural land as fertilizer. The use of poultry feed additives containing arsenic (As) is of particular concern in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA), an agricultural landscape with a high density of poultry operations. This study investigated the relationship between watershed characteristics of Shenandoah River tributaries and trace element concentrations in streambed sediment and tissue of resident mollusks, including: Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), which are commonly used biomonitors, and pleurocerid snails (Leptoxis carinata), which are generally understudied. Results failed to support the primary hypothesis of a predictive relationship between watershed densities of poultry operations and As concentrations in sediment and mollusk tissue. However, there were statistical relationships between land use in tributary watersheds and other trace elements in sediment (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) and tissue (Cd, Hg, Pb). Principal components analysis of the sediment data suggested a possible geologic source of As at some sites. Tissue concentrations of As were significantly higher in snails than in clams, but clams accumulated higher concentrations of other trace elements (Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se). Snails may be useful biomonitors of environmental As, but appear to be less suitable than clams for studies of landscape sources of other trace elements.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association of childhood blood lead levels with criminal offending

Authors: Beckley, AL; Caspi, A; Broadbent, J; Harrington, H; Houts, RM; Poulton, R; Ramrakha, S; Reuben, A; Moffitt, TE (2017) JAMA Pediatrics 2017. HERO ID: 4199401

[Less] Importance: Lead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests . . . [More] Importance: Lead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests that lead may be associated with criminal behavior. This association is difficult to disentangle from low socioeconomic status, a factor in both lead exposure and criminal offending.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that a higher childhood blood lead level (BLL) is associated with greater risk of criminal conviction, recidivism (repeat conviction), conviction for violent offenses, and variety of self-reported criminal offending in a setting where BLL was not associated with low socioeconomic status.

Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 553 individuals participated in a prospective study based on a population-representative cohort born between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973, from New Zealand; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years (December 2012). Statistical analysis was performed from November 10, 2016, to September 5, 2017.

Exposures: Blood lead level measured at age 11 years.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Official criminal conviction cumulative to age 38 years (data collected in 2013), single conviction or recidivism, conviction for nonviolent or violent crime, and self-reported variety of crime types at ages 15, 18, 21, 26, 32, and 38 years.

Results: Participants included 553 individuals (255 female and 298 male participants) who had their blood tested for lead at age 11 years. The mean (SD) BLL at age 11 years was 11.01 (4.62) μg/dL. A total of 154 participants (27.8%) had a criminal conviction, 86 (15.6%) had recidivated, and 53 (9.6%) had a violent offense conviction. Variety scores for self-reported offending ranged from 0 to 10 offense types at each assessment; higher numbers indicated greater crime involvement. Self-reported offending followed the well-established age-crime curve (ie, the mean [SD] variety of self-reported offending increased from 1.99 [2.82] at age 15 years to its peak of 4.24 [3.15] at age 18 years and 4.22 [3.02] at age 21 years and declined thereafter to 1.10 [1.59] at age 38 years). Blood lead level was a poor discriminator between no conviction and conviction (area under the curve, 0.58). Overall, associations between BLL and conviction outcomes were weak. The estimated effect of BLL was lower for recidivism than for single convictions and lower for violent offending than for nonviolent offending. Sex-adjusted associations between BLL reached statistical significance for only 1 of the 6 self-reported offending outcomes at age 15 years (r = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.18; P = .02).

Conclusions and Relevance: This study overcomes past limitations of studies of BLL and crime by studying the association in a place and time where the correlation was not confounded by childhood socioeconomic status. Findings failed to support a dose-response association between BLL and consequential criminal offending.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association of childhood blood lead levels with cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with IQ change and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and adulthood

Authors: Reuben, A; Caspi, A; Belsky, DW; Broadbent, J; Harrington, H; Sugden, K; Houts, RM; Ramrakha, S; Poulton, R; Moffitt, TE (2017) JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 317:1244-1251. HERO ID: 4199402

[Less] Importance: Many children in the United States and around the world are exposed to . . . [More] Importance: Many children in the United States and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife.

Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972-1973 birth cohort from New Zealand; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years (until December 2012).

Exposures: Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood lead levels measured at age 11 years. High blood lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at age 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range, 40-160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at age 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006 (NZSEI-06; range, 10 [lowest]-90 [highest]).

Results: Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at age 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at age 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean (SD) blood lead level at age 11 years was 10.99 (4.63) µg/dL. Among blood-tested participants included at age 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5-µg/dL higher level of blood lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95% CI, -2.48 to -0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95% CI, -3.14 to -1.01) in perceptual reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95% CI, -2.38 to -0.14) in working memory. Associations of childhood blood lead level with deficits in verbal comprehension and processing speed were not statistically significant. After adjusting for confounders, each 5-µg/dL higher level of blood lead in childhood was associated with a 1.79-unit lower score (95% CI, -3.17 to -0.40) in socioeconomic status. An association between greater blood lead levels and a decline in IQ and socioeconomic status from childhood to adulthood was observed with 40% of the association with downward mobility mediated by cognitive decline from childhood.

Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort born in New Zealand in 1972-1973, childhood lead exposure was associated with lower cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with declines in IQ and with downward social mobility. Childhood lead exposure may have long-term ramifications.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Fourth national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals, updated tables, February 2015

Author: CDC (2015) Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HERO ID: 2823653

[Less] The Updated Tables, February 2015 provides nationally representative biomonitoring data that have become . . . [More] The Updated Tables, February 2015 provides nationally representative biomonitoring data that have become available since the publication of the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, 2009. The Updated Tables, February 2015 presents recently released data from NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012 and also NHANES 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 pooled samples using the corrected NHANES sampling weights.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ecotoxicological study of arsenic and lead contaminated soils in former orchards at the Hanford site, USA

Authors: Delistraty, D; Yokel, J (2014) Environmental Toxicology 29:10-20. HERO ID: 787068

[Less] The purpose of this study was to assess ecotoxicity of former orchard soils contaminated with lead arsenate . . . [More] The purpose of this study was to assess ecotoxicity of former orchard soils contaminated with lead arsenate pesticides at the Hanford Site in Washington state (USA). Surface soil, plant, and invertebrate samples were collected from 11 sites in former orchard areas. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) for As and Pb in soil were 39.5 (40.6) and 208 (142) mg/kg dry wt, respectively (n = 11). These concentrations exceeded Hanford background levels but were similar to orchard soils elsewhere. In our study, As and Pb soil concentrations were positively and significantly correlated (r = 0.87, Bonferroni P < 0.05). Speciation of total inorganic As in soil (n = 6) demonstrated that As+5 was the dominant form (>99%). Mean (SD) for As and Pb in cheatgrass were 3.9 (7.9) and 12.4 (20.0) mg/kg dry wt, respectively (n = 11), while mean (SD) for As and Pb in darkling beetles were 5.4 (2.6) and 3.9 (3.0) mg/kg dry wt, respectively (n = 8). Linear regressions were constructed to estimate soil to cheatgrass and soil to darkling beetle uptake for As and Pb. These were significant (Bonferroni P < 0.05) only for cheatgrass versus soil (As) and darkling beetle versus soil (Pb). Standardized lettuce seedling and earthworm bioassays were performed with a subset of soil samples (n = 6). No significant effects (P > 0.05) were observed in lettuce survival or growth nor in earthworm survival or sublethal effects. Based on these bioassays, unbounded no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) in soil for As and Pb were 128 and 390 mg/kg dry wt, respectively. However, our range of soil concentrations generally overlapped a set of ecotoxicological benchmarks reported in the literature. Given uncertainty and limited sampling related to our NOECs, as well as uncertainty in generic benchmarks from the literature, further study is needed to refine characterization of As and Pb ecotoxicity in former orchard soils at the Hanford Site. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evidence that birth weight is decreased by maternal lead levels below 5μg/dl in male newborns

Authors: Nishioka, E; Yokoyama, K; Matsukawa, T; Vigeh, M; Hirayama, S; Ueno, T; Miida, T; Makino, S; Takeda, S (2014) HERO ID: 2994927

[Less] To assess the association between birth weight and maternal blood lead (BPb) levels, 386 pregnant women . . . [More] To assess the association between birth weight and maternal blood lead (BPb) levels, 386 pregnant women and their newborn offspring were surveyed. Mean±SD (range) maternal BPb concentrations were 0.98±0.55 (0.10-3.99), 0.92±0.63 [<0.09 (limit of quantification)-3.96], and 0.99±0.66 (<0.09-3.96)μg/dl at 12, 25 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. Mean±SD (range) gestational age at delivery was 38.9±1.3 (35-41) weeks. In male newborns, a significant correlation between birth weight and logBPb at 12 weeks' gestation was observed (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient=-0.145, p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis indicated that birth weight was significantly inversely associated with logBPb at 12 weeks' gestation, controlling for possible confounding variables. These results suggest that low-level exposure to lead in early gestation could be a risk factor for reduced birth weight in male offspring.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contribution of particle-size-fractionated airborne lead to blood lead during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008

Authors: Meng, Q; Richmond-Bryant, J; Davis, JA; Cohen, J; Svendsgaard, D; Brown, JS; Tuttle, L; Hubbard, H; Rice, J; Vinikoor-Imler, L; Sacks, JD; Kirrane, E; Kotchmar, D; Hines, E; Ross, M (2014) Environmental Science and Technology 48:1263–1270. HERO ID: 2220008

[Less] The objective of this work is to examine associations between blood lead (PbB) and air lead (PbA) in . . . [More] The objective of this work is to examine associations between blood lead (PbB) and air lead (PbA) in particulate matter measured at different size cuts by use of PbB concentrations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and PbA concentrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for 1999-2008. Three size fractions of particle-bound PbA (TSP, PM10, and PM2.5) data with different averaging times (current and past 90-day average) were utilized. A multilevel linear mixed effect model was used to characterize the PbB-PbA relationship. At 0.15 μg/m(3), a unit decrease in PbA in PM10 was significantly associated with a decrease in PbB of 0.3-2.2 μg/dL across age groups and averaging times. For PbA in PM2.5 and TSP, slopes were generally positive but not significant. PbB levels were more sensitive to the change in PbA concentrations for children (1-5 and 6-11 years) and older adults (≥60 years) than teenagers (12-19 years) and adults (20-59 years). For the years following the phase-out of Pb in gasoline and a resulting upward shift in the PbA particle size distribution, PbA in PM10 was a statistically significant predictor of PbB. The results also suggest that age could affect the PbB-PbA association, with children having higher sensitivity than adults.