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ISA-Lead (2013)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ecotoxicological study of arsenic and lead contaminated soils in former orchards at the Hanford site, USA

Authors: Delistraty, D; Yokel, J (2014) Environmental Toxicology 29:10-20. HERO ID: 787068

[Less] The purpose of this study was to assess ecotoxicity of former orchard soils contaminated with lead arsenate . . . [More] The purpose of this study was to assess ecotoxicity of former orchard soils contaminated with lead arsenate pesticides at the Hanford Site in Washington state (USA). Surface soil, plant, and invertebrate samples were collected from 11 sites in former orchard areas. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) for As and Pb in soil were 39.5 (40.6) and 208 (142) mg/kg dry wt, respectively (n = 11). These concentrations exceeded Hanford background levels but were similar to orchard soils elsewhere. In our study, As and Pb soil concentrations were positively and significantly correlated (r = 0.87, Bonferroni P < 0.05). Speciation of total inorganic As in soil (n = 6) demonstrated that As+5 was the dominant form (>99%). Mean (SD) for As and Pb in cheatgrass were 3.9 (7.9) and 12.4 (20.0) mg/kg dry wt, respectively (n = 11), while mean (SD) for As and Pb in darkling beetles were 5.4 (2.6) and 3.9 (3.0) mg/kg dry wt, respectively (n = 8). Linear regressions were constructed to estimate soil to cheatgrass and soil to darkling beetle uptake for As and Pb. These were significant (Bonferroni P < 0.05) only for cheatgrass versus soil (As) and darkling beetle versus soil (Pb). Standardized lettuce seedling and earthworm bioassays were performed with a subset of soil samples (n = 6). No significant effects (P > 0.05) were observed in lettuce survival or growth nor in earthworm survival or sublethal effects. Based on these bioassays, unbounded no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) in soil for As and Pb were 128 and 390 mg/kg dry wt, respectively. However, our range of soil concentrations generally overlapped a set of ecotoxicological benchmarks reported in the literature. Given uncertainty and limited sampling related to our NOECs, as well as uncertainty in generic benchmarks from the literature, further study is needed to refine characterization of As and Pb ecotoxicity in former orchard soils at the Hanford Site. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Catalase activity and innate immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans against the heavy metal toxin lead

Authors: Vigneshkumar, B; Pandian, SK; Balamurugan, K (2013) Environmental Toxicology. HERO ID: 787203

[Less] The heavy metal lead-induced oxidative stress on Caenorhabditis elegans was examined at the level of . . . [More] The heavy metal lead-induced oxidative stress on Caenorhabditis elegans was examined at the level of catalase activity and on innate immunity. Stress-induced C. elegans was exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosaPA14::GFP for monitoring the impact at the physiological level. Role of catalase on the innate-immune responses of C. elegans was examined. PA14::GFP did not colonize lead pretreated C. elegans intestinal cells significantly compared to untreated controls, indicating stress-mediated upregulation of host-immunity. Semiquantitative PCR analyses of lead-exposed and PA14-infected C. elegans mRNA showed significant upregulation of candidate antimicrobial enzyme gene lys-7 after 24 h of exposures. Upregulation of metallothionein(mtl-1) when compared to mtl-2 in response to the lead suggesting active detoxification of metal by mtl-1. Exogenously provided Catalase (0.4-3.2 U) induced significant upregulation of lys-7 compared to controls. lys-7 upregulation during lead exposure was reconfirmed by real-time PCR. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometer analyses indicated that the lead pretreated C. elegans was significantly less colonized by PA14::GFP when compared to controls. Relative expression of ctl-1 and ctl-2 mRNA was measured using real time PCR and found to be regulated during lead exposures. Over all, the upregulation of antimicrobial gene expression appears to be correlated with the level of catalase during stress emphasizing their key roles in defensive mechanism(s). These results provide a link between the stress and related immune responses which can be explored in higher systems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Blood thioredoxin reductase activity, oxidative stress and hematological parameters in painters and battery workers: Relationship with lead and cadmium levels in blood

Authors: Conterato, GMM; Bulcão, RP; Sobieski, R; Moro, AM; Charão, MF; de Freitas, FA; de Almeida, FL; Moreira, APL; Roehrs, M; Tonello, R; Batista, BL; Grotto, D; Barbosa, F, Jr; Garcia, SC; Emanuelli, T (2013) Journal of Applied Toxicology 33:142-150. HERO ID: 786605

[Less] Oxidative stress has been shown to be involved in lead and cadmium toxicity. We recently showed that . . . [More] Oxidative stress has been shown to be involved in lead and cadmium toxicity. We recently showed that the activity of the antioxidant enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is increased in the kidneys of lead-exposed rats. The present study evaluated the blood cadmium and blood lead levels (BLLs) and their relationship with hematological and oxidative stress parameters, including blood TrxR activity in 50 painters, 23 battery workers and 36 control subjects. Erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity and its reactivation index were measured as biomarkers of lead effects. BLLs increased in painters, but were even higher in the battery workers group. In turn, blood cadmium levels increased only in the painters group, whose levels were higher than the recommended limit. δ-ALA-D activity was inhibited only in battery workers, whereas the δ-ALA-D reactivation index increased in both exposed groups; both parameters were correlated to BLLs (r = -0.59 and 0.84, P < 0.05), whereas the reactivation index was also correlated to blood cadmium levels (r = 0.27, P < 0.05). The changes in oxidative stress and hematological parameters were distinctively associated with either BLLs or blood cadmium levels, except glutathione-S-transferase activity, which was correlated with both lead (r = 0.34) and cadmium (r = 0.47; P < 0.05). However, TrxR activity did not correlate with any of the metals evaluated. In conclusion, blood TrxR activity does not seem to be a good parameter to evaluate oxidative stress in lead- and cadmium-exposed populations. However, lead-associated changes in biochemical and hematological parameters at low BLLs underlie the necessity of re-evaluating the recommended health-based limits in occupational exposure to this metal. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Suspension and resuspension of dry soil indoors following track-in on footwear

Authors: Hunt, A; Johnson, DL (2012) Environmental Geochemistry and Health 34:355-363. HERO ID: 787195

[Less] Contamination of the indoor environment by tracked-in outdoor soil has the potential to pose a significant . . . [More] Contamination of the indoor environment by tracked-in outdoor soil has the potential to pose a significant human health threat through exposure to hazardous soil constituents. The indoor distribution of (contaminated) soil following ingress is important when evaluating exposure risk. Here, the time evolution of size-resolved airborne particulate matter aerosolized as a result of mechanical (i.e., footfall or step-on) impacts on a floor surface with a layer of dry soil was investigated using laser particle counters. Suspended particle levels were recorded after step-on impacts that aerosolized soil particles at a single contact point by the action of a human tester who followed a pre-determined walking pattern. The experimental design presumed that the floor area immediately upon entrance indoors is the location of maximum deposition of outdoor soil transferred on footwear. The suspension of soil resulting from the first step-on floor contact and the subsequent resuspension of soil resulting from additional step-on events were quantified by various arrangements of four laser particle counters. Step-on impacts produced a transient increase in particle levels at various lateral distances and heights from the contact point. Also, with increasing distance and height from the step-on contact point, the level of suspended particles after successive step-on events decreased markedly. The results suggested that a lateral component of the dispersion process was more significant than a vertical one under these experimental conditions. A wall jet effect created by the impact of the footfalls on the floor surface was considered responsible for the apparent greater lateral dispersion of the soil particles.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of lead on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and hemolymph ion concentrations in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata

Authors: Mosher, S; Cope, WG; Weber, FX; Shea, D; Kwak, TJ (2012) Environmental Toxicology 27:268-276. HERO ID: 759640

[Less] Freshwater mussels are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants such as lead . . . [More] Freshwater mussels are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants such as lead (Pb) and studies are urgently needed to assess their health and condition to guide conservation efforts. A 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern elliptio mussels (Elliptio complanata) was conducted to determine uptake kinetics and to assess the toxicological effects of Pb exposure. Test mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a water-only control and five concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 245 mug/L in a static renewal test with a water hardness of 42 mg/L. Endpoints included tissue Pb concentrations, hemolymph Pb and ion (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+)) concentrations, and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase enzyme activity in gill tissue. Mussels accumulated Pb rapidly, with tissue concentrations increasing at an exposure-dependent rate for the first 2 weeks, but with no significant increase from 2 to 4 weeks. Mussel tissue Pb concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 898 mug/g dry weight, were strongly related to Pb in test water at every time interval (7, 14, 21, and 28 days), and did not significantly increase after day 14. Hemolymph Pb concentration was variable, dependent on exposure concentration, and showed no appreciable change with time beyond day 7, except for mussels in the greatest exposure concentration (245 mug/L), which showed a significant reduction in Pb by 28 days, suggesting a threshold for Pb binding or elimination in hemolymph at concentrations near 1000 mug/g. The Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the gill tissue of mussels was significantly reduced by Pb on day 28 and was highly correlated with tissue Pb concentration (R(2) = 0.92; P = 0.013). The Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was correlated with reduced hemolymph Na(+) concentration at the greatest Pb exposure when enzyme activity was at 30% of controls. Hemolymph Ca(2+) concentration increased significantly in mussels from the greatest Pb exposure and may be due to remobilization from the shell in an attempt to buffer the hemolymph against Pb uptake and toxicity. We conclude that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in mussels was adversely affected by Pb exposure, however, because the effects on activity were variable at the lower test concentrations, additional research is warranted over this range of exposures. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2010.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Lead

Author: Mager, EM (2012) In Wood, CM; Farrell, AP; Brauner, CJ (Eds.), Homeostasis and toxicology of non-essential metals (pp. 185-236). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Academic Press. HERO ID: 786107

[Less] Among the non-essential metals, few have rivaled the significance of lead (Pb) within human history . . . [More] Among the non-essential metals, few have rivaled the significance of lead (Pb) within human history in terms of both utility and toxicity. Much of this can be attributed to the use of Pb in plumbing applications, lead-based paints, and leaded gasoline. Today, the primary use for Pb is in the production of batteries and most concern for Pb entering aquatic environments is from point-source discharges related to Pb mining and industrial processing. The bioavailability of Pb to aquatic organisms will depend largely on the pH, alkalinity, hardness, and natural organic matter content of the receiving water. In fish, acute Pb toxicity is due to respiratory asphyxiation under extreme concentrations and the disruption of ionoregulatory homeostasis under more environmentally relevant concentrations. Chronic effects are similar to those in humans, involving primarily hematological and neurological dysfunction. Lead is taken up and elicits its effects by substituting for calcium and potentially other essential divalent cations, such as iron and zinc. Accordingly, Pb is predominantly found within the calcified hard tissues of the skeleton and scales, but also concentrates to a large extent within the blood, gill, and kidney. While great strides have been made in characterizing the uptake, accumulation, and toxicity of Pb in fish, there remains much to be learned regarding the specific transport pathways and internal handling of Pb, as well as the mechanisms of Pb excretion.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations of early childhood manganese and lead coexposure with neurodevelopment

Authors: Claus Henn, B; Schnaas, L; Ettinger, AS; Schwartz, J; Lamadrid-Figueroa, H; Hernández-Avila, M; Amarasiriwardena, C; Hu, H; Bellinger, DC; Wright, RO; Téllez-Rojo, MM (2012) Environmental Health Perspectives 120:126-131. HERO ID: 787268

[Less] Background: Most toxicological studies focus on a single agent, though this does not reflect the real . . . [More] Background: Most toxicological studies focus on a single agent, though this does not reflect the real world scenario in which humans are exposed to multiple chemicals. Objectives: We prospectively studied manganese-lead interactions in early childhood to examine whether manganese-lead co-exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental deficiencies that are more severe than expected based on effects of exposure to each metal alone. Methods: Four hundred fifty-five children in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study were enrolled at birth in Mexico City, provided blood samples, and were followed until 36 months of age. We measured lead and manganese at 12 and 24 months, and assessed neurodevelopment at six-month intervals from 12 to 36 months of age using Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Results: Mean (SD) blood concentrations at 12 and 24 months, respectively, were 24.7 (5.9) μg/l and 21.5 (7.4) μg/l for manganese; 5.1 (2.6) μg/dl and 5.0 (2.9) μg/dl for lead. Mixed effects models, including Bayley scores at five time points, showed a significant interaction over time (highest manganese quintile*continuous lead (μg/dl); mental development score: β = -1.27 [95% CI = -2.18 to -0.37]; psychomotor development score: β = -0.92 [-1.76 to -0.09]). Slopes for the estimated 12-month lead effect on 18-month mental development and 24- through 36-month psychomotor development scores were steeper among children with high manganese, compared to mid-range manganese levels. Conclusions: We observed evidence of synergism between lead and manganese, whereby lead toxicity was increased among children with high manganese co-exposure. Findings highlight the importance of understanding health effects of mixed exposures, particularly during potentially sensitive developmental stages such as early childhood.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Long-term lead elimination from plasma and whole blood after poisoning

Authors: Rentschler, G; Broberg, K; Lundh, T; Skerfving, S (2012) International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 85:311-316. HERO ID: 815271

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Blood lead (B-Pb), one of the most used toxicological biomarker all kind, has serious limitations. . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Blood lead (B-Pb), one of the most used toxicological biomarker all kind, has serious limitations. Thus, the objective is to evaluate whether plasma lead (P-Pb) is more adequate.
METHODS: A long-term follow-up study of five cases of lead poisoning. P-Pb was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Kinetics after end of exposure was modelled.
RESULTS: P-Pb at severe poisoning was about 20 μg/L; haematological effects at about 5 μg/L. Biological half-time of P-Pb was about 1 month; B-Pb decay was much slower.
CONCLUSION: P-Pb is a valuable biomarker of exposure to and risk, particularly at high exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lead hepatotoxicology: A study in an animal model

Authors: Sá, I; da Costa, MJP; Cunha, EM (2012) Toxicology and Industrial Health 28:108-113. HERO ID: 786616

[Less] The increasing use of lead (Pb) for industrial purposes has resulted in the significant increase in . . . [More] The increasing use of lead (Pb) for industrial purposes has resulted in the significant increase in environmental contamination of our planet especially in concern to water and food. In this study using the electron scanning microscopy (SEM), the authors showed the effects of this metal as a result of a chronic and cumulative process. As a primary method of detection of Pb in situ, SEM was chosen, coupled with a detection system Noran Voyager of basic microanalysis X-ray (SEM-XRM), with detection system energy dispersive spectrometry. Mice BALB/c was used as a study model. An animal model of inflammation was used, that consisted in the formation of a subcutaneous pocket of air. It was observed that 75% of Pb stock was captured by the liver, the main target organ in the capture of the metal, the kidney was the second organ to capture the Pb stock and the third was the spleen. It was verified that a low deposition of Pb was found in the lungs and the brain. The main results of this study showed how Pb is captured by different organs. We also demonstrated the vulnerability to inflammation of this metal.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary heavy metals and associated medical conditions in the US adult population

Authors: Mendy, A; Gasana, J; Vieira, ER (2012) International Journal of Environmental Health Research 22:105-118. HERO ID: 783244

[Less] Health effects of heavy metals have been widely investigated, but further evaluation is required to . . . [More] Health effects of heavy metals have been widely investigated, but further evaluation is required to comprehensively delineate their toxicity. Using data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on 1,857 adults to examine the relationship between urinary heavy metals and various medical conditions. Cardiovascular diseases were correlated to cadmium (OR: 4.94, 95% CI: 1.48-16.56) and lead (OR: 5.32, 95% CI: 1.08-26.21). Asthma was related to tungsten (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.15-2.59) and uranium (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.01-2.28). Hepatotoxicity was associated with molybdenum (OR: 3.09, 95% CI: 1.24-7.73) and uranium (OR: 4.79, 95% CI: 1.74-13.19). Surprising inverse relationships occurred for excessive weight with lead (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.52-0.98), reduced visual acuity with cobalt (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.95) and cesium (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.35-0.77). This study supports some previous evidence of potential relationships and provides insights for future research.