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ISA-Lead (2013)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison of particle-exposure triggered pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice fed with three different diets

Authors: Gotz, AA; Rozman, J; Rodel, HG; Fuchs, H; Gailus-Durner, V; Hrabe de Angelis, M; Klingenspor, M; Stoeger, T (In Press) Particle and Fibre Toxicology. HERO ID: 787217

[Less] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, . . . [More] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, but recently, the adipose tissue (AT) macrophage also emerges as actively participating in inflammation and immune function, producing pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. Connections between the AT and chronic lung diseases, like emphysema and asthma and a protective role of adipocyte-derived proteins against acute lung injury were suggested. In this study we addressed the question, whether a diet challenge increases the inflammatory response in the alveolar and the blood compartment in response to carbon nanoparticles (CNP), as a surrogate for ambient/urban particulate air pollutants. METHODS: Mice were fed a high caloric carbohydrate-rich (CA) or a fat-rich (HF) diet for six weeks and were compared to mice kept on a purified low fat (LF) diet, respectively. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples were taken 24h after intratracheal CNP instillation and checked for cellular and molecular markers of inflammation. Results and Discussion The high caloric diets resulted in distinct effects when compared with LF mice, respectively: CA resulted in increased body and fat mass without affecting blood cellular immunity. Conversely, HF activated the blood system, increasing lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, and resulted in slightly increased body fat content. In contrast to higher pro-inflammatory BAL Leptin in CA and HF mice, on a cellular level, both diets did not lead to an increased pro-inflammatory basal status in the alveolar compartment per se, nor did result in differences in the particle-triggered response. However both diets resulted in a disturbance of the alveolar capillary barrier as indicated by enhanced BAL protein and lactate-dehydrogenase concentrations. Systemically, reduced serum Adiponectin in HF mice might be related to the observed white blood cell increase. CONCLUSION: The increase in BAL pro-inflammatory factors in high caloric groups and reductions in serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory factors in HF mice, clearly show diet-specific effects, pointing towards augmented systemic inflammatory conditions. Our data suggest that extended feeding periods, leading to manifest obesity, are necessary to generate an increased susceptibility to particle-induced lung inflammation; although the diet-challenge already was efficient in driving pro-inflammatory systemic events.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxic effects of lead and nickel nitrate on rat liver chromatin components

Authors: Rabbani-Chadegani Iii, A; Fani, N; Abdossamadi, S; Shahmir, N (In Press) Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology. HERO ID: 1005052

[Less] The biological activity of heavy metals is related to their physicochemical interaction with biological . . . [More] The biological activity of heavy metals is related to their physicochemical interaction with biological receptors. In the present study, the effect of low concentrations of nickel nitrate and lead nitrate (<0.3 mM) on rat liver soluble chromatin and histone proteins was examined. The results showed that addition of various concentrations of metals to chromatin solution preceded the chromatin into aggregation and precipitation in a dose-dependant manner; however, the extent of absorbance changes at 260 and 400 nm was different between two metals. Gel electrophoresis of histone proteins and DNA of the supernatants obtained from the metal-treated chromatin and the controls revealed higher affinity of lead nitrate to chromatin compared to nickel nitrate. Also, the binding affinity of lead nitrate to histone proteins free in solution was higher than nickel. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that lead reacts with chromatin components even at very low concentrations and induce chromatin aggregation through histone-DNA cross-links. Whereas, nickel nitrate is less effective on chromatin at low concentrations, suggesting higher toxicity of lead nitrate on chromatin compared to nickel. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 00:1-8, 2010; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/jbt.20368.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Catalase activity and innate immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans against the heavy metal toxin lead

Authors: Vigneshkumar, B; Pandian, SK; Balamurugan, K (2013) Environmental Toxicology. HERO ID: 787203

[Less] The heavy metal lead-induced oxidative stress on Caenorhabditis elegans was examined at the level of . . . [More] The heavy metal lead-induced oxidative stress on Caenorhabditis elegans was examined at the level of catalase activity and on innate immunity. Stress-induced C. elegans was exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosaPA14::GFP for monitoring the impact at the physiological level. Role of catalase on the innate-immune responses of C. elegans was examined. PA14::GFP did not colonize lead pretreated C. elegans intestinal cells significantly compared to untreated controls, indicating stress-mediated upregulation of host-immunity. Semiquantitative PCR analyses of lead-exposed and PA14-infected C. elegans mRNA showed significant upregulation of candidate antimicrobial enzyme gene lys-7 after 24 h of exposures. Upregulation of metallothionein(mtl-1) when compared to mtl-2 in response to the lead suggesting active detoxification of metal by mtl-1. Exogenously provided Catalase (0.4-3.2 U) induced significant upregulation of lys-7 compared to controls. lys-7 upregulation during lead exposure was reconfirmed by real-time PCR. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometer analyses indicated that the lead pretreated C. elegans was significantly less colonized by PA14::GFP when compared to controls. Relative expression of ctl-1 and ctl-2 mRNA was measured using real time PCR and found to be regulated during lead exposures. Over all, the upregulation of antimicrobial gene expression appears to be correlated with the level of catalase during stress emphasizing their key roles in defensive mechanism(s). These results provide a link between the stress and related immune responses which can be explored in higher systems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Blood thioredoxin reductase activity, oxidative stress and hematological parameters in painters and battery workers: Relationship with lead and cadmium levels in blood

Authors: Conterato, GMM; Bulcão, RP; Sobieski, R; Moro, AM; Charão, MF; de Freitas, FA; de Almeida, FL; Moreira, APL; Roehrs, M; Tonello, R; Batista, BL; Grotto, D; Barbosa, F, Jr; Garcia, SC; Emanuelli, T (2013) Journal of Applied Toxicology 33:142-150. HERO ID: 786605

[Less] Oxidative stress has been shown to be involved in lead and cadmium toxicity. We recently showed that . . . [More] Oxidative stress has been shown to be involved in lead and cadmium toxicity. We recently showed that the activity of the antioxidant enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is increased in the kidneys of lead-exposed rats. The present study evaluated the blood cadmium and blood lead levels (BLLs) and their relationship with hematological and oxidative stress parameters, including blood TrxR activity in 50 painters, 23 battery workers and 36 control subjects. Erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity and its reactivation index were measured as biomarkers of lead effects. BLLs increased in painters, but were even higher in the battery workers group. In turn, blood cadmium levels increased only in the painters group, whose levels were higher than the recommended limit. δ-ALA-D activity was inhibited only in battery workers, whereas the δ-ALA-D reactivation index increased in both exposed groups; both parameters were correlated to BLLs (r = -0.59 and 0.84, P < 0.05), whereas the reactivation index was also correlated to blood cadmium levels (r = 0.27, P < 0.05). The changes in oxidative stress and hematological parameters were distinctively associated with either BLLs or blood cadmium levels, except glutathione-S-transferase activity, which was correlated with both lead (r = 0.34) and cadmium (r = 0.47; P < 0.05). However, TrxR activity did not correlate with any of the metals evaluated. In conclusion, blood TrxR activity does not seem to be a good parameter to evaluate oxidative stress in lead- and cadmium-exposed populations. However, lead-associated changes in biochemical and hematological parameters at low BLLs underlie the necessity of re-evaluating the recommended health-based limits in occupational exposure to this metal. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

New insights into uric acid effects on the progression and prognosis of chronic kidney disease

Authors: Filiopoulos, V; Hadjiyannakos, D; Vlassopoulos, D (2012) HERO ID: 1519296

[Less] Hyperuricemia is particularly common in patients with arterial hypertension, metabolic syndrome, or . . . [More] Hyperuricemia is particularly common in patients with arterial hypertension, metabolic syndrome, or kidney disease. Its role, however, as a risk factor for both renal and cardiovascular outcomes and in the context of the well-established interrelationship between cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is debated. For decades high serum uric acid levels were mainly considered the result of renal dysfunction and not a true mediator of renal disease development and progression. However, recent epidemiological studies suggest an independent association between asymptomatic hyperuricemia and increased risk of arterial hypertension, CKD, cardiovascular events, and mortality. Furthermore, data from experimental models of hyperuricemia have provided robust evidence in this direction. Hyperuricemia causes increased arterial pressure, proteinuria, renal dysfunction, and progressive renal and vascular disease in rats. The main pathophysiological mechanisms of these deleterious effects caused by uric acid are endothelial dysfunction, activation of local renin-angiotensin system, increased oxidative stress, and proinflammatory and proliferative actions. A small number of short-term, single-center clinical studies support the beneficial influence of pharmaceutical reduction of serum uric acid on total cardiovascular risk, as well as on renal disease development and progression. Hyperuricemia is probably related to the incidence of primary hypertension in children and adolescents, as serum uric acid lowering by allopurinol has an antihypertensive action in this group of patients. Finally, it is clear that adequately powered randomized controlled trials are urgently required to elucidate the role of uric acid in cardiovascular events and outcomes, as well as in the development and progression of CKD.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Authors: Johnston, C; Mash, EJ; Miller, N; Ninowski, JE (2012) Clinical Psychology Review 32:215-228. [Review] HERO ID: 1257632

[Less] Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments . . . [More] Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult's ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD - cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lead: Ongoing public and occupational health issues in vulnerable populations: A case study

Authors: Kar-Purkayastha, I; Balasegaram, S; Sen, D; Rehman, AJ; Dargan, PI; Johnston, D; Raynal, A; Wood, DM; Abrahams, A; Kamanyire, R; Murray, V; Cordery, R (2012) Journal of Public Health (Online). HERO ID: 787266

[Less] BACKGROUND: Lead has been recognized increasingly as a public health risk, although with the introduction . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Lead has been recognized increasingly as a public health risk, although with the introduction of wide-ranging occupational and public health measures, levels of blood lead in the general population of the UK and other developed nations have been in decline in recent years. Nonetheless, cases of lead poisoning still occur.

METHODS: We report on a large cluster of exposed lead workers and their families, including several children. The focus of the occupational and public health investigations was to identify the different groups at risk and the pathways by which potential exposures were taking place.

RESULTS: Lead in the workplace was found to account for the raised blood lead levels amongst the workers with exposure occurring as a result of insufficient demarcation between 'clean' and 'dirty' areas, and from contamination of personal belongings with lead. Furthermore, there was evidence of para-occupational exposure of family members.

CONCLUSIONS: The successful control of lead in this case required multidisciplinary working. Efforts included extensive workplace controls, along with the education and care of workers and their families, though complicated by lack of familiarity with the UK health service amongst the affected groups, language barriers, underlying low levels of literacy and high mobility.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations of early childhood manganese and lead coexposure with neurodevelopment

Authors: Claus Henn, B; Schnaas, L; Ettinger, AS; Schwartz, J; Lamadrid-Figueroa, H; Hernández-Avila, M; Amarasiriwardena, C; Hu, H; Bellinger, DC; Wright, RO; Téllez-Rojo, MM (2012) Environmental Health Perspectives 120:126-131. HERO ID: 787268

[Less] Background: Most toxicological studies focus on a single agent, though this does not reflect the real . . . [More] Background: Most toxicological studies focus on a single agent, though this does not reflect the real world scenario in which humans are exposed to multiple chemicals. Objectives: We prospectively studied manganese-lead interactions in early childhood to examine whether manganese-lead co-exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental deficiencies that are more severe than expected based on effects of exposure to each metal alone. Methods: Four hundred fifty-five children in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study were enrolled at birth in Mexico City, provided blood samples, and were followed until 36 months of age. We measured lead and manganese at 12 and 24 months, and assessed neurodevelopment at six-month intervals from 12 to 36 months of age using Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Results: Mean (SD) blood concentrations at 12 and 24 months, respectively, were 24.7 (5.9) μg/l and 21.5 (7.4) μg/l for manganese; 5.1 (2.6) μg/dl and 5.0 (2.9) μg/dl for lead. Mixed effects models, including Bayley scores at five time points, showed a significant interaction over time (highest manganese quintile*continuous lead (μg/dl); mental development score: β = -1.27 [95% CI = -2.18 to -0.37]; psychomotor development score: β = -0.92 [-1.76 to -0.09]). Slopes for the estimated 12-month lead effect on 18-month mental development and 24- through 36-month psychomotor development scores were steeper among children with high manganese, compared to mid-range manganese levels. Conclusions: We observed evidence of synergism between lead and manganese, whereby lead toxicity was increased among children with high manganese co-exposure. Findings highlight the importance of understanding health effects of mixed exposures, particularly during potentially sensitive developmental stages such as early childhood.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Maternal history of parentification, maternal warm responsiveness, and children's externalizing behavior

Authors: Nuttall, AK; Valentino, K; Borkowski, JG (2012) 26:767-775. HERO ID: 1578416

[Less] Destructive parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving . . . [More] Destructive parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving within the family system that overtaxes their developmental capacity. According to parentification theory, destructive parentification in family of origin poses a risk to child development in subsequent generations; however, there is a paucity of empirical research examining the impact of a maternal history of destructive parentification on parenting quality and child outcomes in subsequent generations. The present study examined the potential risk of maternal history of parentification on child adjustment by hypothesizing that a maternal history of parentification in family of origin would have a negative impact on quality of maternal warm responsiveness at 18 months of age which would, in turn, be associated with increased children's externalizing symptoms at 36 months. Results indicated that there was a significant indirect effect of maternal history of destructive parentification in family of origin on child externalizing behavior in the next generation through maternal warm responsiveness, supporting the hypothesized model. This finding suggests that facilitating the development of maternal contingent responsiveness among mothers with a history of destructive parentification may promote more adaptive child development in the next generation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary heavy metals and associated medical conditions in the US adult population

Authors: Mendy, A; Gasana, J; Vieira, ER (2012) International Journal of Environmental Health Research 22:105-118. HERO ID: 783244

[Less] Health effects of heavy metals have been widely investigated, but further evaluation is required to . . . [More] Health effects of heavy metals have been widely investigated, but further evaluation is required to comprehensively delineate their toxicity. Using data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on 1,857 adults to examine the relationship between urinary heavy metals and various medical conditions. Cardiovascular diseases were correlated to cadmium (OR: 4.94, 95% CI: 1.48-16.56) and lead (OR: 5.32, 95% CI: 1.08-26.21). Asthma was related to tungsten (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.15-2.59) and uranium (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.01-2.28). Hepatotoxicity was associated with molybdenum (OR: 3.09, 95% CI: 1.24-7.73) and uranium (OR: 4.79, 95% CI: 1.74-13.19). Surprising inverse relationships occurred for excessive weight with lead (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.52-0.98), reduced visual acuity with cobalt (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.95) and cesium (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.35-0.77). This study supports some previous evidence of potential relationships and provides insights for future research.