Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-Lead (2013)

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1,937 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contribution of particle-size-fractionated airborne lead to blood lead during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008

Authors: Meng, Q; Richmond-Bryant, J; Davis, JA; Cohen, J; Svendsgaard, D; Brown, JS; Tuttle, L; Hubbard, H; Rice, J; Vinikoor-Imler, L; Sacks, JD; Kirrane, E; Kotchmar, D; Hines, E; Ross, M (2014) Environmental Science and Technology 48:1263–1270. HERO ID: 2220008

[Less] The objective of this work is to examine associations between blood lead (PbB) and air lead (PbA) in . . . [More] The objective of this work is to examine associations between blood lead (PbB) and air lead (PbA) in particulate matter measured at different size cuts by use of PbB concentrations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and PbA concentrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for 1999-2008. Three size fractions of particle-bound PbA (TSP, PM10, and PM2.5) data with different averaging times (current and past 90-day average) were utilized. A multilevel linear mixed effect model was used to characterize the PbB-PbA relationship. At 0.15 μg/m(3), a unit decrease in PbA in PM10 was significantly associated with a decrease in PbB of 0.3-2.2 μg/dL across age groups and averaging times. For PbA in PM2.5 and TSP, slopes were generally positive but not significant. PbB levels were more sensitive to the change in PbA concentrations for children (1-5 and 6-11 years) and older adults (≥60 years) than teenagers (12-19 years) and adults (20-59 years). For the years following the phase-out of Pb in gasoline and a resulting upward shift in the PbA particle size distribution, PbA in PM10 was a statistically significant predictor of PbB. The results also suggest that age could affect the PbB-PbA association, with children having higher sensitivity than adults.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

2013 ASHRAE handbook: Fundamentals

Author: ASHRAE (2013) HERO ID: 3554036


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Chapter 16 - Ventilation and infiltration (TC 4.3, ventilation requirements and infiltration)

Author: ASHRAE (2013) HERO ID: 3554059


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Chapter 13 - Indoor environmental modeling (TC 4.10, indoor environmental modeling)

Author: ASHRAE (2013) HERO ID: 3554053


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Chapter 24 - Airflow around buildings (TC 4.3)

Author: ASHRAE (2013) HERO ID: 3554069


Archival Material
Archival Material

2008 National Emissions Inventory, version 3

Author: U.S. EPA (2013) Available online at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/net/2008inventory.html. (Apr 5, 2013). [Website] HERO ID: 1576859

[Less] The National Emissions Inventory (NEI) is a comprehensive and detailed estimate of air emissions of . . . [More] The National Emissions Inventory (NEI) is a comprehensive and detailed estimate of air emissions of both Criteria and Hazardous air pollutants from all air emissions sources. The NEI is prepared every three years by the USEPA based primarily upon emission estimates and emission model inputs provided by State, Local, and Tribal air agencies for sources in their jurisdictions, and supplemented by data developed by the USEPA. The 2008 NEI was built from emissions data in the Emissions Inventory System (EIS).

The data presented below are for the 2008 NEI version 3. For a detailed list of caveats and changes from version 2, and older versions, please see the Version 3 issues file.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Electric power monthly. Table 1.2. Net generation by energy source: Electric utilities, 2002-June 2012

Author: EIA (2012) HERO ID: 1290999


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Suspension and resuspension of dry soil indoors following track-in on footwear

Authors: Hunt, A; Johnson, DL (2012) Environmental Geochemistry and Health 34:355-363. HERO ID: 787195

[Less] Contamination of the indoor environment by tracked-in outdoor soil has the potential to pose a significant . . . [More] Contamination of the indoor environment by tracked-in outdoor soil has the potential to pose a significant human health threat through exposure to hazardous soil constituents. The indoor distribution of (contaminated) soil following ingress is important when evaluating exposure risk. Here, the time evolution of size-resolved airborne particulate matter aerosolized as a result of mechanical (i.e., footfall or step-on) impacts on a floor surface with a layer of dry soil was investigated using laser particle counters. Suspended particle levels were recorded after step-on impacts that aerosolized soil particles at a single contact point by the action of a human tester who followed a pre-determined walking pattern. The experimental design presumed that the floor area immediately upon entrance indoors is the location of maximum deposition of outdoor soil transferred on footwear. The suspension of soil resulting from the first step-on floor contact and the subsequent resuspension of soil resulting from additional step-on events were quantified by various arrangements of four laser particle counters. Step-on impacts produced a transient increase in particle levels at various lateral distances and heights from the contact point. Also, with increasing distance and height from the step-on contact point, the level of suspended particles after successive step-on events decreased markedly. The results suggested that a lateral component of the dispersion process was more significant than a vertical one under these experimental conditions. A wall jet effect created by the impact of the footfalls on the floor surface was considered responsible for the apparent greater lateral dispersion of the soil particles.

Technical Report
Technical Report

2010 minerals yearbook: Lead [advance release]

Author: USGS (2012) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior. HERO ID: 1291047


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Re-suspension of lead contaminated urban soil as a dominant source of atmospheric lead in Birmingham, Chicago, Detroit and Pittsburgh, USA

Authors: Laidlaw, MAS; Zahran, S; Mielke, HW; Taylor, MP; Filippelli, GM (2012) Atmospheric Environment 49:302-310. HERO ID: 1257063

[Less] Soils in older areas of cities are highly contaminated by lead, due largely to past use of lead additives . . . [More] Soils in older areas of cities are highly contaminated by lead, due largely to past use of lead additives in gasoline, the use of lead in exterior paints, and industrial lead sources. Soils are not passive repositories and periodic re-suspension of fine lead contaminated soil dust particulates (or aerosols) may create seasonal variations of lead exposure for urban dwellers. Atmospheric soil and lead aerosol data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) database were obtained for Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Detroit (Michigan), Chicago (Illinois), and Birmingham (Alabama), USA. In this study the temporal variations of atmospheric soil and lead aerosols in these four US cities were examined to determine whether re-suspended lead contaminated urban soil was the dominant source of atmospheric lead. Soil and lead-in-air concentrations were examined to ascertain whether lead aerosols follow seasonal patterns with highest concentrations during the summer and/or autumn. In addition, atmospheric soil and lead aerosol concentrations on weekends and Federal Government holidays were compared to weekdays to evaluate the possibility that automotive turbulence results in re-suspension of lead contaminated urban soil. The results show that the natural logs of atmospheric soil and lead aerosols were associated in Pittsburgh from April 2004 to July 2005 (R-2 = 0.31, p < 0.01), Detroit from November 2003 to July 2005 (R-2 = 0.49, p < 0.01), Chicago from November 2003 to August 2005 (R-2 = 0.32, p < 0.01), and Birmingham from May 2004 to December 2006 (R-2 = 0.47, p < 0.01). Atmospheric soil and lead aerosols followed seasonal patterns with highest concentrations during the summer and/or autumn. Atmospheric soil and lead aerosols are 3.15 and 3.12 times higher, respectively, during weekdays than weekends and Federal Government holidays, suggesting that automotive traffic turbulence plays a significant role in re-suspension of contaminated roadside soils and dusts. In order to decrease urban lead aerosol concentrations, lead deposition and subsequent children's seasonal exposure, lead contaminated urban soils need remediation or isolation because the legacy of lead continues to pose unnecessary and preventable health risks to urban dwellers. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.