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Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)

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1,176 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Scope of the risk evaluation for cyclic aliphatic bromides cluster

Author: U.S. EPA (2017) (EPA-740-R1-7002). [EPA Report] HERO ID: 4121173


Archival Material
Archival Material

Personal communication with Dr Makoto Ema

Authors: Makris, S; Makoto, E; Luke, A (2016) [Personal Communication] HERO ID: 3841329


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mild thyroid hormone insufficiency during development compromises activity-dependent neuroplasticity in the hippocampus of adult male rats

Authors: Gilbert, ME; Sanchez-Huerta, K; Wood, C (2016) Endocrinology 157:774-787. HERO ID: 3421484

[Less] Severe thyroid hormone (TH) deficiency during critical phases of brain development results in irreversible . . . [More] Severe thyroid hormone (TH) deficiency during critical phases of brain development results in irreversible neurological and cognitive impairments. The mechanisms accounting for this are likely multifactorial, and are not fully understood. Here we pursue the possibility that one important element is that TH affects basal and activity-dependent neurotrophin expression in brain regions important for neural processing. Graded exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU) during development produced dose-dependent reductions in mRNA expression of nerve growth factor (Ngf) in whole hippocampus of neonates. These changes in basal expression persisted to adulthood despite the return to euthyroid conditions in blood. In contrast to small PTU-induced reductions in basal expression of several genes, developmental PTU treatment dramatically reduced the activity-dependent expression of neurotrophins and related genes (Bdnf(t), Bdnf(iv), Arc, and Klf9) in adulthood and was accompanied by deficits in hippocampal-based learning. These data demonstrate that mild TH insufficiency during development not only reduces expression of important neurotrophins that persists into adulthood but also severely restricts the activity-dependent induction of these genes. Considering the importance of these neurotrophins for sculpting the structural and functional synaptic architecture in the developing and the mature brain, it is likely that TH-mediated deficits in these plasticity mechanisms contribute to the cognitive deficiencies that accompany developmental TH compromise.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Study sensitivity: Evaluating the ability to detect effects in systematic reviews of chemical exposures

Authors: Cooper, G; Lunn, R; Agerstrand, M; Glenn, B; Kraft, A; Luke, A; Ratcliffe, J (2016) Environment International 92-93:605-610. HERO ID: 3121908

[Less] A critical step in systematic reviews of potential health hazards is the structured evaluation of the . . . [More] A critical step in systematic reviews of potential health hazards is the structured evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the included studies; risk of bias is a term often used to represent this process, specifically with respect to the evaluation of systematic errors that can lead to inaccurate (biased) results (i.e. focusing on internal validity). Systematic review methods developed in the clinical medicine arena have been adapted for use in evaluating environmental health hazards; this expansion raises questions about the scope of risk of bias tools and the extent to which they capture the elements that can affect the interpretation of results from environmental and occupational epidemiology studies and in vivo animal toxicology studies, (the studies typically available for assessment of risk of chemicals). One such element, described here as “sensitivity”, is a measure of the ability of a study to detect a true effect or hazard. This concept is similar to the concept of the sensitivity of an assay; an insensitive study may fail to show a difference that truly exists, leading to a false conclusion of no effect. Factors relating to study sensitivity should be evaluated in a systematic manner with the same rigor as the evaluation of other elements within a risk of bias framework. We discuss the importance of this component for the interpretation of individual studies, examine approaches proposed or in use to address it, and describe how it relates to other evaluation components. The evaluation domains contained within a risk of bias tool can include, or can be modified to include, some features relating to study sensitivity; the explicit inclusion of these sensitivity criteria with the same rigor and at the same stage of study evaluation as other bias-related criteria can improve the evaluation process. In some cases, these and other features may be better addressed through a separate sensitivity domain. The combined evaluation of risk of bias and sensitivity can be used to identify the most informative studies, to evaluate the confidence of the findings from individual studies and to identify those study elements that may help to explain heterogeneity across the body of literature.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Direct contact between dust and HBCD-treated fabrics is an important pathway of source-to-dust transfer

Authors: Rauert, C; Kuribara, I; Kataoka, T; Wada, T; Kajiwara, N; Suzuki, Go; Takigami, H; Harrad, S (2016) Science of the Total Environment 545:77-83. HERO ID: 3222349

[Less] Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are a class of brominated flame retardant that have found extensive . . . [More] Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are a class of brominated flame retardant that have found extensive application in consumer products used widely in indoor environments. Although uncertainty remains about the human health impacts of HBCDs, ingestion of HBCD-contaminated indoor dust has been shown to be a particularly significant exposure pathway for young children. Despite this, understanding of the mechanisms via which HBCD transfer from products to indoor dust remains incomplete. In this study, an in-house test chamber was used to investigate transfer of HBCDs from a treated textile sample to indoor dust via direct textile:dust contact. Results were compared with previous data using the same test chamber to examine other pathways via which HBCDs transfer from products to dust, and highlighted HBCD transfer via direct source:dust contact as being particularly important. This novel finding was corroborated by complementary experiments that examined HBCD transfer via direct contact, from other treated textiles to three major components of indoor dust: artificial indoor dust, soil particles, and cotton linters.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence of Hexabromocyclododecane in soil and road dust from mixed-land-use areas of Shanghai, China, and its implications for human exposure

Authors: Wu, MH; Han, T; Xu, G; Zang, C; Li, YJ; Sun, R; Xu, BT; Sun, Y; Chen, FF; Tang, L (2016) Science of the Total Environment 559:282-290. HERO ID: 3223093

[Less] Herein, the occurrence of three Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) diastereoisomers in soil and road dust . . . [More] Herein, the occurrence of three Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) diastereoisomers in soil and road dust from the mixed-land-use areas in Shanghai was investigated. The total concentrations of HBCDDs (∑HBCDDs) in soil ranged from 0.30 to 249ngg(-1)dw, with a median level of 5.14ngg(-1)dw. For the road dust samples, the ΣHBCDD concentrations varied from 4.11 to 508ngg(-1)dw, with a median level of 23.4ngg(-1)dw. The levels of HBCDDs varied in different mixed-land-use areas. In soil, the levels of HBCDDs increased in the following sequence: residential area & agricultural area (R&A)<agricultural area & industrial area (A&I)<residential area & commercial area (R&C)<residential area & industrial area (R&I); the levels for the road dust were A&I<R&A<R&C<R&I. The proportions of α-HBCDD in road dust samples were significantly higher than those of α-HBCDD in the soil. For soil, the portion of α-HBCDD increased in the following sequence: R&I<A&I≈R&A<R&C, while that for the road dust was R&C<R&A<R&I<A&I. Significant correlations in the concentrations of HBCDDs between soil and road dust from R&C and R&I were found, which suggested that they may share similar sources in these regions. On the basis of the HBCDD concentrations of road dust and soil, the contributions of ingestion, dermal contact absorption and inhalation intake to total estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were estimated. The highest total EDIs of ∑HBCDDs (sum of ingestion, dermal contact absorption and inhalation intake) were 0.154, 7.5×10(-2)ngkg(-1)d(-1) for infants from road dust and soil in R&I, respectively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Hexabromocyclododecanes in the indoor environment of two cities in South China: their occurrence and implications of human inhalation exposure

Authors: Hong, J; Gao, S; Chen, L; Han, Q; Yu, Z; Peng, P; Fu, J (2016) Indoor and Built Environment 25:41-49. HERO ID: 3227425

[Less] Indoor and outdoor air samples were collected from two industrialized cities (Guangzhou and Foshan) . . . [More] Indoor and outdoor air samples were collected from two industrialized cities (Guangzhou and Foshan) in Southern China to determine the concentrations and diastereoisomer profiles of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in built environments. The mean concentrations of total HBCDs in air were 5.43pg m(-3) in homes, 8.21pg m(-3) in offices, 48.2pg m(-3) in other workplaces and 33.3pg m(-3) in the air outdoors. These HBCD levels are slightly higher than or comparable with those at the remote or urban sites in the United States, but are significantly lower than those in the European atmosphere. Diastereoisomer profiles of the samples indicated that -HBCD was the dominant isomer, with a relative abundance ranging from 53.2% to 83.0%, which is notably different from its fractions in the air samples from the UK and the domestic technical-grade mixtures. Analysis of the gas-particle distribution showed that HBCDs were present predominantly (87.6-99.9%) in the particle phase. The estimated average daily human exposure to HBCDs via inhalation was 0.39ng day(-1) for adults, which is one order of magnitude lower than the values (5.0 and 5.47ng day(-1)) for the UK adults reported in two other studies. Further air and dust sampling and continued monitoring are needed to improve our understanding of human exposure to HBCDs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Concentrations of "legacy" and novel brominated flame retardants in matched samples of UK kitchen and living room/bedroom dust

Authors: Kuang, J; Ma, Y; Harrad, S (2016) Chemosphere 149:224-230. HERO ID: 3230512

[Less] Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and 5 novel . . . [More] Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and 5 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were measured in paired samples of kitchen and living room/bedroom dust sampled in 2015 from 30 UK homes. BDE-209 was most abundant (22-170,000 ng/g), followed by γ-HBCDD (1.7-21,000 ng/g), α-HBCDD (5.2-4,900 ng/g), β-HBCDD (2.3-1,600 ng/g), BDE-99 (2.6-1,440 ng/g), BDE-47 (0.4-940 ng/g), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) (nd-680 ng/g) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP) (2.7-630 ng/g). The concentrations in kitchens and living rooms/bedrooms are moderate compared with previous studies. Concentrations of BDE-209 in living room/bedroom dust were significantly lower and those of DBDPE significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to concentrations recorded in UK house dust in 2006 and 2007. This may reflect changes in UK usage of these BFRs. All target BFRs were present at higher concentrations in living rooms/bedrooms than kitchens. With the exception of BDE-28, pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and DBDPE, these differences were significant (p < 0.05). No specific source was found that could account for the higher concentrations in living rooms/bedrooms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of two fine particulate matter standard reference materials (< 4 mu m and < 10 mu m) for the determination of organic and inorganic constituents

Authors: Schantz, MM; Cleveland, D; Heckert, NA; Kucklick, JR; Leigh, SD; Long, SE; Lynch, JM; Murphy, KE; Olfaz, R; Pintar, AL; Porter, BJ; Rabb, SA; Pol, SSV; Wise, SA; Zeisler, R (2016) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 408:4257-4266. HERO ID: 3257556

[Less] Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter (<4 μm) and SRM 2787 . . . [More] Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter (<4 μm) and SRM 2787 Fine Particulate Matter (<10 μm) have been developed in support of the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM). These materials have been characterized for the mass fractions of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs, brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers, sugars, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners, and inorganic constituents, as well as particle-size characteristics. These materials are the first Certified Reference Materials available to support measurements of both organic and inorganic constituents in fine PM. In addition, values for PAHs are available for RM 8785 Air Particulate Matter on Filter Media. As such, these SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among PM monitoring studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in these studies. Graphical Abstract Removal of PM from filter for the preparation of SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dioxins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides and brominated flame retardants in free-range chicken eggs from peri-urban areas in Arusha, Tanzania: Levels and implications for human health

Authors: Polder, A; Muller, MB; Brynildsrud, OB; de Boer, J; Hamers, T; Kamstra, JH; Lie, E; Mdegela, RH; Moberg, H; Nonga, HE; Sandvik, M; Skaare, JU; Lyche, JL (2016) Science of the Total Environment 551:656-667. HERO ID: 3347466

[Less] The environment in the northern part of Tanzania is influenced by rapid population growth, and increased . . . [More] The environment in the northern part of Tanzania is influenced by rapid population growth, and increased urbanization. Urban agriculture is common and of economic value for low income families. In Arusha, many households sell eggs from free-ranging backyard chicken. In 2011, 159 eggs from different households in five different locations in Arusha were collected, homogenized, pooled into 28 composite samples and analyzed for a wide selection of POPs. Levels of POPs varied widely within and between the locations. The levels of dieldrin and ΣDDT ranged between 2 and 98,791 and 2 and 324ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively. EU MRLs of 0.02mg/kg dieldrin for eggs were exceeded in 4/28 samples. PCBs, HCHs, chlordanes, toxaphenes and endosulfanes were found at lower frequency and levels. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), e.g polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromphenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were present in 100%, 60% and 46% of the composite samples, respectively. Octa-and deca-BDEs were the dominating PBDEs and BDE 209 levels ranged between <LOQ (limit of quantification) - 312ng/g lw. Dioxins were measured using the DR-LUC bio-assay and found in levels of <LOQ - 20pg bio-TEQs/g lw. Four samples (13%) exceeded the maximum level of 5pg/g total WHO-TEQs for hen eggs set by the Commission Regulation (EU) No 1259/2011. The daily/weekly intake was calculated and risk was characterized for all compounds comparing with available toxicity reference values (TRVs) such as the provisional tolerable intake (PTDI) or Reference Doses (RfDs). In one sample dieldrin exceeded the PTDI (100ng/kgbw/day). Correlation was found between bio-TEQs and lipid adjusted levels of ΣPBDEs, suggesting similar sources. Open fires in backyards may be one of the sources for contamination of eggs with BFRs and dioxins.