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Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)

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1,173 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Scope of the risk evaluation for cyclic aliphatic bromides cluster

Author: U.S. EPA (2017) (EPA-740-R1-7002). [EPA Report] HERO ID: 4121173


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dermal bioaccessibility of flame retardants from indoor dust and the influence of topically applied cosmetics

Authors: Pawar, G; Abdallah, MAe; De Sáa, EV; Harrad, S (2017) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27:100-105. HERO ID: 5469614

[Less] Despite extensive literature on their potential adverse health effects, there is a lack of information . . . [More] Despite extensive literature on their potential adverse health effects, there is a lack of information on human dermal exposure to organic flame retardant chemicals (FRs). This study applies an in vitro physiologically based extraction test to provide new insights into the dermal bioaccessibility of various FRs from indoor dust to synthetic sweat/sebum mixture (SSSM). The bioaccessible fractions of α-, β- and γ-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) to 1:1 (sweat/sebum) mixture were 41%, 47%, 50% and 40%, respectively. For Tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-1,3-dichloropropyl phosphate (TDCIPP), bioaccessible fractions were 10%, 17% and 19%. Composition of the SSSM and compound-specific physicochemical properties were the major factors influencing the bioaccessibility of target FRs. Except for TBBPA, the presence of cosmetics (moisturising cream, sunscreen lotion, body spray and shower gel) had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the bioaccessibility of the studied FRs. The presence of cosmetics decreased the bioaccessibility of HBCDs from indoor dust, whereas shower gel and sunscreen lotion enhanced the bioaccessibility of target PFRs. Our bioaccessibility data were applied to estimate the internal exposure of UK adults and toddlers to the target FRs via dermal contact with dust. Our worst-case scenario exposure estimates fell far below available health-based limit values for TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP. However, future research may erode the margin of safety for these chemicals.

Archival Material
Archival Material

Personal communication with Dr Makoto Ema

Authors: Makris, S; Makoto, E; Luke, A (2016) [Personal Communication] HERO ID: 3841329


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of hexabromocyclododecane and 4-nonylphenol on the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis and migration in prostatic cancer cells

Authors: Kim, SH; Nam, KH; Hwang, KA; Choi, KC (2016) Toxicology In Vitro 32:240-247. HERO ID: 3350494

[Less] The aim of the present study was to determine whether hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) or 4-nonylphenol . . . [More] The aim of the present study was to determine whether hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) or 4-nonylphenol (NP) may induce prostatic cancer progression in LNCaP cells. Androgenic effects of HBCD and NP were examined in LNCaP prostate cancer cells expressing androgen receptors (ARs). HBCD and NP increased LNCaP cell viability similar to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by MTT assay. This phenomenon was reversed by treatment with Casodex, an AR antagonist, suggesting that they act as xenoandrogens via AR signaling pathway. In cell migration assay, HBCD and NP also enhanced LNCaP cell migration similar to DHT. To elucidate underlying mechanisms of their actions on LNCaP, transcriptional levels of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related markers, including cyclin D1, cyclin E, p27, bcl-2, and bax, were determined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. An increase in expression cyclin D1 and cyclin E and reduction in p27 and bax mRNA levels were observed by their treatments. Western blot assay showed their alterations in translational levels of cyclin D1, cyclin E, p21, bax, and cathepsin D. Expressions of genes related to a G1/S transition of cell cycle and cathepsin D were elevated, while expression of p21 and bax was decreased. Taken together, these results indicate that HBCD and NP may enhance progression of prostate cancer by modulating growth and migration of LNCaP prostate cells by acting on cell cycle, apoptosis, and metastasis.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. Federal environmental quality guidelines. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Environment and climate change Canada

Author: Environment Canada (2016) . HERO ID: 3350606


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) induced changes in the liver proteome of eu- and hypothyroid female rats

Authors: Miller, I; Serchi, T; Cambier, S; Diepenbroek, C; Renaut, J; Van der Berg, JH; Kwadijk, C; Gutleb, AC; Rijntjes, E; Murk, AJ (2016) Toxicology Letters 245:40-51. HERO ID: 3350495

[Less] Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant known for its low acute toxicity as observed . . . [More] Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant known for its low acute toxicity as observed in animal experiments. However, HBCD exposure can affect liver functioning and thyroid hormone (TH) status. As exact mechanisms are unknown and only limited toxicological data exists, a gel-based proteomic approach was undertaken. In a eu- and hypothyroid female rat model, rats were exposed to 3 and 30 mg/kg bw/day HBCD for 7 days via their diet, and exposure was related to a range of canonical endpoints (hormone status, body weight) available for these animals. Alterations in the liver proteome under HBCD exposure were determined in comparison with patterns of control animals, for both thyroid states. This revealed significantly changed abundance of proteins involved in metabolic processes (gluconeogenesis/glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism), but also in oxidative stress responses, in both euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. The results provide a more detailed picture on the mechanisms involved in these alterations, e.g. at the protein level changes of the proposed influence of HBCD on the lipid metabolism. Present results show that proteomic approaches can provide further mechanistic insights in toxicological studies.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Dataset of liver proteins changed in eu- and hypothyroid female rats upon in vivo exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)

Authors: Miller, I; Serchi, T; Cambier, S; Diepenbroek, C; Renaut, J; van den Berg, JH; Kwadijk, C; Gutleb, AC; Rijntjes, E; Murk, AJ (2016) 7:386-392. HERO ID: 3350478

[Less] Female Wistar rats with different thyroid status (eu-, hypothyroid) were exposed to 0, 3 or 30 mg/kg . . . [More] Female Wistar rats with different thyroid status (eu-, hypothyroid) were exposed to 0, 3 or 30 mg/kg body weight of the flame retardant HBCD for 7 days. Changes in protein patterns obtained by 2D-DIGE were evaluated, and different animal groups compared taking into account their exposure and thyroid status. Proteins significantly altered in abundance in any of these comparisons were identified by mass spectrometry. These data, together with hormone data of the animals, are discussed in "Hexa-bromocyclododecane (HBCD) induced changes in the liver proteome of eu- and hypothyroid female rats" (Miller et al., 2016) [1].

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Long-term emissions of hexabromocyclododecane as a chemical of concern in products in China

Authors: Li, L; Weber, R; Liu, J; Hu, J (2016) Environment International 91:291-300. HERO ID: 3350476

[Less] There has been ever-increasing international interest in investigating the long-term emissions of chemicals . . . [More] There has been ever-increasing international interest in investigating the long-term emissions of chemicals in products (CiPs) throughout their entire life cycle in the anthroposphere. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a contemporary example of special interest due to the recent listing of this hazardous flame retardant in the Stockholm Convention and the consequent need for parties to take appropriate measures to eliminate this compound. Here, we conducted a scenario-based dynamic substance flow analysis, coupled with interval linear programming, to forecast the future HBCDD emissions in China in order to assist with the implementation of the Stockholm Convention in this current world's predominant HBCDD manufacturing and consuming country. Our results indicate that, under a business-as-usual scenario, the cumulative HBCDD production will amount to 238,000tonnes before its phase-out, 79% of which will be consumed in domestic market, accumulate as stocks in flame-retarded polystyrene insulation boards, and ultimately end up in demolition waste. While the production is scheduled to end in ca. 2021, emissions of HBCDD would continue until after 2100. For the entire simulation period 2000-2100, 44% of total cumulative emissions will arise from the industrial manufacture of HBCDD-associated end-products, whereas 49% will come from the end-of-life disposals of HBCDD-containing waste. The most effective end-of-life disposal option for minimizing emissions we found was, a pre-demolition screening combined with complete incineration. Our study warns of the huge challenges that China would face in its eliminating HBCDD contamination in the following decades, and provides an effective methodology for a wider range of countries to recognize and tackle their long-term emission problems of hazardous CiPs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mild thyroid hormone insufficiency during development compromises activity-dependent neuroplasticity in the hippocampus of adult male rats : Supplemental data

Authors: Gilbert, ME; Sanchez-Huerta, K; Wood, C (2016) Endocrinology 157:774-787. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3421493

[Less] Severe thyroid hormone (TH) deficiency during critical phases of brain development results in irreversible . . . [More] Severe thyroid hormone (TH) deficiency during critical phases of brain development results in irreversible neurological and cognitive impairments. The mechanisms accounting for this are likely multifactorial, and are not fully understood. Here we pursue the possibility that one important element is that TH affects basal and activity-dependent neurotrophin expression in brain regions important for neural processing. Graded exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU) during development produced dose-dependent reductions in mRNA expression of nerve growth factor (Ngf) in whole hippocampus of neonates. These changes in basal expression persisted to adulthood despite the return to euthyroid conditions in blood. In contrast to small PTU-induced reductions in basal expression of several genes, developmental PTU treatment dramatically reduced the activity-dependent expression of neurotrophins and related genes (Bdnf(t), Bdnf(iv), Arc, and Klf9) in adulthood and was accompanied by deficits in hippocampal-based learning. These data demonstrate that mild TH insufficiency during development not only reduces expression of important neurotrophins that persists into adulthood but also severely restricts the activity-dependent induction of these genes. Considering the importance of these neurotrophins for sculpting the structural and functional synaptic architecture in the developing and the mature brain, it is likely that TH-mediated deficits in these plasticity mechanisms contribute to the cognitive deficiencies that accompany developmental TH compromise.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Study sensitivity: Evaluating the ability to detect effects in systematic reviews of chemical exposures

Authors: Cooper, GS; Lunn, RM; Ågerstrand, M; Glenn, BS; Kraft, AD; Luke, AM; Ratcliffe, JM (2016) Environment International 92-93:605-610. HERO ID: 3121908

[Less] A critical step in systematic reviews of potential health hazards is the structured evaluation of the . . . [More] A critical step in systematic reviews of potential health hazards is the structured evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the included studies; risk of bias is a term often used to represent this process, specifically with respect to the evaluation of systematic errors that can lead to inaccurate (biased) results (i.e. focusing on internal validity). Systematic review methods developed in the clinical medicine arena have been adapted for use in evaluating environmental health hazards; this expansion raises questions about the scope of risk of bias tools and the extent to which they capture the elements that can affect the interpretation of results from environmental and occupational epidemiology studies and in vivo animal toxicology studies, (the studies typically available for assessment of risk of chemicals). One such element, described here as “sensitivity”, is a measure of the ability of a study to detect a true effect or hazard. This concept is similar to the concept of the sensitivity of an assay; an insensitive study may fail to show a difference that truly exists, leading to a false conclusion of no effect. Factors relating to study sensitivity should be evaluated in a systematic manner with the same rigor as the evaluation of other elements within a risk of bias framework. We discuss the importance of this component for the interpretation of individual studies, examine approaches proposed or in use to address it, and describe how it relates to other evaluation components. The evaluation domains contained within a risk of bias tool can include, or can be modified to include, some features relating to study sensitivity; the explicit inclusion of these sensitivity criteria with the same rigor and at the same stage of study evaluation as other bias-related criteria can improve the evaluation process. In some cases, these and other features may be better addressed through a separate sensitivity domain. The combined evaluation of risk of bias and sensitivity can be used to identify the most informative studies, to evaluate the confidence of the findings from individual studies and to identify those study elements that may help to explain heterogeneity across the body of literature.