Influence of hexabromocyclododecane and 4-nonylphenol on the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis and migration in prostatic cancer cells
Authors: Kim, SH; Nam, KH; Hwang, KA; Choi, KC
Toxicology In Vitro 32:240-247.
HERO ID: 3350494
The aim of the present study was to determine whether hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) or 4-nonylphenol . . .
The aim of the present study was to determine whether hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) or 4-nonylphenol (NP) may induce prostatic cancer progression in LNCaP cells. Androgenic effects of HBCD and NP were examined in LNCaP prostate cancer cells expressing androgen receptors (ARs). HBCD and NP increased LNCaP cell viability similar to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by MTT assay. This phenomenon was reversed by treatment with Casodex, an AR antagonist, suggesting that they act as xenoandrogens via AR signaling pathway. In cell migration assay, HBCD and NP also enhanced LNCaP cell migration similar to DHT. To elucidate underlying mechanisms of their actions on LNCaP, transcriptional levels of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related markers, including cyclin D1, cyclin E, p27, bcl-2, and bax, were determined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. An increase in expression cyclin D1 and cyclin E and reduction in p27 and bax mRNA levels were observed by their treatments. Western blot assay showed their alterations in translational levels of cyclin D1, cyclin E, p21, bax, and cathepsin D. Expressions of genes related to a G1/S transition of cell cycle and cathepsin D were elevated, while expression of p21 and bax was decreased. Taken together, these results indicate that HBCD and NP may enhance progression of prostate cancer by modulating growth and migration of LNCaP prostate cells by acting on cell cycle, apoptosis, and metastasis.