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Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)

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Technical Report
Technical Report

Scope of the risk evaluation for cyclic aliphatic bromides cluster

Author: U.S. EPA (2017) (EPA-740-R1-7002). [EPA Report] HERO ID: 4121173


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Concentrations of "legacy" and novel brominated flame retardants in matched samples of UK kitchen and living room/bedroom dust

Authors: Kuang, J; Ma, Y; Harrad, S (2016) Chemosphere 149:224-230. HERO ID: 3230512

[Less] Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and 5 novel . . . [More] Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and 5 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were measured in paired samples of kitchen and living room/bedroom dust sampled in 2015 from 30 UK homes. BDE-209 was most abundant (22-170,000 ng/g), followed by γ-HBCDD (1.7-21,000 ng/g), α-HBCDD (5.2-4,900 ng/g), β-HBCDD (2.3-1,600 ng/g), BDE-99 (2.6-1,440 ng/g), BDE-47 (0.4-940 ng/g), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) (nd-680 ng/g) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP) (2.7-630 ng/g). The concentrations in kitchens and living rooms/bedrooms are moderate compared with previous studies. Concentrations of BDE-209 in living room/bedroom dust were significantly lower and those of DBDPE significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to concentrations recorded in UK house dust in 2006 and 2007. This may reflect changes in UK usage of these BFRs. All target BFRs were present at higher concentrations in living rooms/bedrooms than kitchens. With the exception of BDE-28, pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and DBDPE, these differences were significant (p < 0.05). No specific source was found that could account for the higher concentrations in living rooms/bedrooms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of the occupational and environmental risks of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in China

Authors: Yi, S; Liu, JG; Jin, J; Zhu, J (2016) Chemosphere 150:431-437. HERO ID: 3350493

[Less] In 2013, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was listed in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic . . . [More] In 2013, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was listed in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants obligated to be phased out worldwide. China is a major producer and user of HBCD. Based on Chinese HBCD production and processing conditions, we classified the existing 599 HBCD production and processing plants into six occupational exposure scenarios. We also used occupational environmental monitoring and occupational health risk assessment models to estimate exposure levels. Occupational internal exposure levels for HBCD in China were estimated to range from 0.61 to 840 μg kg(-1) d(-1), which suggests that approximately 453-840 workers, or 72% of all workers in this industry, may have occupational exposure risk. As such, the occupational risks of HBCD should not be ignored. In our study area, HPLC-MS/MS revealed HBCD concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 560 ng g dry weight (dw)(-1), 20.4-24.2 ng g dw(-1), and 166-1964 ng g lipid weight (lw)(-1) in soil, sediment, and biological samples, respectively, consistent with previous monitoring results. These data suggest potential risk to marine environments due to sustained and large-scale HBCD production and processing. Thus, timely measures to control HBCD-related risk are necessary and may bring significant occupational health and environmental benefits in areas where HBCD is prevalent.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mild thyroid hormone insufficiency during development compromises activity-dependent neuroplasticity in the hippocampus of adult male rats

Authors: Gilbert, ME; Sanchez-Huerta, K; Wood, C (2016) Endocrinology 157:774-787. HERO ID: 3421484

[Less] Severe thyroid hormone (TH) deficiency during critical phases of brain development results in irreversible . . . [More] Severe thyroid hormone (TH) deficiency during critical phases of brain development results in irreversible neurological and cognitive impairments. The mechanisms accounting for this are likely multifactorial, and are not fully understood. Here we pursue the possibility that one important element is that TH affects basal and activity-dependent neurotrophin expression in brain regions important for neural processing. Graded exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU) during development produced dose-dependent reductions in mRNA expression of nerve growth factor (Ngf) in whole hippocampus of neonates. These changes in basal expression persisted to adulthood despite the return to euthyroid conditions in blood. In contrast to small PTU-induced reductions in basal expression of several genes, developmental PTU treatment dramatically reduced the activity-dependent expression of neurotrophins and related genes (Bdnf(t), Bdnf(iv), Arc, and Klf9) in adulthood and was accompanied by deficits in hippocampal-based learning. These data demonstrate that mild TH insufficiency during development not only reduces expression of important neurotrophins that persists into adulthood but also severely restricts the activity-dependent induction of these genes. Considering the importance of these neurotrophins for sculpting the structural and functional synaptic architecture in the developing and the mature brain, it is likely that TH-mediated deficits in these plasticity mechanisms contribute to the cognitive deficiencies that accompany developmental TH compromise.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reductive transformation of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) by FeS

Authors: Li, D; Peng, P; Yu, Z; Huang, W; Zhong, Y (2016) Water Research 101:195-202. HERO ID: 3350466

[Less] Both iron monosulfide (FeS) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are widely found at relatively high . . . [More] Both iron monosulfide (FeS) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are widely found at relatively high levels in anoxic sediments, but little is known about the reactions of FeS with BFRs. Prior studies showed that FeS was variously reactive with chlorinated organic pollutants in many anoxic environments. It is intuitive that FeS is also reactive with BFRs under anoxic conditions. This study was initiated to test such a hypothesis by quantifying the rates of reductive transformation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabrominated diphenyl ether (decaBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) using synthetic FeS as the reactive agent. The results showed that over 90% of HBCD was transformed by FeS within 24 h, whereas both TBBPA and decaBDE were found nonreactive within 2 days. The transformation of HBCD followed a pseudo-first-order rate kinetic and the observed rate constants were dependent on the initial concentrations of FeS and HBCD. The transformation rates of β- and γ-HBCD were significantly faster than that of α-HBCD. Analysis of bromine ion and other transformation products suggested that sequential dibromoelimination to form 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene was likely to be a dominant pathway for the reductive transformation of HBCD by FeS. Surface characterization of FeS by XPS indicated that both Fe(II) and S(-II) on the FeS surface might have contributed considerably to the transformation of HBCD. These findings imply that FeS may play an important role in natural attenuation of HBCD and that it may be used as a reactive agent for treating HBCD-contaminated sediments.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dioxins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides and brominated flame retardants in free-range chicken eggs from peri-urban areas in Arusha, Tanzania: Levels and implications for human health

Authors: Polder, A; Muller, MB; Brynildsrud, OB; de Boer, J; Hamers, T; Kamstra, JH; Lie, E; Mdegela, RH; Moberg, H; Nonga, HE; Sandvik, M; Skaare, JU; Lyche, JL (2016) Science of the Total Environment 551:656-667. HERO ID: 3347466

[Less] The environment in the northern part of Tanzania is influenced by rapid population growth, and increased . . . [More] The environment in the northern part of Tanzania is influenced by rapid population growth, and increased urbanization. Urban agriculture is common and of economic value for low income families. In Arusha, many households sell eggs from free-ranging backyard chicken. In 2011, 159 eggs from different households in five different locations in Arusha were collected, homogenized, pooled into 28 composite samples and analyzed for a wide selection of POPs. Levels of POPs varied widely within and between the locations. The levels of dieldrin and ΣDDT ranged between 2 and 98,791 and 2 and 324ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively. EU MRLs of 0.02mg/kg dieldrin for eggs were exceeded in 4/28 samples. PCBs, HCHs, chlordanes, toxaphenes and endosulfanes were found at lower frequency and levels. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), e.g polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromphenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were present in 100%, 60% and 46% of the composite samples, respectively. Octa-and deca-BDEs were the dominating PBDEs and BDE 209 levels ranged between <LOQ (limit of quantification) - 312ng/g lw. Dioxins were measured using the DR-LUC bio-assay and found in levels of <LOQ - 20pg bio-TEQs/g lw. Four samples (13%) exceeded the maximum level of 5pg/g total WHO-TEQs for hen eggs set by the Commission Regulation (EU) No 1259/2011. The daily/weekly intake was calculated and risk was characterized for all compounds comparing with available toxicity reference values (TRVs) such as the provisional tolerable intake (PTDI) or Reference Doses (RfDs). In one sample dieldrin exceeded the PTDI (100ng/kgbw/day). Correlation was found between bio-TEQs and lipid adjusted levels of ΣPBDEs, suggesting similar sources. Open fires in backyards may be one of the sources for contamination of eggs with BFRs and dioxins.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diastereomer- and enantiomer-specific accumulation, depuration, bioisomerization, and metabolism of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in two ecologically different species of earthworms

Authors: Li, B; Yao, T; Sun, H; Zhang, Y; Yang, J (2016) Science of the Total Environment 542:427-434. HERO ID: 3350510

[Less] In this study, two ecological types of earthworms were exposed to soil samples that were artificially . . . [More] In this study, two ecological types of earthworms were exposed to soil samples that were artificially contaminated with individual hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs) to investigate the bioaccumulation, depuration, enantiomer selectivity and isomerization of HBCDs in earthworms. The uptake rate constant (ku), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), biota soil accumulation factor (BSAF), and half-life (t1/2) for the α-HBCD were the highest among the three diastereomers. The bioaccumulation parameters of the three diastereoisomers differed between the two ecologically different species of earthworms. The BSAF values of α- and γ-HBCDs were substantially higher in Eisenia fetida than those in Metaphire guillelmi, with the higher lipid and protein contents in E. fetida as the primary reason for this difference. The other processes, such as uptake, depuration, metabolism and isomerization, also differed between the two species and led to a difference in the bioaccumulation of β-HBCD. The β- and γ-HBCDs were bioisomerized to α-HBCD in the earthworms, but to a greater extent in E. fetida. The highest BSAF, t1/2 of α-HBCD and the bioisomerization of β- and γ-HBCDs to α-HBCD might explain in part why α-HBCD was the dominant isomer in biota samples. Most of the enantiomer fractions (EFs) for the three HBCD diastereoisomers in the earthworms were different from those in standard samples (p<0.05), indicating that enantiomer selectivity occurred. Moreover, the trends and extent of the enantioselectivity were different between the two species. Additionally, the EFs of α-HBCD that was bioisomerized from β- or γ-isomers were also different from those in the standards (p<0.05), which likely reflect the integration of several processes, such as enantioselective isomerization and the subsequent selective metabolism of the produced α-HBCD or selective excretion of the enantiomers.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. Federal environmental quality guidelines. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Environment and climate change Canada

Author: Environment Canada (2016) . HERO ID: 3350606


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

ROBINS-I: A tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions

Authors: Sterne, JAC; Hernán, MA; Reeves, BC; Savović, J; Berkman, ND; Viswanathan, M; Henry, D; Altman, DG; Ansari, MT; Boutron, I; Carpenter, JR; Chan, AW; Churchill, R; Deeks, JJ; Hróbjartsson, A; Kirkham, J; Jüni, P; Loke, YK; Pigott, TD; Ramsay, CR; Regidor, D; Rothstein, HR; Sandhu, L; Santaguida, PL; Schünemann, HJ; Shea, B; Shrier, I; Tugwell, P; Turner, L; Valentine, JC; Waddington, H; Waters, E; Wells, GA; Whiting, PF; Higgins, JPT (2016) British Medical Journal 355:i4919. HERO ID: 3220127


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Retrospective analysis of "new" flame retardants in the global atmosphere under the GAPS Network

Authors: Lee, SC; Sverko, E; Harner, T; Pozo, K; Barresi, E; Schachtschneider, J; Zaruk, D; Dejong, M; Narayan, J (2016) Environmental Pollution 217:62-69. HERO ID: 3350487

[Less] A retrospective analysis was conducted on air samples that were collected in 2005 under the Global Atmospheric . . . [More] A retrospective analysis was conducted on air samples that were collected in 2005 under the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network around the time period when the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants came into force. Results are presented for several new flame retardants, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), which was recently listed under the Convention (2013). These results represent the first global-scale distributions in air for these compounds. The targeted compounds are shown to have unique global distributions in air, which highlights the challenges in understanding the sources and environmental fate of each chemical, and ultimately in their assessments as persistent organic pollutants. The study also demonstrates the feasibility of using the PUF disk passive air sampler to study these new flame retardants in air, many of which exist entirely in the particle-phase as demonstrated in this study using a KOA-based partitioning model.