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Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)

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  • 1.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds

    Authors: Abbasi, NA; Malik, RN; Frantz, A; Jaspers, VL
    (2016) Science of the Total Environment 542:411-426. [Review]
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between <LOD (limit of detection) to 14,000,000 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), <LOD to 790,000 for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), <LOD to 12,000 for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), <LOD to 29,000 for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), <LOD to 47,000 for chlordanes (CHLs) and <LOD to 4600 for total cyclodienes. Further, ranges (ng/g LW) of 1.1 to 150,000 for Co-PCBs; <LOD to 27 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs); <LOD to 45 for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 0.02 to 73 for PCDD/DFs have been reported in Asian aves. Among emerging FRs, levels of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), total dechlorane plus (DPs) [syn and anti DPs] and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDs) oscillated between <LOD to 134,000, <LOD to 3820 [<0.1-920 and <0.1-2900], and <LOD to 11,800 ng/g LW, respectively. Corresponding ranges of novel brominated flame retardants (nBFRs) such as decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were <LOD to 820 and <LOD to 89 ng/g LW. Other nBFRs such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) in Asian avifauna have been reported in very few studies. Dependence of organohalogens on dietary sources and subsequent biomagnification in the food chain has been corroborated through δ(15)N and δ(13)C stable isotope proxies. In general, tissues with higher fat content accumulated more organohalogens and vice versa. Aspects such as maternal transfer of OHCs and temporal trends have rarely been discussed in reported literature from Asia. The mobility of birds, vicinity to sources and trans-boundary movement of pollutants were identified as key exposure routes and subsequent OHCs contamination in Asian birds. There is extreme scarcity of literature on organohalogen contamination in birds from Northern, South-eastern and west Asian countries where an industrial boom has been witnessed in the past few decades. Current scenarios suggest that levels of OHCs, particularly the FRs, are rising in birds of Asia and it would be wise to develop baseline information and to regulate the OHCs emission accordingly.
    Tagged With: New 7/2016 (private), Database Searches, Pubmed, Excluded/Not on Topic, WOS, Pubmed
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Analysis of brominated flame retardants in house dust

    Authors: Abb, M; Stahl, B; Lorenz, W
    (2011) Chemosphere 85:1657-1663.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The main objective of this study was to create a robust analytical method to analyse the flame retardants . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The main objective of this study was to create a robust analytical method to analyse the flame retardants decabromodiphenylether (BDE-209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) in house dust in order to estimate the degree of contamination of indoor environment. A liquid chromatography method equipped with a UV-detector and electro spray-tandem mass spectrometry was used to achieve this result. Applying an external calibration for BDE-209, an internal calibration for TBBPA, and a standard addition method for HBCD low limits of quantification were obtained. The analytical procedure was carried out under exclusion of UV-light as the target compounds potentially degrade when being exposed to UV-light. Empirical data were obtained in addition to the dust samples to estimate potential influences of apartment characteristics. A weak correlation between the number of electric devices and TBBPA was found.
    Tagged With: Database Searches, Pubmed, WOS, Excluded/Not on Topic
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Modification and Calibration of a Passive Air Sampler for Monitoring Vapor and Particulate Phase Brominated Flame Retardants in Indoor Air: Application to Car Interiors

    Authors: Abdallah, MAE; Harrad, S
    (2010) Environmental Science and Technology 44:3059-3065.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. A passive air sampler was modified to monitor both vapor and particulate phase brominated flame retardants . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. A passive air sampler was modified to monitor both vapor and particulate phase brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor air using polyurethane foam disks and glass fiber filters (GFF). Significant correlation (p < 0.01) was observed between passive (ng day(-1)) and active sampler (ng m(-3)) derived BFR concentrations in an office microenvironment (r = 0.94 and 0.89 for vapor and particulate phase BFRs, respectively). A calibration experiment was performed where concentrations of target BFRs were obtained for an office using a low volume active sampler operated over a 50 day period alongside passive samplers. The passive uptake rates of each studied BFR ranged between (0.558-1.509 ng day(-1)) and (0.448-0.579 ng day(-1)) for vapor and particulate phases, respectively. The passive entrapment of particles by the GFF was investigated using environmental scanning electron microscopy which revealed gravitational deposition of particles as the main mechanism involved. The developed sampler was applied to monitor BFR concentrations in 21 cars. Average concentrations of Sigma HBCDs, TBBP-A, and Sigma tetra-deca BDEs were 400, 3, and 2200 pg m(-3) in cabins and 400, 1, and 1600 pg m(-3) in trunks. No significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between levels of Sigma HBCDs and Sigma trito hexa- BDEs in cabins and trunks. However, TBBP-A, BDE-209, and Sigma PBDEs concentrations were significantly higher in vehicle cabins.
    Tagged With: Database Searches, Excluded/Not on Topic, WOS
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in UK human milk: Implications for infant exposure and relationship to external exposure

    Authors: Abdallah, MAE; Harrad, S
    (2014) Environment International 63:130-136.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Fourteen tri-deca polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in 35 human milk samples . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Fourteen tri-deca polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in 35 human milk samples from Birmingham, UK. While none of the hepta-nona BDEs (the main components of the octaBDE technical mixture) was above the limit of quantitation (LOQ); BDE-47 (average concentration = 3.3 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw)) was quantified in all samples contributing 34-74% to Sigma tri-hexa BDEs (the principal constituents of the pentaBDE commercial formulation). BDE-209 (the main congener in the decaBDE formulation) was present above the LOQ in 69% of samples (average concentration = 0.31 ng g(-1) lw). Concentrations of Sigma tri-hexa BDEs ranged from 0.2 to 26 ng g(-1) lw with concentrations of BDE-47 > BDE-153 > BDE-99. While concentrations of Sigma tri-hexa BDEs in this study (average = 5.95 ng g(-1) lw) were at the high end of those reported from other European countries, concentrations of BDE-209 were lower than those reported in human milk from other countries. The average exposure of a UK nursing infant to Sigma tri-hexa BDEs (35 ng (kg bw)(-1) day(-1)) via breast milk exceeded the upper-bound dietary intakes of both UK adults and toddlers. Using a simple one compartment pharmacokinetic model, PBDE intakes of UK adults via inhalation, diet and dust ingestion were converted to predicted body burdens. Predictions compared well with those observed for Sigma tri-hexa BDEs and BDE-209 in breast milk. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Tagged With: Database Searches, Excluded/Not on Topic, New 6/2014 (private), WOS
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Hexabromocyclododecanes in indoor dust from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Authors: Abdallah, MAE; Harrad, S; Ibarra, C; Diamond, M; Melymuk, L; Robson, M; Covaci, A
    (2008) Environmental Science and Technology 42:459-464.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs) were measured in house dust from . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs) were measured in house dust from Birmingham, U.K. (n=31, median concentration=730 ng sigmaHBCDs g(-1)); Amarillo/Austin, TX (n=13, 390 ng g(-1)); and Toronto, Canada (n=8, 640 ng g(-1)). Concentrations in dust (n=6, 650 ng g(-1)) from U.K. offices were within the range for UK homes. Concentrations from each country were statistically indistinguishable. In one UK house dust sample, 110,000 ng g(-1) was recorded-the highest recorded in indoor dust to date. While upper bound average U.K. dietary exposures for adults and toddlers, respectively, are 413 and 240 ng sigmaHBCDs day(-1), U.K. adults and toddlers daily ingesting, respectively, 50 and 200 mg of dust contaminated at the 95th percentile concentration are exposed, respectively, to 1100 and 4400 ng sigmaHBCDs day(-1). Normalized to body weight, this high-end exposure scenario estimate for toddlers is within the range reported elsewhere for occupationally exposed adults. While in commercial formulations gamma-HBCD predominates (>80%), alpha-HBCD in dust constitutes 14-67% of sigmaHBCDs (average 32%). Hence the predominance of the alpha-diastereomer in humans may arise partly from dust ingestion, and not solely to in vivo metabolism (when alpha-HBCD is formed from bioisomerization of other diastereomers), or dietary exposure (where alpha-HBCD predominates in most foodstuffs).
    Tagged With: Database Searches, Pubmed, WOS, Excluded/Not on Topic
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Personal exposure to HBCDs and its degradation products via ingestion of indoor dust

    Authors: Abdallah, MA; Harrad, S
    (2009) Environment International 35:870-876.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Personal exposures via ingestion of indoor dust to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexabromocyclododecanes . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Personal exposures via ingestion of indoor dust to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and the degradation products (pentabromocyclododecenes (PBCDs) and tetrabromocyclododecadienes (TBCDs)) were estimated for 21 UK adults. Under an average dust ingestion scenario, personal exposures ranged from 4.5 to 1851 ng SigmaHBCDs day(-1); while the range under a high dust ingestion scenario was 11 to 4630 ng SigmaHBCDs day(-1). On average, personal exposure to SigmaHBCDs via dust ingestion in this study was 35% alpha-, 11% beta-, and 54% gamma-HBCD. However, while exposure to beta-HBCD (4-18% of SigmaHBCDs) was relatively consistent with the proportion of this diastereomer in the HBCD commercial formulation; exposures to alpha- and gamma-isomers (11-58% and 29-82% of SigmaHBCDs respectively) showed substantial variation from the commercial formulation pattern. Personal exposures to SigmaTBCDs (median=0.2 ng day(-1) under an average dust ingestion scenario) and SigmaPBCDs (1.4 ng day(-1)) were significantly lower (p<0.05) than for SigmaHBCDs (48 ng day(-1)). Despite this, the exposure of one participant to SigmaPBCDs exceeded the exposure to SigmaHBCDs received by 85% of the other participants. On average, house dust provided the major contribution to personal exposure via dust ingestion to all target compounds due to the large time fraction spent in houses. In contrast, although participants spent less time in cars than in offices, car dust makes a higher average contribution (17%) to SigmaHBCDs exposure than office dust (13%).
    Tagged With: Database Searches, Pubmed, WOS, Excluded/Not on Topic
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Tetrabromobisphenol-A, hexabromocyclododecane and its degradation products in UK human milk: relationship to external exposure

    Authors: Abdallah, MA; Harrad, S
    (2011) Environment International 37:443-448.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and its degradation products were determined . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and its degradation products were determined in 34 human milk samples from Birmingham, UK. TBBP-A was detected in 36% of samples (average=0.06 ng g(-1) lw), with HBCDs detected in all samples (average ΣHBCDs=5.95 ng g(-1) lw). α-HBCD comprised 62-95% ΣHBCDs while β- and γ-HBCD constituted 2-18% and 3-33% respectively. Enantioselective enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD (average enantiomer fraction=0.29) was observed indicating potential enantioselectivity associated with HBCD absorption, metabolism and/or excretion. The degradation products pentabromocyclododecenes (average=0.04 ng g(-1) lw; n=9) and tetrabromocyclododecadienes (average=0.15 ng g(-1) lw; n=25) were detected for the first time in human tissues. Average exposures of a nursing infant to ΣHBCDs and TBBP-A (35 and 1 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) respectively) via breast milk exceeded upper-bound dietary intakes of both UK adults and toddlers. Using a simple pharmacokinetic model, intakes of UK adults via inhalation, diet and dust ingestion were converted to predicted body burdens. Predictions compared well with those observed for HBCDs but observed body burdens of TBBP-A exceeded predictions. This may indicate the human half-life of TBBP-A is greater than observed previously, that intakes may be underestimated, or that concentrations reported here reflect recent elevated episodic exposure.
    Tagged With: Database Searches, Pubmed, WOS, Sources of Mechanistic and Toxicokinetic Data, Toxicokinetic studies
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Hexabromocyclododecanes and tetrabromobisphenol-A in indoor air and dust in Birmingham, U.K: implications for human exposure

    Authors: Abdallah, MA; Harrad, S; Covaci, A
    (2008) Environmental Science and Technology 42:6855-6861.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Hexabromocyclododecanes (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) were determined . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Hexabromocyclododecanes (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) were determined in indoor air from homes (n=33; median concentrations sigma HBCDs = 180 pg m(-3); TBBP-A = 15 pg m(-3)), offices (n=25; 170; 11), public microenvironments (n=4; 900; 27) and outdoor air (n=5; 37; 1). HBCDs and TBBP-A were also determined in dust from homes (n=45; median concentrations sigma HBCDs = 1300 ng g(-1); TBBP-A = 62 ng g(-1)), offices (n=28; 760; 36), cars (n=20; 13,000; 2), and public microenvironments (n=4; 2700; 230). While sigma HBCDs in car dust significantly exceeded (p < 0.05) those in homes and offices, TBBP-A in car dust was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that in homes and offices. No significant differences were observed between sigma HBCDs and TBBP-A in air or dust from homes and offices. Compared to dietary and inhalation exposures, dust ingestion constitutes an important pathway of exposure to HBCDs and TBBP-A for the UK population. Specifically, using average dust ingestion rates and concentrations in dust, dust ingestion constitutes for adults 34% (TBBP-A) and 24% (HBCDs) of overall exposure, and for toddlers 90% (TBBP-A) and 63% (HBCDs). Inhalation appears a minor exposure pathway to both HBCDs and TBBP-A. On average, dust is 33% alpha-, 11% beta-, and 56% gamma-HBCD, while air is 22% alpha-, 11% beta-, and 65% gamma-HBCD.
    Tagged With: Database Searches, Excluded/Not on Topic, Pubmed, WOS
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Comparative evaluation of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry versus gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of hexabromocyclododecanes and their degradation products in indoor dust

    Authors: Abdallah, MA; Ibarra, C; Neels, H; Harrad, S; Covaci, A
    (2008) Journal of Chromatography A 1190:333-341.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Domestic and office dust samples (n=37) were analyzed for hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) using gas . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Domestic and office dust samples (n=37) were analyzed for hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) using gas chromatography-electron-capture negative ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI/MS) and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS). To determine the best method to quantify HBCDs using GC-ECNI/MS, BDE 128 was used as internal standard (I.S.) in all samples, while 13C-labeled alpha-HBCD was used as I.S. in some samples. Total HBCD concentrations (sum of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HBCD diastereomers) were calculated using response factors (RFs) for alpha- and gamma-HBCD as individual diastereomers and using an average RF for both diastereomers. Statistical comparison showed that concentrations obtained via GC-ECNI/MS were statistically indistinguishable (p>0.05) from those obtained using LC-ESI/MS/MS. The closest match between the two techniques was obtained using [13C]alpha-HBCD as I.S. and the average RF for alpha- and gamma-HBCDs. Excellent linear correlations (Pearson coefficient values r>0.9) were obtained between the GC-ECNI/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS results, with slopes ranging from 0.76 to 1.36. Pentabromocyclododecenes (four isomers) and tetrabromocyclododecadienes (two isomers) were detected in the studied samples and were identified as degradation products of HBCDs after separation from the parent compound on the basis of both retention time and mass spectrum. This finding suggests that the elimination of HBr is the major degradation pathway for HBCDs in dust.
    Tagged With: Database Searches, Pubmed, Excluded/Not on Topic
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Evaluation of 3D-human skin equivalents for assessment of human dermal absorption of some brominated flame retardants

    Authors: Abdallah, MA; Pawar, G; Harrad, S
    (2015) Environment International 84:64-70.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Ethical and technical difficulties inherent to studies in human tissues are impeding assessment of the . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Ethical and technical difficulties inherent to studies in human tissues are impeding assessment of the dermal bioavailability of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). This is further complicated by increasing restrictions on the use of animals in toxicity testing, and the uncertainties associated with extrapolating data from animal studies to humans due to inter-species variations. To overcome these difficulties, we evaluate 3D-human skin equivalents (3D-HSE) as a novel in vitro alternative to human and animal testing for assessment of dermal absorption of BFRs. The percutaneous penetration of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) through two commercially available 3D-HSE models was studied and compared to data obtained for human ex vivo skin according to a standard protocol. No statistically significant differences were observed between the results obtained using 3D-HSE and human ex vivo skin at two exposure levels. The absorbed dose was low (less than 7%) and was significantly correlated with log Kow of the tested BFR. Permeability coefficient values showed increasing dermal resistance to the penetration of γ-HBCD>β-HBCD>α-HBCD>TBBPA. The estimated long lag times (>30min) suggests that frequent hand washing may reduce human exposure to HBCDs and TBBPA via dermal contact.
    Tagged With: New 7/2016 (private), Database Searches, Pubmed, WOS, WOS, WOS
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