Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)


1,347 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

The priority list of hazardous substances that will be the subject of toxicological profiles

Author: ATSDR (2016) Atlanta, GA: CDC Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. [ATSDR Tox Profile] HERO ID: 3378161

[Less] The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) section 104 (i), . . . [More] The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) section 104 (i), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), requires ATSDR and the EPA to prepare a list, in order of priority, of substances that are most commonly found at facilities on the National Priorities List (NPL) and which are determined to pose the most significant potential threat to human health due to their known or suspected toxicity and potential for human exposure at these NPL sites. CERCLA also requires this list to be revised periodically to reflect additional information on hazardous substances.

This substance priority list is revised and published on a 2-year basis, with a yearly informal review and revision. (No list was published in 2009 while ATSDR transitioned to a new agency science database.) Each substance on the list is a candidate to become the subject of a toxicological profile prepared by ATSDR. The listing algorithm prioritizes substances based on frequency of occurrence at NPL sites, toxicity, and potential for human exposure to the substances found at NPL sites.

It should be noted that this priority list is not a list of "most toxic" substances, but rather a prioritization of substances based on a combination of their frequency, toxicity, and potential for human exposure at NPL sites.

Thus, it is possible for substances with low toxicity but high NPL frequency of occurrence and exposure to be on this priority list. The objective of this priority list is to rank substances across all NPL hazardous waste sites to provide guidance in selecting which substances will be the subject of toxicological profiles prepared by ATSDR.

Technical Report
Technical Report

EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System: Assessment development process

Author: U.S. EPA (2014) Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 2384468

[Less] The IRIS process consists of the development of a draft Toxicological Review for a chemical; internal . . . [More] The IRIS process consists of the development of a draft Toxicological Review for a chemical; internal and external scientific reviews of the draft document; EPA responses to review comments; and development and posting of an IRIS Summary and final Toxicological Review to EPA's web site. EPA announced revisions to the IRIS process in May 2009 and further revisions in 2011.

Technical Report
Technical Report

The priority list of hazardous substances that will be the subject of toxicological profiles

Author: ATSDR (2013) Atlanta, GA: CDC Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. [ATSDR Tox Profile] HERO ID: 2953168

[Less] The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) section 104 (i), . . . [More] The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) section 104 (i), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), requires ATSDR and the EPA to prepare a list, in order of priority, of substances that are most commonly found at facilities on the National Priorities List (NPL) and which are determined to pose the most significant potential threat to human health due to their known or suspected toxicity and potential for human exposure at these NPL sites. CERCLA also requires this list to be revised periodically to reflect additional information on hazardous substances.

This substance priority list is revised and published on a 2-year basis, with a yearly informal review and revision. (No list was published in 2009 while ATSDR transitioned to a new agency science database.) Each substance on the list is a candidate to become the subject of a toxicological profile prepared by ATSDR. The listing algorithm prioritizes substances based on frequency of occurrence at NPL sites, toxicity, and potential for human exposure to the substances found at NPL sites.

It should be noted that this priority list is not a list of "most toxic" substances, but rather a prioritization of substances based on a combination of their frequency, toxicity, and potential for human exposure at NPL sites.

Thus, it is possible for substances with low toxicity but high NPL frequency of occurrence and exposure to be on this priority list. The objective of this priority list is to rank substances across all NPL hazardous waste sites to provide guidance in selecting which substances will be the subject of toxicological profiles prepared by ATSDR.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Occupational skin cancer may be underreported

Authors: Carøe, TK; Ebbehøj, NE; Wulf, HC; Agner, T (2013) 60:A4624. HERO ID: 2225582

[Less] INTRODUCTION: Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is a descriptive, register-based study comprising all patients with recognized occupational malignant and premalignant skin conditions in Denmark in the 01/01 2000-31/12 2009 period. Data were obtained from The National Board of Industrial Injuries and comprise information about diagnosis, occupational and domestic exposure, anatomic localization, occupation, degree of permanent disability, age and sex.

RESULTS: A total of 36 patients were recognized as occupational skin cancer cases. The mean age was 61 years (44-75 years), 31 men and five women. The most frequent diagnosis was basal cell carcinoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma. No cases of malignant melanoma were recognized. The primary risk factor for development of occupational skin cancer was ultraviolet (UV) exposure during outdoor working.

CONCLUSION: Data based on recognized cases of occupational skin cancer during a ten-year period in Denmark show that non-melanoma skin cancer was the most frequent diagnosis, while the primary risk factor was UV radiation in outdoor occupations. A total of 36 cases were reported over a period of ten years, and underreporting may be suspected. The purpose of the present study was to raise the awareness of occupational skin cancer, and on the basis of existing data to contribute to criteria for the diagnosis of occupational skin cancer.

FUNDING: not relevant.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood

Authors: Jedrychowski, WA; Perera, FP; Tang, D; Rauh, V; Majewska, R; Mroz, E; Flak, E; Stigter, L; Spengler, J; Camann, D; Jacek, R (2013) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 23:371-377. HERO ID: 1616993

[Less] In a birth cohort study, we have assessed the dose-response relationship between individual measurements . . . [More] In a birth cohort study, we have assessed the dose-response relationship between individual measurements of prenatal airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and specific PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood adjusted for maternal blood adducts and season of birth. The study uses data from an earlier established birth cohort of children in Krakow. The final analysis included 362 pregnant women who gave birth to term babies and had complete data on personal exposure in the second trimester of pregnancy to eight airborne PAHs including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), as well as DNA adducts, both in maternal and cord blood. The relation between cord blood PAH-DNA adducts and airborne prenatal PAH exposure was non-linear. Although cord blood PAH-DNA adducts were significantly associated with the B[a]P exposure categorized by tertiles (non-parametric trend z=3.50, P<0.001), the relationship between B[a]P and maternal blood adducts was insignificant (z=1.63, P=0.103). Based on the multivariable linear regression model, we estimated the effect of the prenatal airborne B[a]P on the level of cord blood adducts. In total, 14.8% of cord blood adducts variance was attributed to the level of maternal adducts and 3% to a higher prenatal B[a] exposure above 5.70 ng/m(3). The calculated fetal/maternal blood adduct ratio (FMR) linearly increased with B[a]P exposure (z=1.99, P=0.047) and was highest at B[a]P concentrations exceeding 5.70 ng/m(3). In conclusion, the results support other findings that transplacental exposure to B[a]P from maternal inhalation produces DNA damage in the developing fetus. It also confirms the heightened fetal susceptibility to prenatal PAH exposure that should be a matter of public health concern, particularly in the highly polluted areas, because DNA adducts represent a pro-carcinogenic alteration in DNA. The continuation of this birth cohort study will assess the possible health effects of fetal DNA damage on the health of children and help in establishing new protective guidelines for newborns.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 9 January 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2012.117.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Classification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on mutagenicity in lung tissue through DNA microarray

Authors: Hirano, M; Tanaka, S; Asami, O (2013) Environmental Toxicology 28:652-659. HERO ID: 1010792

[Less] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants produced in the combustion . . . [More] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants produced in the combustion of organic matter. Exposure to PAHs raises the risk of lung cancer and inflammatory and allergic disorders such as asthma. DNA microarray technologies have been applied to research on toxicogenomics in the recent years. To evaluate the mutagenicity of PAHs and constituents of environmental pollutants in lung tissue, including metabolic activation, human alveolar epithelial type II cells (A549) were treated with nonmutagenic PAH pyrene and with the mutagenic PAHs benzo-[a]-pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, or 1,8-dinitropyrene. Comparison of genome-wide microarray expression profiles between a nonmutagenic and a mutagenic PAH-treated group revealed that xenobiotic response genes such as CYP1B1 were commonly upregulated in two groups and that DNA damage induced genes, especially p53-downstream genes such as p21 (CDKN1A) were upregulated only in the mutagenic PAH-treated group. Pretreatment with cytochrome P450 inhibitor α-naphthoflavone or p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α inhibited the benzo-[a]-pyrene-induced p21 expression. These data suggest that when PAHs enter the cells, lung epithelium induces PAH metabolic activating enzymes, and then the DNA damages-recognition signal is converged with p53 downstream genes. This metabolic activation and DNA damage is induced in lung epithelium, and the mutagenicity of PAHs can be classified by DNA microarray expression profiles. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons within airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5) ) produced DNA bulky stable adducts in a human lung cell coculture model

Authors: Abbas, I; Garçon, G; Saint-Georges, F; Andre, V; Gosset, P; Billet, S; Goff, JL; Verdin, A; Mulliez, P; Sichel, F; Shirali, P (2013) Journal of Applied Toxicology 33:109-119. HERO ID: 1010788

[Less] To extend current knowledge on the underlying mechanisms of air pollution particulate matter (PM(2.5) . . . [More] To extend current knowledge on the underlying mechanisms of air pollution particulate matter (PM(2.5) )-induced human lung toxicity, the metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) within PM(2.5) and PAH-DNA bulky stable adduct patterns in human alveolar macrophage (AM) and/or human lung epithelial L132 cells in mono- and cocultures were studied. In the coculture system, only human AM were exposed to air pollution PM(2.5) , unlike L132 cells. Particles, inorganic fraction and positive controls [i.e. TiO(2) , thermally desorbed PM (dPM) and benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P, respectively] were included in the experimental design. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene expression, CYP1A1 catalytic activity and PAH-DNA bulky stable adducts were studied after 24, 48 and/or 72 h. Relatively low doses of PAH within PM(2.5) induced CYP1A1 gene expression and CYP1A1 catalytic activity in human AM and, thereafter, PAH-DNA bulky stable adduct formation. Adduct spots in PM(2.5) -exposed human AM were higher than those in dPM-exposed ones, thereby showing the incomplete removal of PAH by thermal desorption. PAH within air pollution PM(2.5) induced CYP1A1 gene expression but not CYP1A1 catalytic activity in L132 cells. However, despite the absence of PAH-DNA bulky stable adduct in L132 cells from human AM/L132 cell cocultures exposed to dPM(2.5) or PM(2.5) , reliable quantifiable PAH-DNA bulky stable adducts were observed in L132 cells from human AM/L132 cell coculture exposed to B[a]P. Taken together, these results support the exertion of genotoxicity of highly reactive B[a]P-derived metabolites produced within human AM not only in primary target human AM, but also in secondary target L132 cells. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

Benzo(a)pyrene. CASRN 50-32-8

Author: ChemIDplus (2012) Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine. [Database] HERO ID: 1249746

[Less] A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial . . . [More] A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Carcinogenicity of diesel-engine and gasoline-engine exhausts and some nitroarenes

Authors: Benbrahim-Tallaa, L; Baan, RA; Grosse, Y; Lauby-Secretan, B; El ghissassi, F; Bouvard, V; Guha, N; Loomis, D; Straif, K (2012) HERO ID: 1249730


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

The burden of occupational cancer in Great Britain: Non-melanoma skin cancer

Authors: Young, C; Cherrie, J; Van Tongeren, M; Fortunato, L; Hutchings, S; Rushton, L (2012) Sudbury, Suffolk: Health and Safety Executive (HSE). HERO ID: 2219959