Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)


939 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Repeatedly high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and cockroach sensitization among inner-city children

Authors: Jung, KH; Lovinsky-Desir, S; Perzanowski, M; Liu, X; Maher, C; Gil, E; Torrone, D; Sjodin, A; Li, Z; Perera, FP; Miller, RL (2015) Environmental Research 140:649-656. HERO ID: 3010306

[Less] BACKGROUND: Exposures to traffic-related air pollutants including polycyclic aromatic . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Exposures to traffic-related air pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been associated with the development and exacerbation of asthma. However, there is limited evidence on whether these pollutants are associated with the development of cockroach sensitization, a strong risk factor for urban asthma. We hypothesized that repeatedly high PAH exposure during childhood would be associated with increased risk of new cockroach sensitization.

METHODS: As part of the research being conducted by the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) birth cohort study in New York, a spot urine sample was collected from children at age 5 years (2003-2008) and again at age 9-10 years (2008-2012; n=248) and analyzed for 10 PAH metabolites. Repeatedly high PAH (High-High) exposure was defined as measures above median for age 5 PAH metabolites at both time points. Child blood samples at age 5 and 9 years were analyzed for total, anti-cockroach, mouse, dust mite, cat and dog IgE. Relative risks (RR) were estimated with multivariable modified Poisson regression.

RESULTS: Individual PAH metabolite levels, except for 1-naphthol (1-OH-NAP), increased by 10-60% from age 5 to age 9-10. The prevalence of cockroach sensitization increased from 17.6% (33/188) at age 5 to 33.0% (62/188) at 9 years (p=0.001). After controlling for potential covariates including cockroach sensitization at age 5 in regression analyses, positive associations were found between repeatedly high exposure (High-High) to 1-OH-NAP, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-PHEN), or 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR) and cockroach sensitization at age 9 (p-values<0.05). Compared to Low-Low exposure, the relative risk (RR) [95% CI] with repeatedly high exposure was 1.83 [1.06-3.17] for 1-OH-NAP, 1.54 [1.06-2.23] for 3-OH-PHEN, and 1.59 [1.04-2.43] for 1-OH-PYR.

CONCLUSIONS: Repeatedly high levels of urinary PAH metabolites during childhood may increase likelihood of sensitization to cockroach allergen in urban inner-city children at age 9 years.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

AHR2-Mediated transcriptomic responses underlying the synergistic cardiac developmental toxicity of PAHs

Authors: Jayasundara, N; Van Tiem Garner, L; Meyer, JN; Erwin, KN; Di Giulio, RT (2015) Toxicological Sciences 143:469-481. HERO ID: 2947686

[Less] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induce developmental defects including cardiac deformities in . . . [More] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induce developmental defects including cardiac deformities in fish. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxicity of some PAHs. Exposure to a simple PAH mixture during embryo development consisting of an AHR agonist (benzo(a)pyrene-BaP) with fluoranthene (FL), an inhibitor of cytochrome p450 1(CYP1)--a gene induced by AHR activation--results in cardiac deformities. Exposure to BaP or FL alone at similar concentrations alters heart rates, but does not induce morphological deformities. Furthermore, AHR2 knockdown prevents the toxicity of BaP + FL mixture. Here, we used a zebrafish microarray analysis to identify heart-specific transcriptomic changes during early development that might underlie cardiotoxicity of BaP + FL. We used AHR2 morphant embryos to determine the role of this receptor in mediating toxicity. Control and knockdown embryos at 36 h post-fertilization were exposed to DMSO, 100 μg/l BaP, 500 μg/l FL, or 100 μg/l BaP + 500 μg/l FL, and heart tissues for RNA were extracted at 2, 6, 12, and 18 h-post-exposure (hpe), prior to the appearance of cardiac deformities. Data show AHR2-dependent BaP + FL effects on expression of genes involved in protein biosynthesis and neuronal development in addition to signaling molecules and their associated molecular pathways. Ca(2+)-cycling and muscle contraction genes were the most significantly differentially expressed category of transcripts when comparing BaP + FL-treated AHR2 morphant and control embryos. These differences were most prominent at 2 and 6 hpe. Therefore, we postulate that BaP + FL may affect cellular Ca(2+) levels and subsequently cardiac muscle function, potentially underlying BaP + FL cardiotoxicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Environmental carcinogens and mutational pathways in atherosclerosis

Authors: Pulliero, A; Godschalk, R; Andreassi, MG; Curfs, D; Van Schooten, FJ; Izzotti, A (2015) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 218:293-312. [Review] HERO ID: 2822029

[Less] Atherosclerosis is associated with DNA damage in both circulating and vessel-wall cells and DNA adducts . . . [More] Atherosclerosis is associated with DNA damage in both circulating and vessel-wall cells and DNA adducts derived from exposure to environmental mutagens are abundant in atherosclerotic vessels. Environmental chemical carcinogens identified as risk factor for atherosclerosis include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, beta-naphthoflavone, pyrene, 3-methylcolanthrene), arsenic, cadmium, 1,3-butadiene, cigarette smoke. Accordingly, polymorphisms of genes encoding for phase I/II metabolic reaction and DNA repair are risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, although their role is negligible as compared to other risk factors. The pathogenic relevance of mutation-related molecular damage in atherosclerosis has been demonstrated in experimental animal models involving the exposure to chemical mutagens. The relevance of mutation-related events in worsening atherosclerosis prognosis has been demonstrated in human clinical studies mainly as referred to mitochondrial DNA damage. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the occurrence of high level of oxidative damage in blood vessel resulting from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Mitochondrial damage is a main endogenous source of oxidative stress whose accumulation causes activation of intrinsic apoptosis through BIRC2 inhibition and cell loss contributing to plaque development and instability. Environmental physical mutagens, including ionizing radiation, are a risk factor for atherosclerosis even at the low exposure dose occurring in case of occupational exposure or the high exposure doses occurring during radiotherapy. Conversely, the role of exciting UV radiation in atherosclerosis is still uncertain. This review summarizes the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the pathogenic role of mutation-related pathway in atherosclerosis examining the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Technical Report
Technical Report

EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System: Assessment development process

Author: U.S. EPA (2014) Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 2384468

[Less] The IRIS process consists of the development of a draft Toxicological Review for a chemical; internal . . . [More] The IRIS process consists of the development of a draft Toxicological Review for a chemical; internal and external scientific reviews of the draft document; EPA responses to review comments; and development and posting of an IRIS Summary and final Toxicological Review to EPA's web site. EPA announced revisions to the IRIS process in May 2009 and further revisions in 2011.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vivo exposure to benzo(a)pyrene induces significant DNA damage in mouse oocytes and cumulus cells

Authors: Einaudi, L; Courbiere, B; Tassistro, V; Prevot, C; Sari-Minodier, I; Orsiere, T; Perrin, J (2014) Human Reproduction 29:548-554. HERO ID: 2944158

[Less] STUDY QUESTION: Does in vivo exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induce DNA damage in . . . [More] STUDY QUESTION: Does in vivo exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induce DNA damage in oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) in mice?

SUMMARY ANSWER: Significant increases in DNA strand breaks in oocytes and CCs and in BaP-induced DNA adducts in CCs were detected in exposed mice compared with controls.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: BaP has well-known mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on somatic cells, and is also registered as potential reproductive toxicant by several environmental protection agencies. It has been shown to cause a significant increase in DNA adducts in ovarian tissues; however, to our knowledge, the genotoxic effects of BaP on oocytes and CCs have not been studied to date.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Female CD1 mice were exposed to BaP via the oral administration of a single dose of 13 mg/kg body weight (bw); matched controls were exposed to the vehicle only (soya oil). A total of 15 groups of 6 mice (exposed or controls) were sacrificed 2, 4, 6, 15 or 22 days after BaP exposure, and after collection of oviducts, the oocyte-CC complexes (COC) were released.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The alkaline comet assay was used to quantify the DNA breaks in oocytes and CCs; DNA damage was expressed as the Olive Tail Moment (OTM). Immunofluorescent staining was used to quantify BaP-induced DNA adducts in CCs. Fluorescence was expressed as the average grey value (AGVA; arbitrary units). The differences between the exposed and control groups were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Higher levels of DNA damage were observed in the oocytes and CCs of BaP-exposed mice than in those of vehicle controls. Significant increases in OTM (mean ± SE) were detected in (i) oocytes from females exposed for 4 (10.5 ± 0.9 versus 3.1 ± 0.4, P < 0.0001) or 6 days before collection (15.6 ± 2.0 versus 3.6 ± 0.9, P < 0.0001) and (ii) CCs from females exposed 2 (6.4 ± 0.6 versus 2.1 ± 0.2, P < 0.0001), 4 (7.8 ± 0.4 versus 2.4 ± 0.1, P < 0.0001) or 6 days before collection (7.3 ± 0.3 versus 3.2 ± 0.5, P < 0.0001) compared with controls. A significant increase in benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-9,10 diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts and higher AGVA (mean ± SE) scores were observed in CCs from females exposed 2 (6.1 ± 0.3 versus 3.6 ± 0.5, P < 0.0001), 4 (7.5 ± 0.1 versus 3.4 ± 0.1, P < 0.0001) or 6 days before collection (11.6 ± 0.4 versus 3.7 ± 0.1, P < 0.0001) compared with control mice.

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Mice were given one treatment via the oral route because this dose and mode of administration have been shown to induce detectable BPDE-DNA adduct levels in mouse organs and sperm cells. Additional data are needed to assess DNA damage in oocytes and CCs after chronic exposure to BaP in vivo.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the in vivo genotoxicity of BaP in oocytes and CCs. We observed significant DNA damage in the oocytes and CCs of mice after acute BaP exposure. BPDE-DNA adducts result directly from BaP metabolism while DNA breaks could result mainly from BPDE-DNA adduct excision and repair and/or through direct genotoxicity from increased reactive oxygen species. These results add new and important insights regarding the recently suggested toxicity of chronic BaP exposure in the ovary.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by a grant (93-CPQ 2012-05) from the DIRRECTE, Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur, France. None of the authors have any conflict of interest to declare.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Early-life exposure to benzo[a]pyrene increases mutant frequency in spermatogenic cells in adulthood

Authors: Xu, G; Mcmahan, CA; Walter, CA (2014) PLoS ONE 9:e87439. HERO ID: 2951227

[Less] Children are vulnerable to environmental mutagens, and the developing germline could also be affected. . . . [More] Children are vulnerable to environmental mutagens, and the developing germline could also be affected. However, little is known about whether exposure to environmental mutagens in childhood will result in increased germline mutations in subsequent adult life. In the present study, male transgenic lacI mice at different ages (7, 25 and 60 days old) were treated with a known environmental mutagen (benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P) at different doses (0, 50, 200 or 300 mg/kg body weight). Mutant frequency was then determined in a meiotic cell type (pachytene spermatocyte), a post-meiotic cell type (round spermatid) and epididymal spermatozoa after at least one cycle of spermatogenesis. Our results show that 1) mice treated with B[a]P at 7 or 25 days old, both being pre-adult ages, had significantly increased mutant frequencies in all spermatogenic cell types tested when they were 60 days old; 2) spermatogenic cells from mice treated before puberty were more susceptible to B[a]P-associated mutagenesis compared to adult mice; and 3) unexpectedly, epididymal spermatozoa had the highest mutant frequency among the spermatogenic cell types tested. These data show that pre-adult exposure to B[a]P increases the male germline mutant frequency in young adulthood. The data demonstrate that exposure to environmental genotoxins at different life phases (e.g., pre-adult and adult) can have differential effects on reproductive health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Subchronic oral administration of benzo[a]pyrene impairs motor and cognitive behavior and modulates S100B levels and MAPKs in rats

Authors: Maciel, ES; Biasibetti, R; Costa, AP; Lunardi, P; Schunck, RV; Becker, GC; Arbo, MD; Dallegrave, E; Gonçalves, CA; Saldiva, PH; Garcia, SC; Leal, RB; Leal, MB (2014) Neurochemical Research 39:731-740. HERO ID: 2509004

[Less] Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmental contaminant produced during incomplete combustion of organic . . . [More] Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmental contaminant produced during incomplete combustion of organic material that is well known as a mutagenic and carcinogenic toxin. There are few studies addressing the molecular and cellular basis of behavioural alterations related to BaP exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subchronic oral administration of BaP on behavioral and neurochemical parameters. Wistar male rats received BaP (2 mg/kg) or corn oil (control), once a day for 28 days (n = 12/group). Spontaneous locomotor activity and short- and long-term memories were evaluated. Glial fibrillary acid protein and S100B content in the hippocampus, serum and CSF were measured using ELISA and total and phosphorylated forms of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) named extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, p38(MAPK) and c-Jun amino-terminal kinases 1 and 2, in the hippocampus, were evaluated by western blotting. BaP induced a significant increase on locomotor activity and a decrease in short-term memory. S100B content was increased significantly in cerebrospinal fluid. BaP induced a decrease on ERK2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Thus, BaP subchronic treatment induces an astroglial response and impairs both motor and cognitive behavior, with parallel inhibition of ERK2, a signaling enzyme involved in the hippocampal neuroplasticity. All these effects suggest that BaP neurotoxicity is a concern for environmental pollution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to low dose benzo[a]pyrene during early life stages causes symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish

Authors: Huang, L; Gao, D; Zhang, Y; Wang, C; Zuo, Z (2014) Journal of Hazardous Materials 276:377-382. HERO ID: 3121808

[Less] Growing evidence indicates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can lead to cardiac hypertrophy . . . [More] Growing evidence indicates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and recent research indicates that exposure to low dose crude oil during early embryonic development may lead to impacts on heart health at later life stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure during early life stages to low dose benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), as a high-ring PAH, would lead to cardiac hypertrophy at later life stages. Zebrafish were exposed to low dose BaP until 96 hpf, then transferred to clean water and maintained for a year before histological and molecular biological analysis. Our results showed that exposure to low level BaP during early life stages increased heart weight to body weight ratios and deposited collagen in the heart of adult zebrafish. ANP, BNP and c-Myc were also induced in the heart of adult zebrafish by BaP. These results proved that low level BaP exposure during early life stages caused symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish. Our results displayed an elevated expression of CdC42, RhoA, p-ERK1, 2 and Rac1. Therefore, the mechanism of the cardiac hypertrophy caused by BaP exposure during early life stages may be through inducing the expression of CdC42, RhoA and Rac1, together with activating ERK1, 2.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure of mice to benzo(a)pyrene impairs endometrial receptivity and reduces the number of implantation sites during early pregnancy

Authors: Zhao, Y; Chen, X; Liu, X; Ding, Y; Gao, R; Qiu, Y; Wang, Y; He, J (2014) Food and Chemical Toxicology 69:244-251. HERO ID: 2951241

[Less] Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Studies have demonstrated it to be an . . . [More] Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Studies have demonstrated it to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical that can cause adverse effects on the female reproductive system. However, the effect of BaP on early pregnancy has not been reported. We investigated the effect of BaP on endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. Pregnant mice were dosed with BaP at 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/kg/day from day 1 (D1) to day 5 (D5) of gestation. Exposure to BaP impaired the morphology of the endometrium and decreased the number of implantation sites (p0.2=0.006, p2=0.167, p20=0.003). Levels of estrodiol (p<0.001, for three treatment group compare with control group) and progesterone-4 in plasma were elevated in BaP-treatment groups (p0.2<0.001, p2<0.001, p20=0.032). Expression of estrogen receptor-α was up-regulated (p0.2=0.002, p2=0.131, p20=0.024) whereas expression of the progesterone receptor was down-regulated (p0.2<0.001, p2=0.064, p20=0.021). Levels of receptivity-related genes HoxA10 (p0.2<0.001, p2=0.135, p20<0.001) and E-cadherin (p0.2=0.002, p2=0.624, p20=0.137) were changed by BaP. These results revealed that BaP can disrupt the balance of estrogen and progesterone, influence expression of their receptors and downstream related genes, lead to changes in endometrium receptivity, and reduce of the number of implantation sites.

Technical Report
Technical Report

The priority list of hazardous substances that will be the subject of toxicological profiles

Author: ATSDR (2013) Atlanta, GA: CDC Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. [ATSDR Tox Profile] HERO ID: 2953168

[Less] The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) section 104 (i), . . . [More] The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) section 104 (i), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), requires ATSDR and the EPA to prepare a list, in order of priority, of substances that are most commonly found at facilities on the National Priorities List (NPL) and which are determined to pose the most significant potential threat to human health due to their known or suspected toxicity and potential for human exposure at these NPL sites. CERCLA also requires this list to be revised periodically to reflect additional information on hazardous substances.

This substance priority list is revised and published on a 2-year basis, with a yearly informal review and revision. (No list was published in 2009 while ATSDR transitioned to a new agency science database.) Each substance on the list is a candidate to become the subject of a toxicological profile prepared by ATSDR. The listing algorithm prioritizes substances based on frequency of occurrence at NPL sites, toxicity, and potential for human exposure to the substances found at NPL sites.

It should be noted that this priority list is not a list of "most toxic" substances, but rather a prioritization of substances based on a combination of their frequency, toxicity, and potential for human exposure at NPL sites.

Thus, it is possible for substances with low toxicity but high NPL frequency of occurrence and exposure to be on this priority list. The objective of this priority list is to rank substances across all NPL hazardous waste sites to provide guidance in selecting which substances will be the subject of toxicological profiles prepared by ATSDR.