Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)


115 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Preliminary physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene in rodents

Authors: Crowell, SR; Amin, SG; Anderson, KA; Krishnegowda, G; Sharma, AK; Soelberg, JJ; Williams, DE; Corley, RA (2011) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 257:365-376. HERO ID: 1010776

[Less] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants generated as byproducts . . . [More] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants generated as byproducts of natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. Despite significant public health concern, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling efforts for PAHs have so far been limited to naphthalene, plus simpler PK models for pyrene, nitropyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The dearth of published models is due in part to the high lipophilicity, low volatility, and myriad metabolic pathways for PAHs, all of which present analytical and experimental challenges. Our research efforts have focused upon experimental approaches and initial development of PBPK models for the prototypic PAH, B[a]P, and the more potent, albeit less studied transplacental carcinogen, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC). For both compounds, model compartments included arterial and venous blood, flow limited lung, liver, richly perfused and poorly perfused tissues, diffusion limited fat, and a two compartment theoretical gut (for oral exposures). Hepatic and pulmonary metabolism was described for both compounds, as were fractional binding in blood and fecal clearance. Partition coefficients for parent PAH along with their diol and tetraol metabolites were estimated using published algorithms and verified experimentally for the hydroxylated metabolites. The preliminary PBPK models were able to describe many, but not all, of the available data sets, comprising multiple routes of exposure (oral, intravenous) and nominal doses spanning several orders of magnitude.

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Effects of soil matrix and aging on the dermal bioavailability of hydrocarbons and metals in the soil: Dermal bioavailability of soil contaminants

Authors: Turkall, RM; Abdel-Rahman, MS; Skowronski, GA (2008) HERO ID: 1012060

[Less] The potential health risk from exposure to chemically contaminated soil can be assessed from bioavailability . . . [More] The potential health risk from exposure to chemically contaminated soil can be assessed from bioavailability studies. The aims of this research were: (a) to determine the dermal bioavailability of contaminants in soil for representatives of hydrocarbon classes of chemicals, namely, volatiles (toluene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a)pyrene] as well as for heavy metals (arsenic, mercury, and nickel, respectively, as arsenic acid, mercuric chloride, and nickel chloride); and (b) to examine the effects of soil matrix and chemical sequestration in soil with time (“aging”) on their bioavailability. In vitro flow-through diffusion cell studies were performed utilizing dermatomed male pig skin and radioactive chemicals to measure dermal penetration. The volatility of toluene reduced the amount of the chemical available for dermal penetration. With soil contact, the penetration of toluene was 16-fold to 21-fold less than toluene without soil. Benzo(a)pyrene penetration was decreased faster in soil with a higher clay content than one with more organic carbon. The soil matrix as well as aging in soil lowered the dermal penetration of the metal compounds by 95-98%. This study provided evidence that the bioavailability from dermal exposure to the chemicals examined can be significantly reduced by soil matrix and aging in soil.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparisons of (+/-)-benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol activation by human cytochrome P450 and aldo-keto reductase enzymes: effect of redox state and expression levels

Authors: Quinn, AM; Penning, TM (2008) Chemical Research in Toxicology 21:1086-1094. HERO ID: 1325648

[Less] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants that are metabolically activated . . . [More] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants that are metabolically activated to proximate carcinogenic trans-dihydrodiols. PAH trans-dihydrodiols are further activated in humans by cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A1 and 1B1 to yield diol-epoxides or by aldo-keto reductases (AKR) 1A1 and 1C1-1C4 to yield reactive and redox-active o-quinones. Reconstituted in vitro systems were used to compare the steady-state kinetic constants for human P450 (P450 1A1 and 1B1) and AKR (AKR1A1, AKR1C1-1C4) mediated metabolism of (+/-)- trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo[ a]pyrene ((+/-)-B[ a]P-7,8-diol) at physiological pH. It was found that P450 isoforms yielded much greater k cat/ K m values than AKR enzymes. Initial rates of (+/-)-B[ a]P-7,8-diol oxidation were measured for AKR1A1, AKR1C2, P450 1A1, and P450 1B1 as the ratio of NADPH/NAD (+) cofactors was varied to determine the redox state necessary for AKRs to successfully compete for trans-dihydrodiols. P450 and AKR enzymes equally competed for (+/-)-B[ a]P-7,8-diol substrate at an NADPH/NAD (+) ratio equal to 0.001. The resting NADPH/NAD (+) ratio was determined in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells to be 0.28. These data suggest that the P450 pathway would be favored over the AKR pathway if the enzymes were equally expressed. Basal mRNA transcript levels of AKR1C1-1C3 exceed those of both basal and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced P450 1A1 and 1B1 by up to 90-fold in A549 cells as measured by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. AKR expression levels were comparable to TCDD-induced P450 1A1 and 1B1 in HBEC-KT immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Functional assays of both A549 and HBEC-KT cell lysates demonstrated a lack of TCDD-inducible P450 1A1/1B1 activity but robust basal expression of AKR1A1 and AKR1C activities, where the functional assay for P450 detection is 300-fold more sensitive than the functional assay for AKR isoforms. These data suggest that AKR enzymes may effectively compete with P450 1A1/1B1 for PAH trans-dihydrodiol activation in human lung cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Oral benzo[a]pyrene in Cyp1 knockout mouse lines: CYP1A1 important in detoxication, CYP1B1 metabolism required for immune damage independent of total-body burden and clearance rate

Authors: Uno, S; Dalton, TP; Dragin, N; Curran, CP; Derkenne, S; Miller, ML; Shertzer, HG; Gonzalez, FJ; Nebert, DW (2006) Molecular Pharmacology 69:1103-1114. HERO ID: 1011947

[Less] CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 metabolically activate many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including benzo[a]pyrene, . . . [More] CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 metabolically activate many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including benzo[a]pyrene, to reactive intermediates associated with toxicity, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis. Paradoxically, however, Cyp1a1-/- knockout mice are more sensitive to oral benzo[a]pyrene exposure, compared with wild-type Cyp1a1+/+ mice (Mol Pharmacol 65:1225, 2004). To further investigate the mechanism for this enhanced sensitivity, Cyp1a1-/-, Cyp1a2-/-, and Cyp1b1-/- single-knockout, Cyp1a1/1b1-/- and Cyp1a2/1b1-/- double-knockout, and Cyp1+/+ wild-type mice were analyzed. After administration of oral benzo[a]pyrene (125 mg/kg/day) for 18 days, Cyp1a1-/- mice showed marked wasting, immunosuppression, and bone marrow hypocellularity, whereas the other five genotypes did not. After 5 days of feeding, steady-state blood levels of benzo[a]pyrene were approximately 25 and approximately 75 times higher in Cyp1a1-/- and Cyp1a1/1b1-/- mice, respectively, than in wild-type mice. Benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct levels were highest in liver, spleen, and marrow of Cyp1a1-/- and Cyp1a1/1b1-/- mice. Many lines of convergent data obtained with oral benzo[a]pyrene dosing suggest that: 1) inducible CYP1A1, probably in both intestine and liver, is most important in detoxication; 2) CYP1B1 in spleen and marrow is responsible for metabolic activation of benzo[a]pyrene, which results in immune damage in the absence of CYP1A1; 3) both thymus atrophy and hepatocyte hypertrophy are independent of CYP1B1 metabolism but rather may reflect long-term activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; and 4) the magnitude of immune damage in Cyp1a1-/- and Cyp1a1/1b1-/- mice is independent of plasma benzo[a]pyrene and total-body burden and clearance. Thus, a balance between tissue-specific expression of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes governs sensitivity of benzo[a]pyrene toxicity and, possibly, carcinogenicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantitative analysis of benzo[a]pyrene biotransformation and adduct formation in Ahr knockout mice

Authors: Sagredo, C; Øvrebø, S; Haugen, A; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y; Baera, R; Botnen, IV; Mollerup, S (2006) Toxicology Letters 167:173-182. HERO ID: 1011918

[Less] Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic . . . [More] Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The Ah receptor (Ahr) is involved in the metabolic activation of BP and is therefore important in the induction of chemical carcinogenesis. In this study, the relationship between Ahr genotype and biotransformation of BP in internal organs was investigated in Ahr (+/+), Ahr (+/-) and Ahr (-/-) mice. The mice were treated with BP (100mg/kg) by gavage. Gene expression was measured after 24h by real-time RT-PCR and showed induction of Cyp1a1 in liver and lung, and Cyp1b1 in lung in both Ahr (+/+) and Ahr (+/-). No induction of the Cyp genes was observed in the Ahr (-/-). There was a significant basal expression of Cyp1b1 in the liver of all genotypes, and this expression was independent of the BP exposure. Analyzed by HPLC-fluorescence, there were increased levels of protein and DNA adducts, metabolites, conjugates and unmetabolized BP in the internal organs of Ahr (-/-) as compared to Ahr (+/+) and Ahr (+/-) mice. This may be partly explained by a delayed bioactivation of BP in the Ahr deficient mice. The BP metabolism observed in the Ahr (-/-) mice is also evidence of an Ahr independent biotransformation of BP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Tissue specific induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1B1 in rat liver and lung following in vitro (tissue slice) and in vivo exposure to benzo(a)pyrene

Authors: Harrigan, JA; Mcgarrigle, BP; Sutter, TR; Olson, , JR (2006) Toxicology In Vitro 20:426-438. HERO ID: 197262

[Less] Cytochrome P-450s (CYPs) detoxify a wide variety of xenobiotics and environmental contaminants, but . . . [More] Cytochrome P-450s (CYPs) detoxify a wide variety of xenobiotics and environmental contaminants, but can also bioactivate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), to DNA-reactive species. The primary CYPs involved in the metabolism and bioactivation of BaP are CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Furthermore, BaP can induce expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by BaP in target (lung) and non-target (liver) tissues was investigated utilizing precision-cut rat liver and lung slices exposed to BaP in vitro. Tissue slices were also prepared from rats pretreated in vivo with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to induce expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. In addition, in vivo exposure studies were performed with BaP to characterize and validate the use of the in vitro tissue slice model. In vitro exposure of liver and lung slices to BaP resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA and protein levels, which correlated directly with the exposure-related increase in BaP-DNA adduct levels observed previously in the tissue slices [Harrigan, J.A., Vezina, C.M., McGarrigle, B.P., Ersing, N., Box, H.C., Maccubbin, A.E., Olson, J.R., 2004. DNA adduct formation in precision-cut rat liver and lung slices exposed to benzo(a)pyrene. Toxicological Sciences 77, 307-314]. Pretreatment of animals in vivo with TCDD produced a marked induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in the tissue slices, which was similar to the levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA achieved in liver and lung following in vivo treatment with BaP. Following in vitro exposure to BaP, the levels of CYP1A1 were greater in the lung than the liver, while following all exposures (in vitro and in vivo), the levels of CYP1B1 mRNA were greater in lung tissue compared to liver. The higher expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in the lung was associated with higher levels of BaP-DNA adducts in the lung slices (Harrigan et al.'s work) and together, these results may contribute to the tissue specificity of BaP-mediated carcinogenesis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Investigation of genetic polymorphisms and smoking in a bladder cancer case-control study in Argentina

Authors: Moore, LE; Wiencke, JK; Bates, MN; Zheng, S; Rey, OA; Smith, AH (2004) Cancer Letters 211:199-207. HERO ID: 628119

[Less] We investigated the role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes (M1, T1), methylenetetrahydrofolate . . . [More] We investigated the role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes (M1, T1), methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) 677 and 1298, and the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) polymorphisms in a population-based bladder cancer case-control study in Argentina. Buccal cell DNA was obtained from 106 cases and 109 controls. The strongest evidence was for an interaction between NQO1 genotype and smoking. For ever smoking vs. never smoking the odds ratio was 8.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7-27), in the CC genotype, and 1.3 (95% CI 0.5-3.5) in the CT and TT genotypes combined. Also, elevated bladder cancer risks associated with GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were found in smokers. Having both null polymorphisms conferred the highest risks. The MTHFR 677 CT and TT polymorphisms appeared protective against bladder cancer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and NQO1 genotypes and cumulative smoking dose on lung cancer risk in a Swedish population

Authors: Alexandrie, AK; Nyberg, F; Warholm, M; Rannug, A (2004) Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 13:908-914. HERO ID: 1012003

[Less] The major identified risk factor for lung cancer is tobacco smoking. We identified previously the possible . . . [More] The major identified risk factor for lung cancer is tobacco smoking. We identified previously the possible modifying influence of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms on lung cancer risk in a Swedish population. The present study, extended by several study subjects and with analyses for polymorphisms in GSTT1 and NQO1, includes 524 lung cancer cases and 530 control subjects. No evidence for an influence of genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and NQO1 on lung cancer risk overall was found. In smokers, there was, however, a suggestion that the variant CYP1A1 and NQO1 genotypes may confer an increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. In ever smokers, the homozygously deleted GSTM1 (GSTM1*O/*O) genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of small cell carcinoma (adjusted odds ratio 2.72, 95% confidence interval 1.32-5.90). The risks noted for the variant CYP1A1 genotypes and the GSTM1*O/*O genotype seemed to be restricted to light smokers. The GSTT1*O/*O genotype also appeared to be a possible risk factor in light smokers, whereas, in heavy smokers, this genotype was associated with decreased risk for lung cancer overall (odds ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.99). Due to the multiple comparisons made, we cannot exclude the possibility that some of these associations may represent chance findings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[A study on the inherited susceptibility of chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke oven workers]

Authors: Leng, SG; Zheng, YX; Pan, ZF; Niu, Y; Dai, YF; Wang, YW; Zhang, WZ; Xiao, J; Wang, ZX; Li, T; He, FS (2004) Zhonghua Yufang Yixue Zazhi 38:94-98. HERO ID: 1012006

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between polymorphisms of metabolic enzyme . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between polymorphisms of metabolic enzyme genes and chromosomal damage risk in peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke oven workers.

METHODS: One hundred and fourty-nine coke oven workers and 24 referents without occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) exposure were recruited in this study. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were measured as the internal dose of PAH exposure. The 6 per 1 000 of micronucleus value was used as the cut-off value to determine whether the individual's chromosomal damage was positive. The genotypes of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, CYP2E1, NQO1, NAT2 and mEH genes were determined by PCR-based methods. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted ORs and the 95% CI for the risk of chromosomal damage and to analyze the gene-gene interaction.

RESULTS: In 173 subjects, after adjusting the occupational exposure, age, sex, smoking and drinking status, the subjects with GSTM1 null genotype have significantly higher risk for chromosomal damage than subjects with GSTM1 positive genotype (adjusted OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.03 -3.91). Compared with the wild homozygotes at P187S site of NQO1 gene, the variant homozygotes have significantly higher risk for chromosomal damage (adjusted OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.18 - 8.62). The subjects with variant allele at H113Y site of mEH gene have significantly lower risk for chromosomal damage (adjusted OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19 - 0.88). No significant associations were found for other gene polymorphisms and chromosomal damage risk. In addition, the gene-gene interactions were also found among GSTM1, NQO1 gene P187S and mEH gene H113Y polymorphisms for the risk of chromosomal damage risk.

CONCLUSION: Significant associations between genetic polymorphisms in GSTM1, NQO1 and mEH gene and risk for chromosomal damage were found among occupational PAH-exposed workers, which related to the mechanism of PAH carcinogenesis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Oral exposure to benzo[a]pyrene in the mouse: detoxication by inducible cytochrome P450 is more important than metabolic activation

Authors: Uno, S; Dalton, TP; Derkenne, S; Curran, CP; Miller, ML; Shertzer, HG; Nebert, DW (2004) Molecular Pharmacology 65:1225-1237. HERO ID: 1254167

[Less] The cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1) enzyme metabolically activates many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including . . . [More] The cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1) enzyme metabolically activates many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), to DNA- and protein-binding intermediates that are associated with toxicity, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis. As a result, it is widely accepted that CYP1A1 potentiates the toxicity of this class of chemicals. In distinct contrast, we show here that CYP1A1 inducibility is essential in the detoxication of oral BaP. We compared Cyp1a1(-/-) knockout mice, having the genetic absence of the CYP1A1 enzyme, with Cyp1a1(+/+) wild-type mice. At an oral BaP dose of 125 mg/kg/day, Cyp1a1(-/-) mice died within 30 days whereas Cyp1a1(+/+) mice displayed no outward signs of toxicity. The rate of BaP clearance was 4-fold slower in Cyp1a1(-/-) than Cyp1a1(+/+) mice. The cause of death in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice receiving oral BaP seemed to be immunotoxicity, including toxic chemical depression of the bone marrow; some toxic effects in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice were noted at a BaP dose as low as 1.25 mg/kg/day. DNA post-labeling studies demonstrated dramatically higher BaP-DNA adduct levels in all Cyp1a1(-/-) tissues assayed, with the exception of the small intestine, which is probably a major site of BaP metabolism in Cyp1a1(+/+) mice. Different BaP-DNA adduct patterns were also observed between the two genotypes receiving oral BaP. Despite previous studies in vitro and in cell culture that have shown a participatory role for CYP1A1 in BaP toxicity, the present data indicate that, in the intact animal, inducible CYP1A1 is extremely important in detoxication and protection against oral BaP toxicity.