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ISA-NOx

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8,507 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution on Respiratory Health of Chinese Children from 50 Kindergartens

Authors: Liu, MM; Wang, D; Zhao, Y; Liu, YQ; Huang, MM; Liu, Y; Sun, J; Ren, WH; Zhao, YD; He, QC; Dong, GH (In Press) Journal of Epidemiology. HERO ID: 1639312

[Less] Background: Concentrations of ambient air pollution and pollutants in China have changed considerably . . . [More] Background: Concentrations of ambient air pollution and pollutants in China have changed considerably during the last decade. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of current ambient air pollution on the health of kindergarten children.Methods: We studied 6730 Chinese children (age, 3-7 years) from 50 kindergartens in 7 cities of Northeast China in 2009. Parents or guardians completed questionnaires that asked about the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and risk factors. Three-year concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxides (NO2) were calculated at monitoring stations in 25 study districts. A 2-stage regression approach was used in data analyses.Results: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher among children living near a busy road, those living near chimneys or a factory, those having a coal-burning device, those living with smokers, and those living in a home that had been recently renovated. Among girls, PM10 was associated with persistent cough (odds ratio [OR]PM10 = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18-1.77), persistent phlegm (ORPM10 = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81), and wheezing (ORPM10 = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65). NO2 concentration was associated with increased prevalence of allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.27-3.02) among girls. In contrast, associations of respiratory symptoms with concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 were not statistically significant among boys.Conclusions: Air pollution is particularly important in the development of respiratory morbidity among children. Girls may be more susceptible than boys to air pollution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fine Particulate Matter Constituents Associated with Cardiovascular Hospitalizations and Mortality in New York City

Authors: Ito, K; Mathes, R; Ross, Z; Nádas, A; Thurston, G; Matte, T (In Press) Environmental Health Perspectives. HERO ID: 1254851

[Less] Background: Recent time-series studies have indicated that both cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations . . . [More] Background: Recent time-series studies have indicated that both cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations were associated with particulate matter (PM). However, seasonal patterns of PM associations with these outcomes are not consistent, and PM components responsible for these associations have not been determined. We investigated this issue in New York City, where PM originates from regional and local combustion sources. Methods: We analyzed daily deaths and emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among those aged 40+ for their associations with fine particle mass (PM2.5), its chemical components, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide for the years 2000-2006 using Poisson model adjusting for temporal/seasonal trends, temperature effects, and day-of-week. We estimated excess risks per inter-quartile-range increases at lag 0 through 3 days for warm (April-September) and cold (October-March) seasons. Results: The CVD mortality series exhibit strong seasonal trends, while the CVD hospitalization series show a strong day-of-week pattern. These outcome series were not correlated with each other but were individually associated with a number of PM2.5 chemical components from regional and local sources, each with different seasonal patterns and lags. Coal combustion-related components (e.g., selenium) were associated with CVD mortality in summer and CVD hospitalizations in winter, whereas elemental carbon and NO2 showed associations with these outcomes in both seasons. Conclusion: Local combustion sources, including traffic and residual oil burning, may play a year-round role in the associations between air pollution and CVD outcomes, but transported aerosols may explain the seasonal variation in associations shown by PM2.5 mass.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urban air pollution and COPD-related emergency room visits

Authors: Arbex, AM; de Souza Conceicao, GM; Perez Cendon, S; Arbex, FF; Lopes, AC; Providello Moyses, E; Santiago, SL; Saldiva, PHN; Pereira, LAA; Ferreira Braga, AL (In Press) Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. HERO ID: 184334

[Less] Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients may suffer from recurrent disease exacerbations . . . [More] Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients may suffer from recurrent disease exacerbations triggered by several factors, including air pollution. Visits to the Emergency Respiratory Department can be a direct result of short-term exposure to air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the daily number of COPD emergency room visits and the daily environmental air concentrations of PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 in the City of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Our sample data
were collected between 2001 and 2003 and are categorised by gender and age. Generalised linear Poisson regression models were adopted to control for both short and long-term seasonal changes as well as for temperature and relative humidity. The non-linear dependencies were controlled using a natural cubic spline function. Third-degree
polynomial distributed lag models were adopted to estimate both lag structures and the cumulative effects of air pollutants. Results: PM10 and SO2 readings showed both acute and lagged effects on COPD emergency room visits. Interquartile range increases in their
concentration (28.3 ?g/m3 and 7.8 ?g/m3, respectively) were associated with a cumulative 6 day increase of 19% and 16% in COPD admissions, respectively. An effect on females was observed at lag 0, and among the elderly the lag period was noted to be longer. Increases of CO concentration showed impacts in the female and elderly groups. NO2 and O3 presented mild effects on the elderly and in women, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate that air pollution impacts health in a gender- and age-specific manner and should be considered a relevant risk factor that exacerbates COPD in urban environments.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Understanding how roadside concentrations of NOx are influenced by the background levels, traffic density, and meteorological conditions using Boosted Regression Trees

Authors: Sayegh, A; Tate, JE; Ropkins, K (2016) Atmospheric Environment 127:163-175. HERO ID: 3102076

[Less] Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) is a major component of photochemical smog and its constituents are considered . . . [More] Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) is a major component of photochemical smog and its constituents are considered principal traffic-related pollutants affecting human health. This study investigates the influence of background concentrations of NOx traffic density, and prevailing meteorological conditions on roadside concentrations of NOx at UK urban, open motorway, and motorway tunnel sites using the statistical approach Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). BRT models have been fitted using hourly concentration, traffic, and meteorological data for each site. The models predict, rank, and visualise the relationship between model variables and roadside NOx concentrations. A strong relationship between roadside NOx and monitored local background concentrations is demonstrated. Relationships between roadside NOx and other model variables have been shown to be strongly influenced by the quality and resolution of background concentrations of NOx, i.e. if it were based on monitored data or modelled prediction. The paper proposes a direct method of using site-specific fundamental diagrams for splitting traffic data into four traffic states: free-flow, busy-flow, congested, and severely congested. Using BRT models, the density of traffic (vehicles per kilometre) was observed to have a proportional influence on the concentrations of roadside NOx, with different fitted regression line slopes for the different traffic states. When other influences are conditioned out, the relationship between roadside concentrations and ambient air temperature suggests NOx concentrations reach a minimum at around 22 degrees C with high concentrations at low ambient air temperatures which could be associated to restricted atmospheric dispersion and/or to changes in road traffic exhaust emission characteristics at low ambient air temperatures. This paper uses BRT models to study how different critical factors, and their relative importance, influence the variation of roadside NOx concentrations. The paper highlights the importance of either setting up local background continuous monitors or improving the quality and resolution of modelled UK background maps and the need to further investigate the influence of ambient air temperature on NOx emissions and roadside NOx concentrations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Integrated science assessment for oxides of nitrogen-Health Criteria (final report)

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA/600/R-15/068). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3077038

[Less] The Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria document represents . . . [More] The Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific basis for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standard for NO2 sufficiently protects public health.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental Figure S5-3. Results of single-pollutant and copollutants models of short-term exposure to NO2 with CO and without CO and CVD HA

Author: U.S. EPA (2015) HERO ID: 2525882


Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental Figure S5-4 Results of single-pollutant and copollutants models of short-term exposure to NO2 or NOX with and without O3 and hospital admissions CVD

Author: U.S. EPA (2015) HERO ID: 2525883


Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental figure S5-1 associations of NO2 with respiratory effects in copollutant models with PM10 PM10_25 SO2 O3

Author: U.S. EPA (2015) HERO ID: 2525880


Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental Figure S5-2. Results of single-pollutant and copollutants models of short-term exposure to NO2 with and without PM and CVD HA

Author: U.S. EPA (2015) HERO ID: 2525881


Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental Figure S5-5 Results of single-pollutant and copollutants models of short-term exposure to NO2 or NOX with and without SO2 and hospital admissions CVD

Author: U.S. EPA (2015) HERO ID: 2525884