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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparative utility of selected frameworks for regionalizing fish-based bioassessments across the United States

Authors: Frimpong, EA; Angermeier, PL (2010) American Fisheries Society. Transactions 139:1872–1895. HERO ID: 2251965

[Less] Regional frameworks for bioassessment are necessary to stratify natural geographic variation in biotic . . . [More] Regional frameworks for bioassessment are necessary to stratify natural geographic variation in biotic assemblages and to calibrate bioassessment metrics and indices. In the United States, alternative frameworks have not been evaluated over large geographic extents (nationwide or continent-wide) or compared with neutral models to document the relative utility of existing frameworks. We used the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment fish assemblage data from 1,140 fluvial sites to evaluate the utility of physiographic regions, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ecoregions, aquatic zoogeographic regions, and hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs). A zoogeographic-physiographic (Z-P) region combination was tested along with nesting of HLR within all other frameworks. All frameworks were compared with a hierarchical grid that represented a neutral spatial framework and enabled us to examine effects of spatial autocorrelation. Classification strengths were inferred from the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of random-effects analysis of variance models. Seventy percent of the variation in eight commonly used functional bioassessment metrics was explained by two principal components (PCs), which were used to characterize the underlying structure of current bioassessment metrics and geographic variation in fish assemblages. The order of classification strengths of the frameworks tested was Z-P > ecoregion > zoogeography > physiography > HLR. The highest estimated ICC was 30% of the variance in the first PC of metrics explained by Z-P regions. As stand-alone frameworks, all frameworks except HLR could explain some variance in functional metrics above that attributable to spatial autocorrelation at the national scale. The HLR framework was the only spatially noncontiguous framework, and its weak classification strength reflects the importance of spatial autocorrelation in national-scale regionalizations. Whenever nested in other frameworks, HLR explained significant additional variation. A refinement of the Z-P framework and further integration with other frameworks such as HLR could lead to an improved, generally applicable framework for fish-based bioassessments.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

SURFATM-NH3: a model combining the surface energy balance and bi-directional exchanges of ammonia applied at the field scale

Authors: Personne, E; Loubet, B; Herrmann, B; Mattsson, M; Schjoerring, JK; Nemitz, E; Sutton, MA; Cellier, P (2009) Biogeosciences 6:1371-1388. HERO ID: 2021661

[Less] A new biophysical model SURFATM-NH3, simulating the ammonia (NH(3)) exchange between terrestrial ecosystems . . . [More] A new biophysical model SURFATM-NH3, simulating the ammonia (NH(3)) exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is presented. SURFATM-NH3 consists of two coupled models: (i) an energy budget model and (ii) a pollutant exchange model, which distinguish the soil and plant exchange processes. The model describes the exchanges in terms of adsorption to leaf cuticles and bi-directional transport through leaf stomata and soil. The results of the model are compared with the flux measurements over grassland during the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment at Braunschweig, Germany. The dataset of GRAMINAE allows the model to be tested in various meteorological and agronomic conditions: prior to cutting, after cutting and then after the application of mineral fertilizer. The whole comparison shows close agreement between model and measurements for energy budget and ammonia fluxes. The major controls on the ground and plant emission potential are the physicochemical parameters for liquid-gas exchanges which are integrated in the compensation points for live leaves, litter and the soil surface. Modelled fluxes are highly sensitive to soil and plant surface temperatures, highlighting the importance of accurate estimates of these terms. The model suggests that the net flux depends not only on the foliar (stomatal) compensation point but also that of leaf litter. SURFATM-NH3 represents a comprehensive approach to studying pollutant exchanges and its link with plant and soil functioning. It also provides a simplified generalised approach (SVAT model) applicable for atmospheric transport models.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy

Authors: Turner, EH; Matthews, AM; Linardatos, E; Tell, RA; Rosenthal, R (2008) New England Journal of Medicine 358:252-260. HERO ID: 93178

[Less] BACKGROUND Evidence-based medicine is valuable to the extent that the evidence base is complete and . . . [More] BACKGROUND Evidence-based medicine is valuable to the extent that the evidence base is complete and unbiased. Selective publication of clinical trials - and the outcomes within those trials - can lead to unrealistic estimates of drug effectiveness and alter the apparent risk-benefit ratio.
METHODS We obtained reviews from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for studies of 12 antidepressant agents involving 12,564 patients. We conducted a systematic literature search to identify matching publications. For trials that were reported in the literature, we compared the published outcomes with the FDA outcomes. We also compared the effect size derived from the published reports with the effect size derived from the entire FDA data set.
RESULTS Among 74 FDA-registered studies, 31%, accounting for 3449 study participants, were not published. Whether and how the studies were published were associated with the study outcome. A total of 37 studies viewed by the FDA as having positive results were published; 1 study viewed as positive was not published. Studies viewed by the FDA as having negative or questionable results were, with 3 exceptions, either not published (22 studies) or published in a way that, in our opinion, conveyed a positive outcome (11 studies). According to the published literature, it appeared that 94% of the trials conducted were positive. By contrast, the FDA analysis showed that 51% were positive. Separate meta-analyses of the FDA and journal data sets showed that the increase in effect size ranged from 11 to 69% for individual drugs and was 32% overall.
CONCLUSIONS We cannot determine whether the bias observed resulted from a failure to submit manuscripts on the part of authors and sponsors, from decisions by journal editors and reviewers not to publish, or both. Selective reporting of clinical trial results may have adverse consequences for researchers, study participants, health care professionals, and patients.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Vulnerability to air pollution health effects

Authors: Makri, A; Stilianakis, NI (2008) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 211:326-336. HERO ID: 93214

[Less] INTRODUCTION: Ambient air pollution can have adverse effects on the health of exposed . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: Ambient air pollution can have adverse effects on the health of exposed populations, but individuals or groups are not equally vulnerable, and pollution reduction benefits are likely to be unevenly distributed within a population. While the use of total-population risks is a valid approach for public health protection, it is increasingly recognized that more attention on vulnerable groups is necessary. This paper describes population vulnerability to the health effects of air pollutants using risk analysis concepts and based on available evidence.

METHODS: Publications reporting air pollution health risks for specific sub-populations, or more conceptual discussions of vulnerability, were selected following a literature search of the PubMed database. Only studies in the context of developed countries were included. Information on population characteristics and factors that can influence risk was assessed from the perspective of the vulnerability framework, and was used to outline interactions with biological susceptibility, exposure, and social coping.

RESULTS: Population characteristics encompass several factors that interact and confer vulnerability. Age, for example, regarded as significant mostly in terms of physiology, also relates to exposure through behaviours and activities that can be more amenable to prevention. Children are recognized as a high-risk group but their vulnerability may differ by childhood stage, while pregnant women are not explicitly identified as a vulnerable group despite growing evidence for reproductive risks. Social-economic factors have received little attention, although they can affect coping capacity as well as interact with susceptibility and exposure to air pollution.

CONCLUSIONS: Evidence for vulnerability components often lies in different fields of study and has not been evaluated in an integrated manner. Better understanding of population vulnerability can improve the scientific basis to assess risks and develop policies or other health protection initiatives to reduce the impacts of air pollution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison of the carbon bond and SAPRC photochemical mechanisms under conditions relevent to southeast Texas

Authors: Faraji, M; Kimura, Y; McDonald-Buller, E; Allen, D (2008) Atmospheric Environment 42:5821-5836. HERO ID: 91026

[Less] Gridded, regional photochemical models use simplified photochemical reaction mechanisms, and two commonly . . . [More] Gridded, regional photochemical models use simplified photochemical reaction mechanisms, and two commonly used mechanisms are the SAPRC and the carbon bond (CB) mechanism. Versions of the mechanisms currently in use include SAPRC99 and the CB-IV mechanism. For most urban areas, the CB-IV and SAPRC mechanisms yield similar results, but for the modeling done of the summer of 2000 in southeast Texas, the SAPRC mechanism leads to concentrations of ozone that are 30–45 ppb higher than with CB-IV. The differences are due to differences in both reaction rate/stoichiometry parameters and condensation methods in the mechanisms. Major reasons for the differences are: (1) the products of the reactions of aromatics with hydroxyl radical, which are more reactive in the SAPRC formulation, (2) the overall balancing of radical generation and termination reactions, which lead to higher radical concentrations in the SAPRC formulation,
and (3) the production of higher aldehydes, which is greater in the SAPRC formulation. The differences between the mechanisms is particularly relevant for evaluating attainment with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone concentrations averaged over 8 h.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne ozone monitoring instrument

Authors: Lamsal, LN; Martin, RV; van Donkelaar, A; Steinbacher, M; Celarier, EA; Bucsela, E; Dunlea, EJ; Pinto, JP (2008) Journal of Geophysical Research 113:D16308. HERO ID: 93209

[Less] We present an approach to infer ground-level nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations by applying local . . . [More] We present an approach to infer ground-level nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations by applying local scaling factors from a global three-dimensional model (GEOS-Chem) to tropospheric NO2 columns retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura satellite. Seasonal mean OMI surface NO2 derived from the standard tropospheric NO2 data product (Version 1.0.5, Collection 3) varies by more than two orders of magnitude (<0.1?>10 ppbv) over North America. Two ground-based data sets are used to validate the surface NO2 estimate and indirectly validate the OMI tropospheric NO2 retrieval: photochemical steady-state (PSS) calculations of NO2 based on in situ NO and O3 measurements, and measurements from a commercial chemiluminescent NO2 analyzer equipped with a molybdenum converter. An interference correction algorithm for the latter is developed using laboratory and field measurements and applied using modeled concentrations of the interfering species. The OMI-derived surface NO2 mixing ratios are compared with an in situ surface NO2 data obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System (AQS) and Environment Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network for 2005 after correcting for the interference in the in situ data. The overall agreement of the OMI-derived surface NO2 with the corrected in situ measurements and PSS-NO2 is ?11?36%. A larger difference in winter/spring than in summer/fall implies a seasonal bias in the OMI NO2 retrieval. The correlation between the OMI-derived surface NO2 and the ground-based measurements is significant (correlation coefficient up to 0.86) with a tendency for higher correlations in polluted areas. The satellite-derived data base of ground level NO2 concentrations could be valuable for assessing exposures of humans and vegetation to NO2, supplementing the capabilities of the ground-based networks, and evaluating air quality models and the effectiveness of air quality control strategies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Size distribution and total number concentration of ultrafine and accumulation mode particles and hospital admissions in children and the elderly in Copenhagen, Denmark

Authors: Andersen, ZJ; Wahlin, P; Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Ketzel, M; Scheike, T; Loft, S (2008) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 65:458-466. HERO ID: 92577

[Less] Objectives: To study the association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and morbidity . . . [More] Objectives: To study the association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and morbidity in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Methods: We studied the association between urban background levels of the total number concentration of particles (NCtot, 6–700 nm in diameter) measured at a single site (15 May 2001 to 31 December 2004) and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory disease (RD) in the elderly (age ⩾65 years), and due to asthma in children (age 5–18 years). We examined these associations in the presence of PM10, PM2.5 (particulate matter <10 and 2.5 µm in diameter, respectively) and ambient gasses. We utilised data on size distribution to calculate NCtot for four modes with median diameters 12, 23, 57 and 212 nm, and NC100 (number concentration of particles <100 nm in diameter) and examined their associations with health outcomes. We used a time series Poisson generalised additive model adjusted for overdispersion, season, day of the week, public holidays, school holidays, influenza, pollen and meteorology, with up to 5 days’ lagged exposure.

Results and conclusions: The adverse health effects of particulate matter on CVD and RD hospital admissions in the elderly were mainly mediated by PM10 and accumulation mode particles with lack of effects for NC100. For paediatric asthma, accumulation mode particles, NC100 and nitrogen oxides (mainly from traffic related sources) were relevant, whereas PM10 appeared to have little effect. Our results suggest that particle volume/mass from long-range transported air pollution is relevant for CVD and RD admissions in the elderly, and possibly particle numbers from traffic sources for paediatric asthma.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Residential outdoor air pollution and lung function in schoolchildren

Authors: Oftedal, B; Brunekreef, B; Nystad, W; Madsen, C; Walker, SE; Nafstad, P (2008) Epidemiology 19:129-137. HERO ID: 93202

[Less] Background: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution has typically been estimated on the aggregate . . . [More] Background: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution has typically been estimated on the aggregate level, and more individual measures of exposure are needed. We investigated the associations with lung function of residential outdoor air pollution in early life, total lifetime, and days before lung function test.
Methods: In 2001-2002, spirometry was performed in 2307 9- and 10-year-old children who had lived in Oslo, Norway, since birth. Outdoor air pollution exposure for each child was assessed by the EPISODE dispersion model, calculating hourly concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 [mu]m (PM10) and 2.5 [mu]m (PM2.5). We applied linear regression analysis stratified by sex.
Results: Early and lifetime exposures to outdoor air pollution were associated with reduced peak expiratory flow and reduced forced expiratory flow at 25% and 50% of forced vital capacity, especially in girls. One interquartile increase of lifetime exposure to NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 was associated with change in adjusted peak respiratory flow of, respectively, -79 mL/s (95% confidence interval = -128 to -31), -66 mL/s (-110 to -23), and -58 mL/s (-94 to -21). We also found short-term effects of NO2 that became stronger with increasing time lags, but no short-term effects of PM. When we included short- and long-term NO2 exposures simultaneously, only the long-term effect remained. We found no effect on forced volumes. Adjusting for a contextual socioeconomic factor diminished the associations.
Conclusions: Short- and long-term residential exposures to traffic-related pollutants in Oslo were associated with reduced peak expiratory flow and forced expiratory flow at 25% and 50% in 9- to 10-year-old children, especially in girls, with weaker associations after adjusting for a contextual socioeconomic factor.



The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ammonia sources, transport, transformation, and deposition in coastal New England during summer

Authors: Smith, AM; Keene, WC; Maben, JR; Pszenny, AAP; Fischer, E; Stohl, A (2007) Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 112:D10S08. HERO ID: 90430

[Less] During summer 2004, NH3, size-resolved particulate NH4+, and associated characteristics of surface air . . . [More] During summer 2004, NH3, size-resolved particulate NH4+, and associated characteristics of surface air were measured continuously on Appledore Island, off the southern Maine coast as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT). NH3 concentrations ranged from <0.6 to 123 nmol m−3 with maxima around local noon and minima near dawn. Particulate NH4+ ranged from 10.3 to 191 nmol m−3. The transport of emissions from intensive agricultural activities in the eastern United States was an important source of total NH3 (NH3 + NH4+) over the Gulf of Maine during summer. Under cleaner northwest flow, total NH3 concentrations were relatively low (median = 50.0 nmol m−3) and partitioned roughly equally between phases; under the more polluted midwest flow, total NH3 concentrations were substantially higher (median = 171 nmol m−3) but dominated by particulate NH4+. Because particulate NH4+ was associated primarily with the highly acidic sub-μm size fractions with low deposition velocities (median flux = 1.5 μmol m–2 day–1), dry-deposition fluxes were dominated by the gas phase (median = 6.2 μmol m−2 day−1). Consequently, phase partitioning with pollutant-derived sulfur aerosol substantially increased both the atmospheric lifetime of total NH3 against dry deposition and the relative importance of removal via wet- versus dry-deposition pathways. Total NH3 accounted for 32% of the dry-deposition flux of inorganic N to the Gulf of Maine during summer. The combined dry deposition of total NH3 and wet deposition of NH4+ via precipitation contributed 40% of the corresponding total atmospheric N flux.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urban air pollution and respiratory emergency visits at pediatric unit, Reggio Emilia, Italy

Authors: Bedeschi, E; Campari, C; Candela, S; Collini, G; Caranci, N; Frasca, G; Galassi, C; Francesca, G; Vigotti, MA (2007) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 70:261-265. HERO ID: 90712

[Less] Short-term effects of air pollution on daily mortality and hospital admissions for respiratory causes . . . [More] Short-term effects of air pollution on daily mortality and hospital admissions for respiratory causes are well documented. Few studies, however, explore the association between exposure to air pollution and daily emergency room visits for respiratory disorders, particularly in Italy and particularly among children as a susceptible population. A time-series analysis was conducted to explore the short-term association between air pollutants (PM10, total suspended particulates [TSP], NO2, SO2, CO, O3) and pediatric emergency room (ER) visits in a small city of northern Italy, Reggio Emilia, during the period 03/01/2001-03/31/2002. There were 1051 ER visits included in the study. Data were analyzed using generalized additive models (GAM), adjusting for various confounding variables, including temperature, humidity, and pollens (Graminaceae). The analyses were also stratified according to the nationality of children (Italians and foreigners). In single-pollutant models, the strongest associations were observed at lag 3 for a 10-microg/m3 increase of TSP (2.7% increase in ER, 95% CI 0.7-4.6) and PM10 (3.0% increase, 95% CI 0.4-5.7), and at lag 4 for a 10-microg/m3 increase of NO2 (11.0% increase in ER, 95% CI 3.6-18.8). At lag 3, the percentage increase in ER visits is similar for the 2 groups of children (Italians and foreigners) for TSP and PM10. The results of the study support the findings that air pollution is a relevant determinant of deterioration of respiratory health among children.