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ISA-NOx

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Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental table S1-1. Epidemiologic studies of health effects not evaluated in the ISA for oxides for nitrogen

Author: U.S. EPA (2015) [EPA Report] HERO ID: 1988303


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reference values of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy children 1-5 years using off-line tidal breathing

Authors: van der Heijden, HHACM; Brouwer, ML; Hoekstra, F; van der Pol, P; Merkus, PJFM (2014) Pediatric Pulmonology 49:291-295. HERO ID: 1519447

[Less] Measurement of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a useful test to diagnose and/or monitor . . . [More] Measurement of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a useful test to diagnose and/or monitor eosinophilic airway inflammation. The off-line tidal breathing method is used for measurements in young children, but reference values for preschool children are scarce. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for FeNO in healthy children 1-5 years old. We included 51 healthy children (23 males), mean age 32.5 months, from the general population and measured FeNO, using an off-line tidal breathing method with a chemiluminescence analyzer. The method proved feasible in 100% of the children. Geometric mean FeNO was 7.1 parts per billion (ppb), 95% confidence interval 2.8-11.5 ppb, with the 95th percentile 22.6 ppb. No significant difference was found between boys and girls, and no correlations were observed between FeNO and age, height, or weight. This study demonstrates that the off-line tidal breathing method is feasible to measure FeNO in preschool children and provides reference values of FeNO in healthy children 1-5 years of age.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Overview of the SHARP campaign: Motivation, design, and major outcomes

Authors: Olaguer, EP; Kolb, CE; Lefer, B; Rappenglück, B; Zhang, RY; Pinto, JP (2014) Journal of Geophysical Research 119:2597-2610. HERO ID: 1936514

[Less] The Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) was a field campaign developed by the Houston . . . [More] The Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) was a field campaign developed by the Houston Advanced Research Center on behalf of the Texas Environmental Research Consortium. SHARP capitalized on previous research associated with the Second Texas Air Quality Study and the development of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) ozone nonattainment area. These earlier studies pointed to an apparent deficit in ozone production in the SIP attainment demonstration model despite the enhancement of simulated emissions of highly reactive volatile organic compounds in accordance with the findings of the original Texas Air Quality Study in 2000. The scientific hypothesis underlying the SHARP campaign was that there are significant undercounted primary and secondary sources of the radical precursors, formaldehyde, and nitrous acid, in both heavily industrialized and more typical urban areas of Houston. These sources, if properly taken into account, could increase the production of ozone in the SIP model and the simulated efficacy of control strategies designed to bring the HGB area into ozone attainment. This overview summarizes the precursor studies and motivations behind SHARP, as well as the overall experimental design and major findings of the 2009 field campaign. These findings include significant combustion sources of formaldehyde at levels greater than accounted for in current point source emission inventories; the underestimation of formaldehyde and nitrous acid emissions, as well as CO/NOx and NO2/NOx ratios, by mobile source models; and the enhancement of nitrous acid by atmospheric organic aerosol.



Key Points



Primary and secondary sources of HCHO and HONO are underestimated in the Houston airshed

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Early-life air pollution and asthma risk in minority children: The GALA II and SAGE II studies. Online supplemental material

Authors: Nishimura, KK; Galanter, JM; Roth, LA; Oh, SS; Thakur, N; Nguyen, EA; Thyne, S; Farber, HJ; Serebrisky, D; Kumar, R; Brigino-Buenaventura, E; Davis, A; Lenoir, MA; Meade, K; Rodriguez-Cintron, W; Avila, PC; Borrell, LN; Bibbins-Domingo, K; Rodriguez-Santana, JR; Sen, S; Lurmann, F; Balmes, JR; Burchard, EG (2013) American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 188. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 2078897


Data/Software
Data/ Software

NO2 air quality, 1990-2012 (annual arithmetic average)

Author: U.S. EPA (2013) [generated by OAQPS based on AQS data]. HERO ID: 2079508


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

Authors: Schembari, A; Triguero-Mas, M; De Nazelle, A; Dadvand, P; Vrijheid, M; Cirach, M; Martinez, D; Figueras, F; Querol, X; Basagaña, X; Eeftens, M; Meliefste, K; Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ (2013) Atmospheric Environment 64:287-295. HERO ID: 1502976

[Less] Aim: The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures . . . [More] Aim: The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data.

Method: We recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples.

Results: Levels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 mu g m(-3)), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability.

Conclusion: Our findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability in PM2.5 could be explained. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Long-term exposure to urban air pollution and mortality in a cohort of more than a million adults in Rome

Authors: Cesaroni, G; Badaloni, C; Gariazzo, C; Stafoggia, M; Sozzi, R; Davoli, M; Forastiere, F (2013) Environmental Health Perspectives 121:324-331. HERO ID: 1508478

[Less] BACKGROUND: Few European studies have investigated the effects of long-term exposure to both fine particulate . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Few European studies have investigated the effects of long-term exposure to both fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on mortality. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association of exposure to NO2, PM2.5 and traffic indicators on cause-specific mortality; to evaluate the form of the concentration-response relationship. METHODS: We analyzed a population-based cohort enrolled at 2001 Census with 9 years of follow-up. We selected all 1,265,058 subjects, aged ≥ 30 years, who had been living in Rome for at least 5 years at baseline. Residential exposures included annual NO2 (from a land use regression model), annual PM2.5 (from a Eulerian dispersion model), traffic intensity and distance to roads with >10,000 vehicles/day. We used Cox regression models to estimate associations with cause-specific mortality adjusted for individual (sex, age, place of birth, residential history, marital status, education, occupation) and area (socioeconomic status, clustering) characteristics. RESULTS: Long-term exposures to both NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with an increase in non-accidental mortality (Hazard Ratio, HR=1.03; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.03 per 10 µg/m3NO2; HR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.05 per 10 µg/m3 PM2.5). The strongest association was found for ischemic heart diseases (IHD, HR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.13 per 10 µg/m3 PM2.5), followed by cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. The only association showing some deviation from linearity was that between NO2 and IHD. In a bi-pollutant model, the estimated effect of NO2 on mortality was independent of PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: This large study strongly supports an effect of long-term exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 on mortality, especially from cardiovascular causes. The results are relevant for the next European policy decisions regarding air quality.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Seasonal and geographic effects on predicting personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide by time-weighted microenvironmental model

Authors: Lee, K; Yeom, J; Yoon, C; Yang, W; Son, BS; Jeon, JM; Yu, SD; Park, CH (2013) Atmospheric Environment 67:143-148. HERO ID: 1502966

[Less] The purposes of this study were to investigate the impact of microenvironment concentrations on personal . . . [More] The purposes of this study were to investigate the impact of microenvironment concentrations on personal exposure by season and city, and to develop statistical models to predict personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Personal exposures, residential indoor, residential outdoor and workplace indoor levels of NO2 were measured in four cities in Korea (Seoul, Daegu, Asan and Suncheon) using a passive sampler for five weekdays. The measurements were conducted in summer and winter during 2008 -2009. Average personal NO2 exposures were 20.5 ppb in summer and 18.6 ppb in winter. The average personal exposures of NO2 and residential indoor levels were the highest in Seoul and the lowest in Suncheon both summer and winter. Personal exposure was significantly different by season. Personal exposure was significantly correlated with residential indoor concentration in all cities. The personal exposure estimated by residential indoor, workplace indoor and outdoor levels explained 38% and 41% of the measured personal exposure variance in summer and winter, respectively. The low correlation may be due to the longer time spent in other microenvironments in the Korean population. Personal exposure was significantly correlated with working day and city. Correlation between the estimated personal exposure and measured personal exposure was significantly associated with the season and city. The model can provide reasonable estimation of population exposure with appropriate microenvironmental concentrations and time activity data. However, season- and city-specific models should be considered. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variations of OH radical in an urban plume inferred from NO 2 column measurements

Authors: Valin, LC; Russell, AR; Cohen, RC (2013) Geophysical Research Letters 40:n/a-n/a. HERO ID: 1509367

[Less] The evolution of atmospheric composition downwind of a city depends strongly on the concentration of . . . [More] The evolution of atmospheric composition downwind of a city depends strongly on the concentration of OH within the plume. We use space-based observations of NO2, a molecule that affects both the sources and sinks of OH, to examine the functional dependence of OH concentration on the speed of the wind over Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. These observations illustrate the nonlinear dependence of the OH concentration on NO2 and on the rate of atmospheric mixing. We derive a range of NOx lifetimes of 5.5-8.0 h, lifetimes that correspond to an effective plume-averaged OH concentration of 7.6 x 106 molecules cm(-3) at fast (26 km h(-1)) and 5.2 x 10(6) molecules cm(-3) at slow (4 km h(-1)) wind speeds.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Temporal stability of land use regression models for traffic-related air pollution

Authors: Wang, R; Henderson, SB; Sbihi, H; Allen, RW; Brauer, M (2013) Atmospheric Environment 64:312-319. HERO ID: 1572140

[Less] Background: Land-use regression (LUR) is a cost-effective approach for predicting spatial variability . . . [More] Background: Land-use regression (LUR) is a cost-effective approach for predicting spatial variability in ambient air pollutant concentrations with high resolution. Models have been widely used in epidemiological studies and are often applied to time periods before or after the period of air quality monitoring used in model development. However, it is unclear how well such models perform when extrapolated over time.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the temporal stability of LUR models over a period of 7 years in Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Methods: A set of NO and NO2 LUR models based on 116 measurements were developed in 2003. In 2010, we made 116 measurements again, of which 73 were made at the exact same location as in 2003. We then developed 2010 models using updated data for the same predictor variables used in 2003, and also explored additional variables. Four methods were used to derive model predictions over 7 years, and predictions were compared with measurements to assess the temporal stability of LUR models.

Results: The correlation between 2003 NO and 2010 NO measurements was 0.87 with a mean (sd) decrease of 113 (9.9) ppb. For NO2, the correlation was 0.74, with a mean (sd) decrease of 2.4 (3.2) ppb. 2003 and 2010 LUR models explained similar amounts of spatial variation (R-2 = 0.59 and R-2 = 0.58 for NO; R-2 = 0.52 and R-2 = 0.63 for NO2, in 2003 and in 2010 respectively). The 2003 models explained more variability in the 2010 measurements (R-2 = 0.58-0.60 for NO; R-2 = 0.52-0.61 for NO2) than the 2010 models explained in the 2003 measurements (R-2 = 0.50-0.55 for NO; R-2 = 0.44-0.49 for NO2), and the 2003 models explained as much variability in the 2010 measurements as they did in the 2003 measurements.

Conclusion: LUR models are able to provide reliable estimates over a period of 7 years in Metro Vancouver. When concentrations and their variability are decreasing over time, the predictive power of LUR models is likely to remain the same or to improve in forecasting scenarios, but to decrease in hind-casting scenarios. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.