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Exposure Factors Handbook (Post 2011)




  • 1.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Biochemistry and physiology of nutrition, v.1

    (1953) New York, NY: Academic Press.
    Tagged With: Chapter 3

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  • 2.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Energy and protein requirements: Proceedings of an IDECG workshop

    (1996)
    Tagged With: Chapter 6

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  • 3.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Breastfeeding trends - 2003

    Author: Abbott Labs
    (2003) Columbus, OH: Ross Products Division of Abbott Laboratories.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The Ross Products Division of Abbott Laboratories has been collecting information on infant feeding . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The Ross Products Division of Abbott Laboratories has been collecting information on infant feeding and breastfeeding in the United States since 1955.1-8 Current survey design permits an examination of infant feeding patterns during the first 12 months of life. Ryan described increases in the hospital initiation and duration of breastfeeding between 1985 and 1995,8 and later for the 1996 to 20019 time frame. This update complements the published data and provides current breastfeeding information through 2003.
    Tagged With: Chapter 15
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Elevated preoperative heart rate is associated with cardiopulmonary and autonomic impairment in high-risk surgical patients

    Authors: Abbott, TEF; Minto, G; Lee, AM; Pearse, RM; Ackland, GL; POM-HR Study Grp; POMO-O Study Grp; OPTIMISE Study Grp
    (2017)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Background. Elevated preoperative heart rate (HR) is associated with perioperative myocardial injury . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Background. Elevated preoperative heart rate (HR) is associated with perioperative myocardial injury and death. In apparently healthy individuals, high resting HR is associated with development of cardiac failure. Given that patients with overt cardiac failure have poor perioperative outcomes, we hypothesized that subclinical cardiac failure, identified by cardiopulmonary exercise testing, was associated with elevated preoperative HR>87 beats min(-1) (HR>87).

    Methods. This was a secondary analysis of an observational cohort study of surgical patients aged >= 45 yr. The exposure of interest was HR>87, recorded at rest before preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The predefined outcome measures were the following established predictors of mortality in patients with overt cardiac failure in the general population: ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide ((V) over dot(E)=(V) over doto(2)) ratio >= 34, heart rate recovery <= 6 and peak oxygen uptake ((V) over doto(2)) <= 14 ml kg(-1) min(-1). We used logistic regression analysis to test for association between HR>87 and markers of cardiac failure. We also examined the relationship between HR>87 and preoperative left ventricular stroke volume in a separate cohort of patients.

    Results. HR>87 was present in 399/1250 (32%) patients, of whom 438/1250 (35%) had (V) over dot(E)=(V) over doto(2) ratio >= 34, 200/1250 (16%) had heart rate recovery <= 6, and 396/1250 (32%) had peak (V) over doto(2) <= 14 ml kg(-1) min(-1). HR>87 was independently associated with peak (V) over doto(2) <= 14 ml kg(-1) min(-1) {odds ratio (OR) 1.69 [1.12-3.55]; P = 0.01} and heart rate recovery <= 6 (OR 2.02 [1.30-3.14]; P<0.01). However, HR>87 was not associated with (V) over dot(E)=(V) over doto(2) ratio >= 34 (OR 1.31 [0.92-1.87]; P = 0.14). In a separate cohort, HR>87 (33/181; 18.5%) was associated with impaired preoperative stroke volume (OR 3.21 [1.26-8.20]; P = 0.01).

    Conclusions. Elevated preoperative heart rate is associated with impaired cardiopulmonary performance consistent with clinically unsuspected, subclinical cardiac failure.
    Tagged With: Chapter 6, Literature Search - August 2017, WOS (August 2017)
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Regulation of the JNK3 signaling pathway during islet isolation: JNK3 and c-fos as new markers of islet quality for transplantation

    Authors: Abdelli, S; Papas, KK; Mueller, KR; Murtaugh, MP; Hering, BJ; Bonny, C
    (2014)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Stress conditions generated throughout pancreatic islet processing initiate the activation of pro-inflammatory . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Stress conditions generated throughout pancreatic islet processing initiate the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and beta-cell destruction. Our goal is to identify relevant and preferably beta-specific markers to assess the activation of beta-cell stress and apoptotic mechanisms, and therefore the general quality of the islet preparation prior to transplantation. Protein expression and activation were analyzed by Western blotting and kinase assays. ATP measurements were performed by a luminescence-based assay. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was measured based on standard protocols using fiber optic sensors. Total RNA was used for gene expression analyzes. Our results indicate that pancreas digestion initiates a potent stress response in the islets by activating two stress kinases, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and p38. JNK1 protein levels remained unchanged between different islet preparations and following culture. In contrast, levels of JNK3 increased after islet culture, but varied markedly, with a subset of preparations bearing low JNK3 expression. The observed changes in JNK3 protein content strongly correlated with OCR measurements as determined by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rho [Formula: see text] in the matching islet samples, while inversely correlating with c-fos mRNA expression [Formula: see text]. In conclusion, pancreas digestion recruits JNK and p38 kinases that are known to participate to beta-cell apoptosis. Concomitantly, the islet isolation alters JNK3 and c-fos expression, both strongly correlating with OCR. Thus, a comparative analysis of JNK3 and c-fos expression before and after culture may provide for novel markers to assess islet quality prior to transplantation. JNK3 has the advantage over all other proposed markers to be islet-specific, and thus to provide for a marker independent of non-beta cell contamination.
    Tagged With: Chapter 6, Literature Search - August 2017, WOS (August 2017)
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK) Activation by AICAR in Human White Adipocytes Derived from Pericardial White Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Induces a Partial Beige-Like Phenotype

    Authors: Abdul-Rahman, O; Kristóf, E; Doan-Xuan, QM; Vida, A; Nagy, L; Horváth, A; Simon, J; Maros, T; Szentkirályi, I; Palotás, L; Debreceni, T; Csizmadia, P; Szerafin, T; Fodor, T; Szántó, M; Tóth, A; Kiss, B; Bacsó, Z; Bai, P
    (2016) PLoS ONE 11:e0157644.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Beige adipocytes are special cells situated in the white adipose tissue. Beige adipocytes, lacking thermogenic . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Beige adipocytes are special cells situated in the white adipose tissue. Beige adipocytes, lacking thermogenic cues, morphologically look quite similar to regular white adipocytes, but with a markedly different response to adrenalin. White adipocytes respond to adrenergic stimuli by enhancing lipolysis, while in beige adipocytes adrenalin induces mitochondrial biogenesis too. A key step in the differentiation and function of beige adipocytes is the deacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) by SIRT1 and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an upstream activator of SIRT1, therefore we set out to investigate the role of AMPK in beige adipocyte differentiation using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) from pericardial adipose tissue. hADMSCs were differentiated to white and beige adipocytes and the differentiation medium of the white adipocytes was supplemented with 100 μM [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazol-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen phosphate (AICAR), a known activator of AMPK. The activation of AMPK with AICAR led to the appearance of beige-like morphological properties in differentiated white adipocytes. Namely, smaller lipid droplets appeared in AICAR-treated white adipocytes in a similar fashion as in beige cells. Moreover, in AICAR-treated white adipocytes the mitochondrial network was more fused than in white adipocytes; a fused mitochondrial system was characteristic to beige adipocytes. Despite the morphological similarities between AICAR-treated white adipocytes and beige cells, functionally AICAR-treated white adipocytes were similar to white adipocytes. We were unable to detect increases in basal or cAMP-induced oxygen consumption rate (a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis) when comparing control and AICAR-treated white adipocytes. Similarly, markers of beige adipocytes such as TBX1, UCP1, CIDEA, PRDM16 and TMEM26 remained the same when comparing control and AICAR-treated white adipocytes. Our data point out that in human pericardial hADMSCs the role of AMPK activation in controlling beige differentiation is restricted to morphological features, but not to actual metabolic changes.
    Tagged With: Chapter 6, Literature Search - August 2017, Pubmed (August 2017), WOS (August 2017)
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Efficacy of thrombomodulin for acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: a nonrandomized prospective study

    Authors: Abe, M; Tsushima, K; Matsumura, T; Ishiwata, T; Ichimura, Y; Ikari, J; Terada, J; Tada, Y; Sakao, S; Tanabe, N; Tatsumi, K
    (2015) Drug Design, Development and Therapy 9:5755-5762.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. PURPOSE: Acute exacerbation (AE) is an important outcome of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. PURPOSE: Acute exacerbation (AE) is an important outcome of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM) is a new drug for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation in Japan. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of rhTM for AE of IPF/NSIP.

    METHODS: Twenty-two patients with AE-idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (16 patients with IPF and six patients with NSIP) were enrolled in our study. Among them, eleven patients were treated with rhTM (rhTM group), and eleven patients were treated without rhTM (non-rhTM group). Patients admitted to our hospital prior to December 2013 were treated with rhTM, while those admitted after January 2014 were treated without rhTM. The primary endpoint was mortality at 90 days after AE treatment. The secondary endpoint was the safety of rhTM for AE-IPF/AE-NSIP. In addition, we examined prognostic factors of AE-IPF/AE-NSIP.

    RESULTS: The mortality rate was significantly lower in the rhTM group than in the non-rhTM group (mortality rate at 90 days: 36% vs 90%, P=0.023; median survival time: not reached vs 15.0 days, P=0.019). A univariate analysis revealed the respiratory rate (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.18, P=0.039) and rhTM administration (HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.77, P=0.013) as predictors of mortality at 90 days, and a multivariate analysis identified rhTM administration (HR 0.025, 95% CI 0.0006-0.94, P=0.046) as an independent predictor of mortality at 90 days. No serious adverse events were observed.

    CONCLUSION: The administration of rhTM is associated with reductions in mortality in patients with AE-IPF/NSIP, without causing adverse events.
    Tagged With: Chapter 6, Literature Search - August 2017, Pubmed (August 2017), WOS (August 2017)
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Association between helicopter with physician versus ground emergency medical services and survival of adults with major trauma in Japan

    Authors: Abe, T; Takahashi, O; Saitoh, D; Tokuda, Y
    (2014) Critical Care (Online) 18:R146.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. INTRODUCTION: Helicopter emergency medical services with a physician (HEMS) has been . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. INTRODUCTION: Helicopter emergency medical services with a physician (HEMS) has been provided in Japan since 2001. However, HEMS and its possible effect on outcomes for severe trauma patients have still been debated as helicopter services require expensive and limited resources. Our aim was to analyze the association between the use of helicopters with a physician versus ground services and survival among adults with serious traumatic injuries.

    METHODS: This multicenter prospective observational study involved 24,293 patients. All patients were older than 15 years of age, had sustained blunt or penetrating trauma and had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) higher than 15. All of the patient data were recorded between 2004 and 2011 in the Japan Trauma Data Bank, which includes data from 114 major emergency hospitals in Japan. The primary outcome was survival to discharge from hospitals. The intervention was either transport by helicopter with a physician or ground emergency services.

    RESULTS: A total of 2,090 patients in the sample were transported by helicopter, and 22,203 were transported by ground. Overall, 546 patients (26.1%) transported by helicopter died compared to 5,765 patients (26.0%) transported by ground emergency services. Patients transported by helicopter had higher ISSs than those transported by ground. In multivariable logistic regression, helicopter transport had an odds ratio (OR) for survival to discharge of 1.277 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.049 to 1.556) after adjusting for age, sex, mechanism of injury, type of trauma, initial vital signs (including systolic blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate), ISS and prehospital treatment (including intubation, airway protection maneuver and intravenous fluid). In the propensity score-matched cohort, helicopter transport was associated with improved odds of survival compared to ground transport (OR, 1.446; 95% CI, 1.220 to 1.714). In conditional logistic regression, after adjusting for prehospital treatment (including intubation, airway protection maneuver and intravenous fluid), similar positive associations were observed (OR, 1.230; 95% CI, 1.017 to 1.488).

    CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with major trauma in Japan, transport by helicopter with a physician may be associated with improved survival to hospital discharge compared to ground emergency services after controlling for multiple known confounders.
    Tagged With: Chapter 6, Literature Search - August 2017, Pubmed (August 2017), WOS (August 2017)
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Factors Associated With Complications of Clostridium difficile Infection in a Multicenter Prospective Cohort

    Authors: Abou Chakra, CN; Mcgeer, A; Labbé, AC; Simor, AE; Gold, WL; Muller, MP; Powis, J; Katz, K; Garneau, , JR; Fortier, LC; Pépin, J; Cadarette, SM; Valiquette, L
    (2015) Clinical Infectious Diseases 61:1781-1788.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of nosocomial . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea and may result in severe complications including death. We conducted a prospective study to identify risk factors for complications of CDI (cCDI).

    METHODS: Adult inpatients with confirmed CDI in 10 Canadian hospitals were enrolled and followed for 90 days. Potential risk factors were measured within 24 hours of diagnosis. Isolates were typed by polymerase chain reaction ribotyping. cCDI was defined as 1 or more of the following: colonic perforation, toxic megacolon, colectomy, admission to an intensive care unit for cCDI, or if CDI contributed to death within 30 days of enrollment. Risk factors for cCDI were investigated by logistic regression.

    RESULTS: A total of 1380 patients were enrolled. cCDI was observed in 8% of patients. The ribotype was identified in 922 patients, of whom 52% were infected with R027. Age ≥ 80 years, heart rate >90/minute, respiratory rate >20/minute, white cell count <4 × 10(9)/L or ≥ 20 × 10(9)/L, albumin <25 g/L, blood urea nitrogen >7 mmol/L, and C-reactive protein ≥ 150 mg/L were independently associated with cCDI. A higher frequency of cCDI was observed among R027-infected patients (10.9% vs 7.2%), but the association was not significant in adjusted analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS: CDI complications were associated with older age, abnormal blood tests, and abnormal vital signs. These factors, which are readily available to clinicians at the time of diagnosis, could be used for outcome prediction and risk stratification to select patients who may need closer monitoring or more aggressive therapy.
    Tagged With: Chapter 6, Pubmed (August 2017), Literature Search - August 2017
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Paediatric ED BiPAP continuous quality improvement programme with patient analysis: 2005-2013

    Authors: Abramo, T; Williams, A; Mushtaq, S; Meredith, M; Sepaule, R; Crossman, K; Burney Jones, C; Godbold, S; Hu, Z; Nick, T
    (2017) British Medical Journal Open 7:e011845.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. OBJECTIVE: In paediatric moderate-to-severe asthmatics, there is significant bronchospasm, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. OBJECTIVE: In paediatric moderate-to-severe asthmatics, there is significant bronchospasm, airway obstruction, air trapping causing severe hyperinflation with more positive intraplural pressure preventing passive air movement. These effects cause an increased respiratory rate (RR), less airflow and shortened inspiratory breath time. In certain asthmatics, aerosols are ineffective due to their inadequate ventilation. Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) in acute paediatric asthmatics can be an effective treatment. BiPAP works by unloading fatigued inspiratory muscles, a direct bronchodilation effect, offsetting intrinsic PEEP and recruiting collapsed alveoli that reduces the patient's work of breathing and achieves their total lung capacity quicker. Unfortunately, paediatric emergency department (PED) BiPAP is underused and quality analysis is non-existent. A PED BiPAP Continuous Quality Improvement Program (CQIP) from 2005 to 2013 was evaluated using descriptive analytics for the primary outcomes of usage, safety, BiPAP settings, therapeutics and patient disposition.

    INTERVENTIONS: PED BiPAP CQIP descriptive analytics.

    SETTING: Academic PED.

    PARTICIPANTS: 1157 patients.

    INTERVENTIONS: A PED BiPAP CQIP from 2005 to 2013 for the usage, safety, BiPAP settings, therapeutic response parameters and patient disposition was evaluated using descriptive analytics.

    PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Safety, usage, compliance, therapeutic response parameters, BiPAP settings and patient disposition.

    RESULTS: 1157 patients had excellent compliance without complications. Only 6 (0.5%) BiPAP patients were intubated. BiPAP median settings: IPAP 18 (16,20) cm H2O range 12-28; EPAP 8 cmH2O (8,8) range 6-10; inspiratory-to-expiratory time (I:E) ratio 1.75 (1.5,1.75). Pediatric Asthma Severity score and RR decreased (p<0.001) while tidal volume increased (p<0.001). Patient disposition: 325 paediatric intensive care units (PICU), 832 wards, with 52 of these PED ward patients were discharged home with only 2 hours of PED BiPAP with no returning to the PED within 72 hours.

    CONCLUSIONS: BiPAP is a safe and effective therapeutic option for paediatric patients with asthma presenting to a PED or emergency department. This BiPAP CQIP showed significant patient compliance, no complications, improved therapeutics times, very low intubations and decreased PICU admissions. CQIP analysis demonstrated that using a higher IPAP, low EPAP with longer I:E optimises the patient's BiPAP settings and showed a significant improvement in PAS, RR and tidal volume. BiPAP should be considered as an early treatment in the PED severe or non-responsive moderate asthmatics.
    Tagged With: Chapter 6, Literature Search - August 2017, WOS (August 2017)
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