Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Exposure Factors Handbook (Post 2011)


3,305 References Were Found:

Journal Article
Journal Article

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF VENTILATION EFFECTIVENESS IN AN AIRLINER CABIN MOCKUP

Authors: Patel, JA; Jones, BW; Hosni, MH; Keshavarz, Ali; ASME (2017) HERO ID: 3870703

[Less] Frequent air travel and long flight duration makes the study of airliner cabin environmental quality . . . [More] Frequent air travel and long flight duration makes the study of airliner cabin environmental quality a topic of utmost importance. Ventilation effectiveness is one of the more crucial factors affecting air quality in any environment. Ventilation effectiveness, along with the overall ventilation rate, is a measure of the ability of the air distribution system to remove internally generated pollutants or contaminants from a given space. Because of the high occupant density in an aircraft cabin, local variations in ventilation are important as a passenger will occupy the same space for the duration of the flight. Poor ventilation in even a small portion of the cabin could impact multiple people for extended time periods. In this study, the local effective ventilation rates and local ventilation effectiveness in an eleven row, full-scale, Boeing 767 cabin mockup were measured. These measurements were completed at each of the 77 seats in the mockup. Each seat was occupied by a heated mannequin. In order to simulate the thermal load inside the cabin, the mannequins were wrapped with a heating wire to generate approximately 100 W (341 BTU/hour) of heat. Carbon dioxide was used as a tracer gas for the experiments and the tracer gas decay method was employed to calculate the local effective ventilation rate and local ventilation effectiveness. The overall ventilation rate, based on total supply air flow, was approximately 27 air changes per hour. Local ventilation effectiveness ranged from 0.86 to 1.02 with a mean value of 0.94. These ventilation effectiveness values are higher than typically found in other indoor applications and are likely due to the relatively high airspeeds present in the aircraft cabin and the high degree of mixing they provide. The uniformity is also good with no areas of particularly low ventilation effectiveness being identified. No clear patterns with respect to seat location, window versus center versus aisle, were found.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of turbulent thermal plume on aspiration efficiency of micro- particles

Authors: Naseri, A; Abouali, O; Ahmadi, G (2017) HERO ID: 3871360

[Less] Evaluating the potential health risks from exposure to the air contaminants and evaluating the inhalability . . . [More] Evaluating the potential health risks from exposure to the air contaminants and evaluating the inhalability of micro-particles through the human nose or mouth is a crucial subject in designing ventilation systems. Using a realistic human body with detailed facial features, the effects of turbulent airflow field generated by the human thermal plume on the aspiration efficiency of the nasal airway for different ambient conditions were investigated. For the rest breathing rate of 7.5 l/min, the airflow was first simulationed by solving the mean continuity, momentum and energy equations using the RNG k-epsilon turbulence model for the buoyancy-driven flow around the heated mannequin. Then a continuous random walk (CRW) stochastic model utilizing the normalized Langevin equation was used to investigate the effect of turbulence fluctuations on particle trajectories released in the domain around the mannequin. Particular attention was given to the aspiration of the inhaled micro-particles under various conditions. In addition to the common case that the body temperature is higher than the ambient condition, the special case that the situation is reversed is also studied. The simulations results showed that the thermal plume around the human body and stochastic behavior of particles due to turbulence significantly affect the aspiration of inhaled particles through nostrils. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Pedestrians in Traffic Environments: Ultrafine Particle Respiratory Doses

Authors: Manigrasso, M; Natale, C; Vitali, M; Protano, C; Avino, P (2017) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14. HERO ID: 3865073

[Less] Particulate matter has recently received more attention than other pollutants. PM10 and PM2.5 have been . . . [More] Particulate matter has recently received more attention than other pollutants. PM10 and PM2.5 have been primarily monitored, whereas scientists are focusing their studies on finer granulometric sizes due both to their high number concentration and their high penetration efficiency into the respiratory system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the population exposure to UltraFine Particles (UFP, submicrons in general) in outdoor environments. The particle number doses deposited into the respiratory system have been compared between healthy individuals and persons affected by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Measurements were performed by means of Dust Track and Nanoscan analyzers. Forty minute walking trails through areas with different traffic densities in downtown Rome have been considered. Furthermore, particle respiratory doses have been estimated for persons waiting at a bus stop, near a traffic light, or along a high-traffic road, as currently occurs in a big city. Large differences have been observed between workdays and weekdays: on workdays, UFP number concentrations are much higher due to the strong contribution of vehicular exhausts. COPD-affected individuals receive greater doses than healthy individuals due to their higher respiratory rate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of the Forward Contamination Risk of Mars by Clean Room Isolates from Space-Craft Assembly Facilities through Aeolian Transport - a Model Study

Authors: van Heereveld, L; Merrison, J; Nørnberg, P; Finster, K (2017) Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 47:203-214. HERO ID: 3865700

[Less] The increasing number of missions to Mars also increases the risk of forward contamination. Consequently . . . [More] The increasing number of missions to Mars also increases the risk of forward contamination. Consequently there is a need for effective protocols to ensure efficient protection of the Martian environment against terrestrial microbiota. Despite the fact of constructing sophisticated clean rooms for spacecraft assembly a 100 % avoidance of contamination appears to be impossible. Recent surveys of these facilities have identified a significant number of microbes belonging to a variety of taxonomic groups that survive the harsh conditions of clean rooms. These microbes may have a strong contamination potential, which needs to be investigate to apply efficient decontamination treatments. In this study we propose a series of tests to evaluate the potential of clean room contaminants to survive the different steps involved in forward contamination. We used Staphylococcus xylosus as model organism to illustrate the different types of stress that potential contaminants will be subjected to on their way from the spacecraft onto the surface of Mars. Staphylococcus xylosus is associated with human skin and commonly found in clean rooms and could therefore contaminate the spacecraft as a result of human activity during the assembling process. The path the cell will take from the surface of the spacecraft onto the surface of Mars was split into steps representing different stresses that include desiccation, freezing, aeolian transport in a Martian-like atmosphere at Martian atmospheric pressure, and UV radiation climate. We assessed the surviving fraction of the cellular population after each step by determining the integrated metabolic activity of the survivor population by measuring their oxygen consumption rate. The largest fraction of the starting culture (around 70 %) was killed during desiccation, while freezing, Martian vacuum and short-term UV radiation only had a minor additional effect on the survivability of Staphylococcus xylosus. The study also included a simulation of atmospheric transport on Martian dust, which did not significantly alter the metabolic potential of the cells. The high survival potential of skin microbes, which are not among the most robust isolates, clearly underlines the necessity for efficient decontamination protocols and of adequate planetary protection measures. Thus we propose a series of tests to be included into the description of isolates from spacecraft assembly clean rooms in order to assess the forward contamination potential of the specific isolate and to categorize the risk level according to the organisms survival potential. We are aware that the tests that we propose do not exhaust the types of challenges that the microbes would meet on their way and therefore the series of tests is open to being extended.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of an ex vivo human-porcine respiratory model for preclinical studies

Authors: Perinel, S; Pourchez, J; Leclerc, L; Avet, J; Durand, M; Prévôt, N; Cottier, M; Vergnon, JM (2017) Scientific Reports 7:43121. HERO ID: 3603076

[Less] Anatomical models to study aerosol delivery impose huge limitations and extrapolation to humans remains . . . [More] Anatomical models to study aerosol delivery impose huge limitations and extrapolation to humans remains controversial. This study aimed to develop and validate an ex vivo human-like respiratory tract model easy to use and relevant to compare to in vivo human data. A human plastinated head is connected to an ex vivo porcine pulmonary tract ventilated artificially by passive expansion. A physiological study measures "pleural" depressions, tidal volumes, and minute ventilation for the respiratory rates chosen (10, 15, and 20 per minute) with three inspiratory/expiratory ratios (1/1, 1/2, and 1/3). Scintigraphy with (81m)Krypton assesses the homogeneity of the ventilation. Forty different experiments were set for validation, with 36 (90%) ventilating successfully. At a respiratory rate of 15/minute with inspiratory/expiratory ratio of 1/2, the tidal volume average was 824 mL (standard deviation, 207 mL). The scintigraphy performed on 16 ex vivo models (44.4%), showed homogenous ventilation with great similarity to human physiological studies. Ratio of the peripheral to central count rates were equally correlated with human data published in the literature. This new model, combining research feasibility and human physiology likeness, provides a realistic approach to human inhalation and therefore can be an interesting tool in aerosol regional deposition studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects by inhalation of abundant fragrances in indoor air - An overview

Authors: Wolkoff, P; Nielsen, GD (2017) Environment International 101:96-107. [Review] HERO ID: 3603920

[Less] Odorous compounds (odors) like fragrances may cause adverse health effects. To assess their importance . . . [More] Odorous compounds (odors) like fragrances may cause adverse health effects. To assess their importance by inhalation, we have reviewed how the four major abundant and common airborne fragrances (α-pinene (APN), limonene (LIM), linalool (LIL), and eugenol (EUG)) impact the perceived indoor air quality as odor annoyance, sensory irritation and sensitization in the airways. Breathing and cardiovascular effects, and work performance, and the impact in the airways of ozone-initiated gas- and particle phase reactions products have also been assessed. Measured maximum indoor concentrations for APN, LIM and LIL are close to or above their odor thresholds, but far below their thresholds for sensory irritation in the eyes and upper airways; no information could be traced for EUG. Likewise, reported risk values for long-term effects are far above reported indoor concentrations. Human exposure studies with mixtures of APN and LIM and supported by animal inhalation models do not support sensitization of the airways at indoor levels by inhalation that include other selected fragrances. Human exposure studies, in general, indicate that reported lung function effects are likely due to the perception rather than toxic effects of the fragrances. In general, effects on the breathing rate and mood by exposure to the fragrances are inconclusive. The fragrances may increase the high-frequency heart rate variability, but aerosol exposure during cleaning activities may result in a reduction. Distractive effects influencing the work performance by fragrance/odor exposure are consistently reported, but their persistence over time is unknown. Mice inhalation studies indicate that LIM or its reaction mixture may possess anti-inflammatory properties. There is insufficient information that ozone-initiated reactions with APN or LIM at typical indoor levels cause airway effects in humans. Limited experimental information is available on long-term effects of ozone-initiated reaction products of APN and LIM at typical indoor levels.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Paediatric ED BiPAP continuous quality improvement programme with patient analysis: 2005-2013

Authors: Abramo, T; Williams, A; Mushtaq, S; Meredith, M; Sepaule, R; Crossman, K; Burney Jones, C; Godbold, S; Hu, Z; Nick, T (2017) British Medical Journal Open 7:e011845. HERO ID: 3604189

[Less] OBJECTIVE: In paediatric moderate-to-severe asthmatics, there is significant bronchospasm, . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: In paediatric moderate-to-severe asthmatics, there is significant bronchospasm, airway obstruction, air trapping causing severe hyperinflation with more positive intraplural pressure preventing passive air movement. These effects cause an increased respiratory rate (RR), less airflow and shortened inspiratory breath time. In certain asthmatics, aerosols are ineffective due to their inadequate ventilation. Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) in acute paediatric asthmatics can be an effective treatment. BiPAP works by unloading fatigued inspiratory muscles, a direct bronchodilation effect, offsetting intrinsic PEEP and recruiting collapsed alveoli that reduces the patient's work of breathing and achieves their total lung capacity quicker. Unfortunately, paediatric emergency department (PED) BiPAP is underused and quality analysis is non-existent. A PED BiPAP Continuous Quality Improvement Program (CQIP) from 2005 to 2013 was evaluated using descriptive analytics for the primary outcomes of usage, safety, BiPAP settings, therapeutics and patient disposition.

INTERVENTIONS: PED BiPAP CQIP descriptive analytics.

SETTING: Academic PED.

PARTICIPANTS: 1157 patients.

INTERVENTIONS: A PED BiPAP CQIP from 2005 to 2013 for the usage, safety, BiPAP settings, therapeutic response parameters and patient disposition was evaluated using descriptive analytics.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Safety, usage, compliance, therapeutic response parameters, BiPAP settings and patient disposition.

RESULTS: 1157 patients had excellent compliance without complications. Only 6 (0.5%) BiPAP patients were intubated. BiPAP median settings: IPAP 18 (16,20) cm H2O range 12-28; EPAP 8 cmH2O (8,8) range 6-10; inspiratory-to-expiratory time (I:E) ratio 1.75 (1.5,1.75). Pediatric Asthma Severity score and RR decreased (p<0.001) while tidal volume increased (p<0.001). Patient disposition: 325 paediatric intensive care units (PICU), 832 wards, with 52 of these PED ward patients were discharged home with only 2 hours of PED BiPAP with no returning to the PED within 72 hours.

CONCLUSIONS: BiPAP is a safe and effective therapeutic option for paediatric patients with asthma presenting to a PED or emergency department. This BiPAP CQIP showed significant patient compliance, no complications, improved therapeutics times, very low intubations and decreased PICU admissions. CQIP analysis demonstrated that using a higher IPAP, low EPAP with longer I:E optimises the patient's BiPAP settings and showed a significant improvement in PAS, RR and tidal volume. BiPAP should be considered as an early treatment in the PED severe or non-responsive moderate asthmatics.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Glucose-independent association of adiposity and diet composition with cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Authors: Maffeis, C; Fornari, E; Morandi, A; Piona, C; Tomasselli, F; Tommasi, M; Marigliano, M (2017) Acta Diabetologica 54:599-605. HERO ID: 3883014

[Less] AIMS: To test the hypothesis that diet composition, adiposity and glycometabolic control . . . [More] AIMS: To test the hypothesis that diet composition, adiposity and glycometabolic control could independently contribute to an increase in the cardiovascular risk (CVR) for children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D).

METHODS: One hundred and eighty children/adolescents with T1D (age range 5-18 years) were enrolled. Diet (3-day weighed dietary record), physical (height, weight, waist circumference, bioelectrical impedance analysis) and biochemical (HbA1c, lipid profile) parameters were recorded. Regression models, using non-HDL cholesterol (a gross index of CVR) as the dependent variable and HbA1c (mmol/mol), fat mass (FM) %, lipid-to-carbohydrate intake ratio as independent ones, were calculated.

RESULTS: Non-HDL cholesterol was significantly associated with adiposity (FM%; r = 0.27, 95% CI 0.13-0.43), body fat distribution (waist-to-height ratio; r = 0.16, 95% CI 0.02-0.31), lipid intake [% of energy intake (EI)] (r = 0.25, 95% CI 0.11-0.41), carbohydrate intake (% EI; r = -0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.40), lipid-to-carbohydrate intake ratio (r = 0.26, 95% CI 0.12-0.42) and blood glucose control (HbA1c; r = 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.40). A p value cutoff of 0.10 was used for covariates to be included in the regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis showed that adiposity (FM%), blood glucose control (HbA1c) and lipid-to-carbohydrate intake ratio independently contributed to explaining the inter-individual variability of non-HDL cholesterol (R (2) = 0.163, p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Adiposity and lipid-to-carbohydrate intake ratio affect non-HDL cholesterol, a gross index of CVR, regardless of HbA1c, in children and adolescents with T1D. Intervention to reduce CVR in T1D patients should focus not only on glycometabolic control but also on adiposity and diet composition.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Resting heart rate variability and exercise capacity in Type 1 diabetes

Authors: Wilson, LC; Peebles, KC; Hoye, NA; Manning, P; Sheat, C; Williams, MJA; Wilkins, GT; Wilson, GA; Baldi, JC (2017) 5. HERO ID: 3883018

[Less] People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have lower exercise capacity (V̇O2max) than their age-matched nondiabetic . . . [More] People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have lower exercise capacity (V̇O2max) than their age-matched nondiabetic counterparts (CON), which might be related to cardiac autonomic dysfunction. We examined whether Heart Rate Variability (HRV; indicator of cardiac autonomic modulation) was associated with exercise capacity in those with and without T1D. Twenty-three participants with uncomplicated T1D and 17 matched CON were recruited. Heart rate (HR; ECG), blood pressure (BP; finger photo-plethysmography), and respiratory rate (respiratory belt) were measured during baseline, paced-breathing and clinical autonomic reflex tests (CARTs); deep breathing, lying-to-stand, and Valsalva maneuver. Baseline and paced-breathing ECG were analyzed for HRV (frequency-domain). Exercise capacity was determined during an incremental cycle ergometer test while V̇O2, 12-lead ECG, and BP were measured. In uncomplicated T1D, resting HR was elevated and resting HRV metrics were reduced, indicative of altered cardiac parasympathetic modulation; this was generally undetected by the CARTs. However, BP and plasma catecholamines were not different between groups. In T1D, V̇O2max tended to be lower (P = 0.07) and HR reserve was lower (P < 0.01). Resting Total Power (TP) had stronger positive associations with V̇O2max (R(2) ≥ 0.3) than all other traditional indicators such as age, resting HR, and self-reported exercise (R(2 )= 0.042-0.3) in both T1D and CON Alterations in cardiac autonomic modulation are an early manifestation of uncomplicated T1D. Total Power was associated with reduced exercise capacity regardless of group, and these associations were generally stronger than traditional indicators.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Nasal high flow in management of children with status asthmaticus: a retrospective observational study

Authors: Baudin, F; Buisson, A; Vanel, B; Massenavette, B; Pouyau, R; Javouhey, E (2017) 7:55. HERO ID: 3874050

[Less] BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most common obstructive airway disease in children and adults. . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most common obstructive airway disease in children and adults. Nasal high flow (NHF) is a recent device that is now used as a primary support for respiratory distress. Several studies have reported use of NHF as a respiratory support in status asthmaticus; however, there are no data to recommend such practice. We therefore conducted this preliminary study to evaluate NHF therapy for children with status asthmaticus admitted to our PICU in order to prepare a multicentre randomized controlled study.

RESULTS: Between November 2009 and January 2014, 73 patients with status asthmaticus were admitted to the PICU, of whom 39 (53%) were treated with NHF and among these 10 (26%) presented severe acidosis at admission (pH < 7.30). Thirty-four less severe children (41%) were treated with standard oxygen. For one child (2.6%) NHF failed and was then switched to non-invasive ventilation. NHF was discontinued in another patient because of the occurrence of pneumothorax after 31 h with NHF; the patient was then switched to standard oxygen therapy. Mean ± SD heart rate (165 ± 21 vs. 141 ± 25/min, p < 0.01) and respiratory rate (40 ± 13 vs. 31 ± 8/min, p < 0.01) decreased significantly, and blood gas improved in the first 24 h. In the subgroup of patients with acidosis, median [IQR] pH increased significantly between hour 0 and 2 (7.25 [7.21-7.26] vs. 7.30 [7.27-7.33], p = 0.009) and median [IQR] pCO2 decreased significantly (7.27 kPa [6.84-7.91 vs. 5.85 kPa [5.56-6.11], p = 0.007). No patient was intubated.

CONCLUSION: This retrospective study showed the feasibility and safety of NHF in children with severe asthma. Blood gas and clinical parameters were significantly improved during the first 24 h. NHF failed in only two patients, and none required invasive ventilation.