Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Exposure Factors Handbook (Post 2011)


3,437 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Child environmental exposures to water and sand at the beach: Findings from studies of over 68,000 subjects at 12 beaches

Authors: Deflorio-Barker, S; Arnold, BF; Sams, EA; Dufour, AP; Colford, JM; Weisberg, SB; Schiff, KC; Wade, TJ (2018) HERO ID: 5882729

[Less] Swimming and recreating in lakes, oceans, and rivers is common, yet the literature suggests children . . . [More] Swimming and recreating in lakes, oceans, and rivers is common, yet the literature suggests children may be at greater risk of illness following such exposures. These effects might be due to differences in immunity or differing behavioral factors such as poorer hygiene, longer exposures to, and greater ingestion of potentially contaminated water and sand. We pooled data from 12 prospective cohorts (n=68,685) to examine exposures to potentially contaminated media such as beach water and sand among children compared with adults, and conducted a simulation using self-reported time spent in the water and volume of water swallowed per minute by age to estimate the total volume of water swallowed per swimming event by age category. Children aged 4-7 and 8-12 years had the highest exposures to water, sand, and algae compared with other age groups. Based on our simulation, we found that children (6-12 years) swallow a median of 36 ml (90th percentile=150 ml), whereas adults aged ≥35 years swallow 9 ml (90th percentile=64 ml) per swimming event, with male children swallowing a greater amount of water compared with females. These estimates may help to reduce uncertainty surrounding routes and durations of recreational exposures and can support the development of chemical and microbial risk assessments.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Estimation of the daily soil/dust (SD) ingestion rate of children from Gansu Province, China via hand-to-mouth contact using tracer elements

Authors: Ma, J; Pan, LB; Wang, Q; Lin, CY; Duan, XL; Hou, H (2018) Environmental Geochemistry and Health. HERO ID: 3454923

[Less] A total of 60 children (31 males and 29 females) between the ages of 3 and 12 years were randomly selected . . . [More] A total of 60 children (31 males and 29 females) between the ages of 3 and 12 years were randomly selected from Lanzhou City in Gansu Province, northwest China. Hand (soil/dust) SD samples from these children were collected using hand wipes. We determined the approximate amounts of hand SD and the concentrations of three tracer soil elements (Ce, Y, and V) in these samples. The approximate amounts of hand SD ranged from 42.28 to 173.76 mg, with a median value of 85.42 mg. In addition, the mean amounts of hand SD estimated using the concentrations of Ce, Y, and V in the samples were 4.63, 3.43, and 3.42 mg, respectively. The amount of hand SD varied greatly among the age groups: primary school children had more hand SD than kindergarten children, males had more hand SD than females, and children from rural areas had more hand SD than those from urban areas. The rates of daily ingestion of hand SD for kindergarten and primary school children were estimated to be 7.73 and 6.61 mg/day, respectively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects by inhalation of abundant fragrances in indoor air - An overview

Authors: Wolkoff, P; Nielsen, GD (2017) Environment International 101:96-107. [Review] HERO ID: 3603920

[Less] Odorous compounds (odors) like fragrances may cause adverse health effects. To assess their importance . . . [More] Odorous compounds (odors) like fragrances may cause adverse health effects. To assess their importance by inhalation, we have reviewed how the four major abundant and common airborne fragrances (α-pinene (APN), limonene (LIM), linalool (LIL), and eugenol (EUG)) impact the perceived indoor air quality as odor annoyance, sensory irritation and sensitization in the airways. Breathing and cardiovascular effects, and work performance, and the impact in the airways of ozone-initiated gas- and particle phase reactions products have also been assessed. Measured maximum indoor concentrations for APN, LIM and LIL are close to or above their odor thresholds, but far below their thresholds for sensory irritation in the eyes and upper airways; no information could be traced for EUG. Likewise, reported risk values for long-term effects are far above reported indoor concentrations. Human exposure studies with mixtures of APN and LIM and supported by animal inhalation models do not support sensitization of the airways at indoor levels by inhalation that include other selected fragrances. Human exposure studies, in general, indicate that reported lung function effects are likely due to the perception rather than toxic effects of the fragrances. In general, effects on the breathing rate and mood by exposure to the fragrances are inconclusive. The fragrances may increase the high-frequency heart rate variability, but aerosol exposure during cleaning activities may result in a reduction. Distractive effects influencing the work performance by fragrance/odor exposure are consistently reported, but their persistence over time is unknown. Mice inhalation studies indicate that LIM or its reaction mixture may possess anti-inflammatory properties. There is insufficient information that ozone-initiated reactions with APN or LIM at typical indoor levels cause airway effects in humans. Limited experimental information is available on long-term effects of ozone-initiated reaction products of APN and LIM at typical indoor levels.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Pedestrians in Traffic Environments: Ultrafine Particle Respiratory Doses

Authors: Manigrasso, M; Natale, C; Vitali, M; Protano, C; Avino, P (2017) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14. HERO ID: 3865073

[Less] Particulate matter has recently received more attention than other pollutants. PM10 and PM2.5 have been . . . [More] Particulate matter has recently received more attention than other pollutants. PM10 and PM2.5 have been primarily monitored, whereas scientists are focusing their studies on finer granulometric sizes due both to their high number concentration and their high penetration efficiency into the respiratory system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the population exposure to UltraFine Particles (UFP, submicrons in general) in outdoor environments. The particle number doses deposited into the respiratory system have been compared between healthy individuals and persons affected by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Measurements were performed by means of Dust Track and Nanoscan analyzers. Forty minute walking trails through areas with different traffic densities in downtown Rome have been considered. Furthermore, particle respiratory doses have been estimated for persons waiting at a bus stop, near a traffic light, or along a high-traffic road, as currently occurs in a big city. Large differences have been observed between workdays and weekdays: on workdays, UFP number concentrations are much higher due to the strong contribution of vehicular exhausts. COPD-affected individuals receive greater doses than healthy individuals due to their higher respiratory rate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cardiometabolic biomarkers are predictors of readmission and death in patients hospitalized for acute dyspnea

Authors: Lund, N; Gränsbo, K; Wernersson, C; Melander, O (2017) American Journal of Emergency Medicine 35:610-614. HERO ID: 3975676

[Less] BACKGROUND: Acute dyspnea affects a large heterogeneous patient group with high mortality . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Acute dyspnea affects a large heterogeneous patient group with high mortality and readmission rates.

PURPOSE: To investigate if cardiometabolic biomarkers and clinical characteristics predict readmission and death in patients hospitalized for acute dyspnea.

METHODS: 65 dyspnea patients at a general internal medicine ward were followed for six months. The combined endpoint was readmission or death.

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Cardiometabolic biomarkers at admission were related to the endpoint in Cox proportional hazard models (adjusted for sex, age, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and C-reactive protein (CRP)). The biomarkers tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), prolactin (PRL), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (FAS) and C-C motif chemokine 3 (CCL3) were independently and significantly related to the endpoint and combined into a biomarker risk score (BRS). Each SD increment of the BRS conferred a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.13 (1.39-3.27) P=0.001. The top vs bottom tertile of the BRS conferred a HR of 4.75 (1.93-11.68) P=0.001. Dyspnea severity was also associated with worse outcome, HR=3.43 (1.28-9.20) P=0.014. However, when mutually adjusted the BRS remained significant (P=0.004) whereas dyspnea severity was not. The BRS was related to the endpoint among patients with mild to moderate dyspnea (P=0.016) but not among those with severe dyspnea.

CONCLUSION: A score of tPA, PRL, FAS and CCL3 predicts 6-month death and readmission in patients hospitalized for acute dyspnea and may prove useful to optimize length of stay and follow-up. Although the BRS outweighs dyspnea severity in prediction of the endpoint, its prognostic role is strongest in mild-moderate dyspnea.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of 31 FDA approved small-molecule kinase inhibitors on isolated rat liver mitochondria

Authors: Zhang, J; Salminen, A; Yang, X; Luo, Y; Wu, Q; White, M; Greenhaw, J; Ren, L; Bryant, M; Salminen, W; Papoian, T; Mattes, W; Shi, Q (2017) Archives of Toxicology 91:2921-2938. HERO ID: 3975679

[Less] The FDA has approved 31 small-molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) for human use as of November 2016, with . . . [More] The FDA has approved 31 small-molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) for human use as of November 2016, with six having black box warnings for hepatotoxicity (BBW-H) in product labeling. The precise mechanisms and risk factors for KI-induced hepatotoxicity are poorly understood. Here, the 31 KIs were tested in isolated rat liver mitochondria, an in vitro system recently proposed to be a useful tool to predict drug-induced hepatotoxicity in humans. The KIs were incubated with mitochondria or submitochondrial particles at concentrations ranging from therapeutic maximal blood concentrations (Cmax) levels to 100-fold Cmax levels. Ten endpoints were measured, including oxygen consumption rate, inner membrane potential, cytochrome c release, swelling, reactive oxygen species, and individual respiratory chain complex (I-V) activities. Of the 31 KIs examined only three including sorafenib, regorafenib and pazopanib, all of which are hepatotoxic, caused significant mitochondrial toxicity at concentrations equal to the Cmax, indicating that mitochondrial toxicity likely contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatotoxicity associated with these KIs. At concentrations equal to 100-fold Cmax, 18 KIs were found to be toxic to mitochondria, and among six KIs with BBW-H, mitochondrial injury was induced by regorafenib, lapatinib, idelalisib, and pazopanib, but not ponatinib, or sunitinib. Mitochondrial liability at 100-fold Cmax had a positive predictive power (PPV) of 72% and negative predictive power (NPV) of 33% in predicting human KI hepatotoxicity as defined by product labeling, with the sensitivity and specificity being 62% and 44%, respectively. Similar predictive power was obtained using the criterion of Cmax ≥1.1 µM or daily dose ≥100 mg. Mitochondrial liability at 1-2.5-fold Cmax showed a 100% PPV and specificity, though the NPV and sensitivity were 32% and 14%, respectively. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into KI hepatotoxicity and indicate that mitochondrial toxicity at therapeutic levels can help identify hepatotoxic KIs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary biomarker evaluation in a controlled feeding study in women from the Women's Health Initiative cohort

Authors: Lampe, JW; Huang, Y; Neuhouser, ML; Tinker, LF; Song, X; Schoeller, DA; Kim, S; Raftery, D; Di, C; Zheng, C; Schwarz, Y; Van Horn, L; Thomson, CA; Mossavar-Rahmani, Y; Beresford, SA; Prentice, RL (2017) American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 105:466-475. HERO ID: 3975680

[Less] BACKGROUND: Controlled human feeding studies are necessary for robust nutritional biomarker . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Controlled human feeding studies are necessary for robust nutritional biomarker development and validation. Previous feeding studies have typically evaluated single nutrients and tested relatively few diets.

OBJECTIVES: The objectives were 1) to simultaneously associate dietary intake with a range of potential nutritional biomarkers in postmenopausal women by using a controlled feeding study whereby each participant was provided a diet similar to her usual diet and 2) to evaluate serum concentrations of select nutrients as potential biomarkers with the use of established urinary recovery biomarkers of energy and protein as benchmarks for evaluation.

DESIGN: Postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (n = 153) were provided with a 2-wk controlled diet in which each individual's menu approximated her habitual food intake as estimated from her 4-d food record and adjusted for estimated energy requirements. Serum biomarkers, including carotenoids, tocopherols, folate, vitamin B-12, and phospholipid fatty acids, were collected at the beginning and end of the feeding period. Doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen biomarkers were used to derive estimates of energy and protein consumption, respectively.

RESULTS: Linear regression of (ln-transformed) consumed nutrients on (ln-transformed) potential biomarkers and participant characteristics led to the following regression (R(2)) values for serum concentration biomarkers: folate, 0.49; vitamin B-12, 0.51; α-carotene, 0.53; β-carotene, 0.39; lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.46; lycopene, 0.32; and α-tocopherol, 0.47. R(2) values for percentage of energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids and urinary recovery biomarkers of energy and protein intakes were 0.27, 0.53, and 0.43, respectively. Phospholipid saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids and serum γ-tocopherol were weakly associated with intake (R(2) < 0.25).

CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentration biomarkers of several vitamins and carotenoids performed similarly to established energy and protein urinary recovery biomarkers in representing nutrient intake variation in a feeding study, and thus are likely suitable for application in this population of postmenopausal women. Further work is needed to identify objective measures of categories of fatty acid intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Four-week cold acclimation in adult humans shifts uncoupling thermogenesis from skeletal muscles to brown adipose tissue

Authors: Blondin, DP; Daoud, A; Taylor, T; Tingelstad, HC; Bézaire, V; Richard, D; Carpentier, AC; Taylor, AW; Harper, ME; Aguer, C; Haman, F (2017) Journal of Physiology 595:2099-2113. HERO ID: 3975682

[Less] KEY POINTS: Muscle-derived thermogenesis during acute cold exposure in humans consists . . . [More] KEY POINTS: Muscle-derived thermogenesis during acute cold exposure in humans consists of a combination of cold-induced increases in skeletal muscle proton leak and shivering. Daily cold exposure results in an increase in brown adipose tissue oxidative capacity coupled with a decrease in the cold-induced skeletal muscle proton leak and shivering intensity. Improved coupling between electromyography-determined muscle activity and whole-body heat production following cold acclimation suggests a maintenance of ATPase-dependent thermogenesis and decrease in skeletal muscle ATPase independent thermogenesis. Although daily cold exposure did not change the fibre composition of the vastus lateralis, the fibre composition was a strong predictor of the shivering pattern evoked during acute cold exposure.

ABSTRACT: We previously showed that 4 weeks of daily cold exposure in humans can increase brown adipose tissue (BAT) volume by 45% and oxidative metabolism by 182%. Surprisingly, we did not find a reciprocal reduction in shivering intensity when exposed to a mild cold (18°C). The present study aimed to determine whether changes in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism or shivering activity could account for these unexpected findings. Nine men participated in a 4 week cold acclimation intervention (10°C water circulating in liquid-conditioned suit, 2 h day(-1) , 5 days week(-1) ). Shivering intensity and pattern were measured continuously during controlled cold exposure (150 min at 4 °C) before and after the acclimation. Muscle biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis were obtained to measure oxygen consumption rate and proton leak of permeabilized muscle fibres. Cold acclimation elicited a modest 21% (P < 0.05) decrease in whole-body and m. vastus lateralis shivering intensity. Furthermore, cold acclimation abolished the acute cold-induced increase in proton leak. Although daily cold exposure did not change the fibre composition of the m. vastus lateralis, fibre composition was a strong predictor of the shivering pattern evoked during acute cold. We conclude that muscle-derived thermogenesis during acute cold exposure in humans is not only limited to shivering, but also includes cold-induced increases in proton leak. The efficiency of muscle oxidative phosphorylation improves with cold acclimation, suggesting that reduced muscle thermogenesis occurs through decreased proton leak, in addition to decreased shivering intensity as BAT capacity and activity increase. These changes occur with no net difference in whole-body thermogenesis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Narrow-spectrum ß-lactam monotherapy in hospital treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a register-based cohort study

Authors: Rhedin, S; Galanis, I; Granath, F; Ternhag, A; Hedlund, J; Spindler, C; Naucler, P (2017) Clinical Microbiology and Infection 23:247-252. HERO ID: 3975683

[Less] OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effect of empirical treatment with narrow-spectrum . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effect of empirical treatment with narrow-spectrum ß-lactam monotherapy (NSBM) versus broad-spectrum ß-lactam monotherapy (BSBM) in non-severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

METHODS: Hospitalized patients ≥18 years with CAP who received initial NSBM or BSBM, with a severity score according to CRB-65≤2 (C=confusion, R=respiratory rate >30/min, B=systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≤60 mmHg, 65= ≥65 years), in the Swedish Pneumonia Register from 2008 to 2011 were included. Primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were 90-day mortality, treatment at intensive care unit (ICU), and length of stay (LOS). Propensity score matching was performed to account for differences in baseline characteristics.

RESULTS: There were 5961 patients with CRB-65≤1 and 1344 patients with CRB-65=2. In the propensity score matched cohorts the 30-day mortality was 40/1827 (2.2%) with NSBM and 56/1827 (3.1%) with BSBM in CRB-65≤1, and 57/524 (10.9%) and 51/524 (9.7%), respectively, in CRB-65=2. No significant differences in 30-day mortality were observed between NSBM and BSBM in patients with CRB-65≤1 or CRB-65=2, OR 1.41 (95% CI 0.94-2.14) and 0.88 (95% CI 0.59-1.32), respectively. There was no significant difference in 90-day mortality. Patients who received BSBM were more often treated at ICU and had longer LOS.

CONCLUSIONS: Empirical NSBM appears to be effective in the majority of hospitalized immunocompetent adults with non-severe CAP and should be further evaluated in randomized trials.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Leg compressions improve ventilatory efficiency while reducing peak and post exercise blood lactate, but does not improve perceived exertion, exercise economy or aerobic exercise capacity in endurance-trained runners

Authors: Rivas, E; Smith, JD; Sherman, NW (2017) Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 237:1-6. HERO ID: 3975684

[Less] PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine if leg compressions would alter . . . [More] PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine if leg compressions would alter cardiorespiratory and perceived exertion measures during rest, submaximal and maximal exercise in endurance-trained runners.

METHOD: Thirteen young, endurance trained runners (10 males, 20.9±3y, 58.9±5.7mlkgmin(-1)) completed a randomized design, leg compressions and non-compression control condition. The incremental graded exercise test consisted of baseline rest and submaximal intensities at 23%, 70%, 75%, 85% and then a progressive increase to 100% VO2max. Running economy (RE), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), breathing rate (BR), heart rate (HR), ventilation (VE), blood lactate, VO2max and ventilatory efficiency (VE/VO2) were the primary outcome variables.

RESULTS: Relative to the control condition, VO2 at rest, during submaximal and at max were not different. Additionally, RE, RPE, BR, and HR were similar under both conditions. Leg compressions reduced lactate at VO2max by 11% (P<0.05) and at 10min post-exercise recovery by 18% (P<0.01). Additionally, peak VE was significantly reduced in the compression condition by 8% (P<0.0001) relative to the control condition. Ventilatory efficiency was improved in compressions compared to control condition at 85 and 100% VO2max (condition×time interaction, P<0.0001).

CONCLUSION: These data suggest that leg compressions do not alter RE, RPE, BR, HR, or VO2, during exercise. However, compressions may be beneficial for submaximal and maximal ventilatory efficiency while improving lactate clearance at VO2max and during recovery in trained runners.