Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Exposure Factors Handbook (Post 2011)


97 References Were Found:

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

2013 ASHRAE handbook: Fundamentals

Author: ASHRAE (2013) HERO ID: 3554036


Technical Report
Technical Report

American housing survey for the United States: 2009

Author: U.S. Census Bureau (2011) (H150/09). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. HERO ID: 1060865

[Less] This report presents data from the American Housing Survey (AHS). The survey is sponsored by the Department . . . [More] This report presents data from the American Housing Survey (AHS). The survey is sponsored by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau.

The AHS is the most comprehensive national housing survey in the United States. It provides data on a wide range of housing subjects, including single-family homes, apartments, manufactured housing, vacant units, family composition, income, housing and neighborhood quality, housing costs, equipment, fuel type, and recent moves. National data are collected every 2 years from a sample of housing units. The national survey, which began in 1973, has sampled the same units since 1985; it also samples new construction to ensure continuity and timeliness of the data.

The AHS is a household survey conducted using a laptop survey questionnaire. Units in sample were interviewed between April and September 2009. Data are collected by census enumerators by telephone or personal visit. For unoccupied units, data are collected from landlords, rental agents, or neighbors.

Technical Report
Technical Report

CONTAM user guide and program documentation

Authors: Walton, GN; Dols, WS (2010) HERO ID: 1065476


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Using CFD Capabilities of CONTAM 3.0 for Simulating Airflow and Contaminant Transport in and around Buildings

Authors: Wang, LL; Dols, WS; Chen, Q (2010) HVACandR Research 16:749-763. HERO ID: 1060826

[Less] CONTAM is a multizone building airflow and contaminant transport computer program often used for ventilation . . . [More] CONTAM is a multizone building airflow and contaminant transport computer program often used for ventilation and indoor air quality analysis. The program was recently enhanced to incorporate CFD capabilities for both outdoor and indoor environmental analysis. This paper introduces the CFD features implemented within the most recent version, CONTAM 3.0. The outdoor or external CFD link predicts wind pressure coefficients and contaminant concentrations for airflow paths at the building surface. A converter computer program translates the wind pressure coefficients to the CONTAM data format. This external CFD link is useful for parametric studies of the impact of outdoor air quality on indoor environment when considering different wind directions or contaminant locations, especially simulations under transient conditions. The ability to embed a single CFD zone in a CONTAM network model has also been implemented. This enables the detailed modeling of a zone when the well-mixed multizone assumption is not appropriate and then uses the multizone approach for the rest of a building, thus capturing the local distribution of air and contaminant properties in a zone and their impacts on other zones of a building. CFD capabilities are demonstrated using a generic residential house model to show how these two new CFD features enhance the existing CONTAM capabilities for both indoor and outdoor air quality analysis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Residential air exchange rates in three major US metropolitan areas: results from the Relationship Among Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air Study 1999–2001

Authors: Yamamoto, N; Shendell, D; Winer, A; Zhang, J (2010) Indoor Air 20:85-90. HERO ID: 1060834

[Less] We report approximately 500 indoor-outdoor air exchange rate (AER) calculations based on measurements . . . [More] We report approximately 500 indoor-outdoor air exchange rate (AER) calculations based on measurements conducted in residences in three US metropolitan areas in 1999-2001: Elizabeth, New Jersey; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. Overall, a median AER across these urban areas and seasons was 0.71 air changes per hour (ACH, or per hour; n = 509) while median AERs measured in California (n = 182), New Jersey (n = 163), and Texas (n = 164) were 0.87, 0.88, and 0.47 ACH, respectively. In Texas, the measured AERs were lower in the summer cooling season (median = 0.37 ACH) than in the winter heating season (median = 0.63 ACH), likely because of the reported use of room air conditioners as Houston is typically hot and humid during the summer. The measured AERs in California were higher in summer (median = 1.13 ACH) than in winter (median = 0.61 ACH). Because the summer cooling season in Los Angeles County is less humid than in New Jersey or Texas, natural ventilation through open windows and screened doors likely increased measured AER in California study homes. In New Jersey, AER were similar across heating and cooling seasons, although the median AER was relatively lower during the spring. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Adequate ventilation or air exchange rate (AER) for an indoor environment is important for human health and comfort, and relevant to building design and energy conservation and efficiency considerations. However, residential AER data, especially measured by more accurate non-toxic tracer gas methodologies, are at present quite limited worldwide, and are insufficient to represent the variations across regions and seasons within and between homes, including apartments and condominiums in more densely populated urban areas. The present paper presents quantitative and qualitative data to characterize residential AERs in three US urban areas with different climate attributes.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

2013 ASHRAE handbook: Fundamentals

Author: ASHRAE (2009) HERO ID: 3554035


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

The 2009 ASHRAE handbook: Fundamentals

Author: ASHRAE (2009) Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc. HERO ID: 779870


Technical Report
Technical Report

U.S. EPA analysis of survey data. Commercial buildings energy consumption survey (CBECS). Form EIA-871A.

Author: DOE (2008) HERO ID: 1061882


Technical Report
Technical Report

Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS)

Author: DOE (2008) HERO ID: 1005973


Technical Report
Technical Report

Indoor-outdoor air leakage of apartments and commercial buildings

Author: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (2006) (CEC-500-2006-111). Sacramento, CA: California Energy Commission. HERO ID: 1065013