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PM Provisional Assessment (2012)

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2,276 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison of particle-exposure triggered pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice fed with three different diets

Authors: Gotz, AA; Rozman, J; Rodel, HG; Fuchs, H; Gailus-Durner, V; Hrabe de Angelis, M; Klingenspor, M; Stoeger, T (In Press) Particle and Fibre Toxicology. HERO ID: 787217

[Less] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, . . . [More] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, but recently, the adipose tissue (AT) macrophage also emerges as actively participating in inflammation and immune function, producing pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. Connections between the AT and chronic lung diseases, like emphysema and asthma and a protective role of adipocyte-derived proteins against acute lung injury were suggested. In this study we addressed the question, whether a diet challenge increases the inflammatory response in the alveolar and the blood compartment in response to carbon nanoparticles (CNP), as a surrogate for ambient/urban particulate air pollutants. METHODS: Mice were fed a high caloric carbohydrate-rich (CA) or a fat-rich (HF) diet for six weeks and were compared to mice kept on a purified low fat (LF) diet, respectively. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples were taken 24h after intratracheal CNP instillation and checked for cellular and molecular markers of inflammation. Results and Discussion The high caloric diets resulted in distinct effects when compared with LF mice, respectively: CA resulted in increased body and fat mass without affecting blood cellular immunity. Conversely, HF activated the blood system, increasing lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, and resulted in slightly increased body fat content. In contrast to higher pro-inflammatory BAL Leptin in CA and HF mice, on a cellular level, both diets did not lead to an increased pro-inflammatory basal status in the alveolar compartment per se, nor did result in differences in the particle-triggered response. However both diets resulted in a disturbance of the alveolar capillary barrier as indicated by enhanced BAL protein and lactate-dehydrogenase concentrations. Systemically, reduced serum Adiponectin in HF mice might be related to the observed white blood cell increase. CONCLUSION: The increase in BAL pro-inflammatory factors in high caloric groups and reductions in serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory factors in HF mice, clearly show diet-specific effects, pointing towards augmented systemic inflammatory conditions. Our data suggest that extended feeding periods, leading to manifest obesity, are necessary to generate an increased susceptibility to particle-induced lung inflammation; although the diet-challenge already was efficient in driving pro-inflammatory systemic events.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollution and mortality in New Zealand: Cohort study

Authors: Hales, S; Blakely, T; Woodward, A (In Press) Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. HERO ID: 656607

[Less] Background Few cohort studies of the health effects of urban air pollution have been published. There . . . [More] Background Few cohort studies of the health effects of urban air pollution have been published. There is evidence, most consistently in studies with individual measurement of social factors, that more deprived populations are particularly sensitive to air pollution effects. Methods Records from the 1996 New Zealand census were anonymously and probabilistically linked to mortality data, creating a cohort study of the New Zealand population followed up for 3 years. There were 1.06 million adults living in urban areas for which data were available on all covariates. Estimates of exposure to air pollution (measured as particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm, PM10) were available for census area units from a previous land use regression study. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate associations between cause-specific mortality rates and average exposure to PM10 in urban areas, with control for confounding by age, sex, ethnicity, social deprivation, income, education, smoking history and ambient temperature. Results The odds of all-cause mortality in adults (aged 30–74 years at census) increased by 7% per 10 μg/m3 increase in average PM10 exposure (95% CI 3% to 10%) and 20% per 10 μg/m3 among Maori, but with wide CI (7% to 33%). Associations were stronger for respiratory and lung cancer deaths. Conclusions An association of PM10 with mortality is reported in a country with relatively low levels of air pollution. The major limitation of the study is the probable misclassification of PM10 exposure. On balance, this means the strength of association was probably underestimated. The apparently greater association among Maori might be due to different levels of co-morbidity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

PM(10)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Biological indicators, lung cancer risk of realistic receptors and 'source-exposure-effect relationship' under different source scenarios

Authors: Wickramasinghe, AP; Karunaratne, DG; Sivakanesan, R (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1057280

[Less] Cancer has become a critical health issue in the world heritage city Kandy, Sri Lanka. Polycyclic aromatic . . . [More] Cancer has become a critical health issue in the world heritage city Kandy, Sri Lanka. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one of persistent organic pollutants, in the atmosphere may be a major etiological factor in lung carcinogenicity. Over the very high concentrations of ambient air PAHs reported in Kandy, this paper is focused on setting priorities to control human exposure to PAHs in prevention of cancer. On re-appraisal of the classical indicator benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) for atmospheric PAHs-related carcinogenicity, B[a]P failed to reflect the toxicity completely and may not be the sole indicator for risk assessment studies in complex multi-sourced urban environments. The excess lifetime lung cancer risks of atmospheric PAHs with 'less than lifetime exposure' were assessed based on both 'B[a]P toxic equivalents' and 'B[a]P surrogate epidemiological' approach of risk quantification, over emissions characterized urban, suburban, and rural areas of Kandy. In urban heavy traffic areas, PAH-related additional cancer burden has been 942million(-1) over 30y of exposure. Over the whole study area, ∑p-PAHs show strong correlation (r=0.8) to the predicted risk levels. While the urban and suburban predicted cancer risk levels could not show significant correlation to their emission sources indicating the real complexity in mega urban environments, the rural lung cancer risk levels correlated perfectly with the source, firewood combustion. Policy decisions on environment and health could be based on established correlations among 'emission sources-exposures-health effects'. The priority for "analysis of options and policy formulation to reduce inhalation PAHs exposure of population in Kandy" was considered "moderate to high".

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inflammatory airway responses by nasal inoculation of suspended particulate matter in NC/Nga mice

Authors: Ogino, K; Takahashi, N; Kubo, M; Takeuchi, A; Nakagiri, M; Fujikura, Y (2014) Environmental Toxicology 29:642-654. HERO ID: 1256444

[Less] To evaluate the allergic effect of airborne particulate matter (PM) on the airway, separated soluble . . . [More] To evaluate the allergic effect of airborne particulate matter (PM) on the airway, separated soluble supernatant (Sup) and insoluble precipitate (Pre) in suspended PM were inoculated into NC/Nga mice with a high sensitivity for mite allergens. Sup, Pre, or both Sup and Pre with or without pronase treatment were inoculated via the nasal route five times for sensitization and a challenge inoculation on the 11th day in NC/Nga mice. On the 14th day, mice were examined for airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell count, mRNA expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the lung tissue, and histopathology. Synergistic effects of Sup and Pre were observed as increases in AHR and a histopathological change of Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Increases in neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes of BALF cells were dependent on Pre. The expression of IL-4 mRNA was increased by Sup, and those of IL-5 mRNA and Il-13 mRNA was increased by Sup and Pre. Augmented AHR, mRNA expression of IL-4, peribronchial inflammation, and PAS staining by Sup plus Pre were attenuated by treatment of Sup with pronase to digest proteins. These results suggest that some proteins of ambient PM may be important environmental factors for AHR and airway inflammation with the aid of insoluble particulates, although some soluble factors such as endotoxins cannot be ruled out. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Proinflammatory effects of cookstove emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells

Authors: Hawley, B; Volckens, J (2013) Indoor Air 23:4-13. HERO ID: 1256437

[Less] Abstract  Approximately half of the world's population uses biomass fuel for indoor cooking and heating. . . . [More] Abstract  Approximately half of the world's population uses biomass fuel for indoor cooking and heating. This form of combustion typically occurs in open fires or primitive stoves. Human exposure to emissions from indoor biomass combustion is a global health concern, causing an estimated 1.5 million premature deaths each year. Many 'improved' stoves have been developed to address this concern; however, studies that examine exposure-response with cleaner-burning, more efficient stoves are few. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of traditional and cleaner-burning stove emissions on an established model of the bronchial epithelium. We exposed well-differentiated, normal human bronchial epithelial cells to emissions from a single biomass combustion event using either a traditional three-stone fire or one of two energy-efficient stoves. Air-liquid interface cultures were exposed using a novel, aerosol-to-cell deposition system. Cellular expression of a panel of three pro-inflammatory markers was evaluated at 1 and 24 h following exposure. Cells exposed to emissions from the cleaner-burning stoves generated significantly fewer amounts of pro-inflammatory markers than cells exposed to emissions from a traditional three-stone fire. Particulate matter emissions from each cookstove were substantially different, with the three-stone fire producing the largest concentrations of particles (by both number and mass). This study supports emerging evidence that more efficient cookstoves have the potential to reduce respiratory inflammation in settings where solid fuel combustion is used to meet basic domestic needs. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Emissions from more efficient, cleaner-burning cookstoves produced less inflammation in well-differentiated bronchial lung cells. The results support evidence that more efficient cookstoves can reduce the health burden associated with exposure to indoor pollution from the combustion of biomass.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Monitoring and Respiratory Health Assessment of the Population Exposed to Cooking Fuel Emissions in a Rural Area of Jalgaon District, India

Authors: Ingale, LT; Dube, KJ; Sarode, DB; Attarde, SB; Ingle, ST (2013) Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health 25:463-475. HERO ID: 1255347

[Less] Indoor air pollution is an ongoing problem in developing countries. Respiratory diseases are common . . . [More] Indoor air pollution is an ongoing problem in developing countries. Respiratory diseases are common worldwide in rural communities. This study was undertaken to estimate the respirable particulate matter (PM(10)) concentrations emitted from cooking fuels and their effects on the respiratory health of the rural population of Jalgaon district. The respiratory status of the exposed population was assessed by conducting pulmonary function tests in the study area. The levels of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were lower, and difficulty in respiration and frequent coughing were more common with higher odds ratios (OR) of 2.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-2.83) and 1.84 (95% CI = 0.95-2.10) in agrowaste-user female subjects. Ventilatory impairment among the agrowaste-user subjects was higher than among users of gas and wood. Difficulty in respiration and frequent coughing were strongly associated in wood-user female subjects as well with ORs of 2.10 (95% CI = 0.85-2.49) and 1.79 (95% CI = 0.91-1.98), respectively. Chest pain was significantly associated in agrowaste- and wood-user female subjects. This study confirms an association between the reductions in lung efficiency with high PM(10) exposure in the rural population. The result of this study reveals an association between respiratory diseases symptoms and indoor air quality in the biomass-using rural population of Jalgaon district.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of exposure to metals in lead processing industries

Authors: Félix, PM; Almeida, SM; Pinheiro, T; Sousa, J; Franco, C; Wolterbeek, HT (2013) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. HERO ID: 1256427

[Less] Inhalation of particulate matter in industrial environments has been associated with respiratory symptoms . . . [More] Inhalation of particulate matter in industrial environments has been associated with respiratory symptoms and lung diseases, which continues to lead to long- and short-term hazardous health effects on exposed subjects. The main objectives of this study were (a) to determine the dust exposure of workers from the lead industry in different operations and (b) to evaluate if the Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) can be used as a non-invasive tool to evaluate this exposure. Therefore, this cross-sectional study not only measured the exposure to Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) and to the associated elements but also analysed the EBC elemental composition. APM was collected in Ind1, Ind2, Offices and outdoor with Gent samplers, which delivers two size fractions: fine particulate matter (<2.5μm), and coarse particulate matter (between 2.5 and 10μm). EBC samples were collected from the workers and from a non-exposed group working in Offices. The techniques INAA and PIXE were used for the APM element characterization and ICP-MS for EBC elemental content. The PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) mass concentrations were significantly higher in the industries studied than in Offices and in the environment. At the industrial sites surveyed the coarse fraction dominated and both factories had different fingerprints: APM elements with higher expression were Pb, Sb, Na, Cl and Fe in Ind1 and Pb, Si, Br, Ca, Al, Cl and Na in Ind2. Most of these elements revealed a gradient of concentration where Ind.1>Ind.2>Offices and EBC revealed a clear translation of this exposure, suggesting the latter to be a potential good indicator of exposure to metals in occupational settings. Pb in EBC presented the most representative results. Even though EBC was found to reflect predominantly the inhaled coarser fraction it is more related to concentration levels of exposure than to the predominance of APM fraction. The present study demonstrated not only the ability of EBC to reflect environmental exposure to metals but also the importance of measuring and characterizing different fractions of APM for a correct assessment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The impact of environmental metals in young urbanites' brains

Authors: Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Serrano-Sierra, A; Torres-Jardón, R; Zhu, H; Yuan, Y; Smith, D; Delgado-Chávez, R; Cross, JV; Medina-Cortina, H; Kavanaugh, M; Guilarte, TR (2013) Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 65:503-511. HERO ID: 1056128

[Less] Air pollution exposures are linked to cognitive and olfaction deficits, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation . . . [More] Air pollution exposures are linked to cognitive and olfaction deficits, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration including frontal hyperphosphorylated tau and diffuse amyloid plaques in Mexico City children and young adults. Mexico City residents are chronically exposed to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) concentrations (containing toxic combustion and industrial metals) above the annual standard (15μg/m(3)) and to contaminated water and soil. Here, we sought to address the brain-region-specific effects of metals and key neuroinflammatory and DNA repair responses in two air pollution targets: frontal lobe and olfactory bulb from 12 controls vs. 47 Mexico City children and young adults average age 33.06±4.8 SE years. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (metal analysis) and real time PCR (for COX2, IL1β and DNA repair genes) in target tissues. Mexico City residents had higher concentrations of metals associated with PM: manganese (p=0.003), nickel and chromium (p=0.02) along with higher frontal COX2 mRNA (p=0.008) and IL1β (p=0.0002) and COX2 (p=0.005) olfactory bulb indicating neuroinflammation. Frontal metals correlated with olfactory bulb DNA repair genes and with frontal and hippocampal inflammatory genes. Frontal manganese, cobalt and selenium increased with age in exposed subjects. Together, these findings suggest PM-metal neurotoxicity causes brain damage in young urbanites, the olfactory bulb is a target of air pollution and participates in the neuroinflammatory response and since metal concentrations vary significantly in Mexico City urban sub-areas, place of residency has to be integrated with the risk for CNS detrimental effects particularly in children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Distributed lag associations between respiratory illnesses and mortality with suspended particle concentration in Tula, a highly polluted industrial region in Central Mexico

Authors: Melgar-Paniagua, EM; Vega-Rangel, E; Del Razo, LM; Lucho-Constantino, CA; Rothenberg, SJ; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A (2013) International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 86:321-332. HERO ID: 1255442

[Less] PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the association between changes in airborne particulate matter concentration . . . [More] PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the association between changes in airborne particulate matter concentration (PM) with changes in cases of mortality, acute respiratory infections (ARI) and asthma over 2004-2008 in an industrialized and polluted region in central Mexico. METHODS: A generalized linear model with a Poisson distribution and a negative binomial analysis was used to evaluate the influence of PM and temperature on all-cause mortality (All-cause-M), cause-specific mortality (Cause-specific-M), ARI and asthma, using cubic spline functions and distributed lags of PM. Estimated changes in relative risk were calculated for an exposure corresponding to each increase of 10 μg/m(3) in PM level. RESULTS: Associations between PM and mortality and morbidity were statistically most consistent for total suspended particulate (TSP) than for particulate matter <10 μM aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)). The greatest effects in mortality were observed with a 3-week lag, and effects were greater for Cause-specific-M. We also found a displacement effect up to 4-week lag for Cause-specific-M and TSP. The greatest effects in morbidity were observed at 0-week lag, yet they were statistically marginal and were greater for asthma. We found a displacement effect at 4-5-6-week lag for asthma and TSP. All associations of mortality and morbidity, expressed as change in relative risk, were greater with PM(10); however, all of them were statistically marginal. CONCLUSIONS: Increased respiratory morbidity and mortality is associated with weekly changes of PM air pollution in the region. A reduction in air pollutants from industrial sources would benefit life quality and health of the exposed population.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Spatial variability of air pollutants in the city of Taranto, Italy and its potential impact on exposure assessment

Authors: Mangia, C; Gianicolo, EA; Bruni, A; Vigotti, MA; Cervino, M (2013) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 185:1719-1735. HERO ID: 1256435

[Less] Epidemiological studies typically use monitored air pollution data from a single station or as averaged . . . [More] Epidemiological studies typically use monitored air pollution data from a single station or as averaged data from several stations to estimate population exposure. In industrialized urban areas, this approach may present critical issues due to the spatial complexities of air pollutants which are emitted by different sources. This study focused on the city of Taranto, which is one of the most highly industrialized cities in southern Italy. Epidemiological studies have revealed several critical situations in this area, in terms of mortality excess and short-term health effects of air pollution. The aims of this paper are to study the variability of air pollutants in the city of Taranto and to interpret the results in relation to the applicability of the data in assessing population exposure. Meteorological and pollution data (SO2, NO2, PM10), measured simultaneously and continuously during the period 2006-2010 in five air quality stations, were analyzed. Relative and absolute spatial concentration variations were investigated by means of statistical indexes. Results show significant differences among stations. The highest correlation between stations was observed for PM10 concentrations, while critical values were found for NO2. The worst values were observed for the SO2 series. The high values of 90th percentile of differences between pairs of monitoring sites for the three pollutants index suggest that mean concentrations differ by large amounts from site to site. The overall analysis supports the hypothesis that various parts of the city are differently affected by the different emission sources, depending on meteorological conditions. In particular, analysis revealed that the influence of the industrial site may be primarily identified with the series of SO2 data which exhibit higher mean concentration values and positive correlations with wind intensity when the monitoring station is downwind from the industrial site. Results suggest evaluating the population exposure to air pollutants in industrialized cities by taking into account the possible zones of influence of different emission sources. More research is needed to identify an indicator, which ought to be a synthesis of several pollutants, and take into account the meteorological variables.