Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Mouse Lung Tumor

Show Project Details Hide Project Details
113 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Epigenetic biomarkers in lung cancer

Authors: Liloglou, T; Bediaga, NG; Brown, BR; Field, JK; Davies, MP (In Press) Cancer Letters. HERO ID: 1597197

[Less] Lung cancer mortality is strongly associated with the predominant diagnosis of late stage lesions that . . . [More] Lung cancer mortality is strongly associated with the predominant diagnosis of late stage lesions that hampers effective therapy. Molecular biomarkers for early lung cancer detection is an unmet public health need and the lung cancer research community worldwide is putting a lot of effort to utilise major lung cancer population programmes in order to develop such molecular tools. The study of cancer epigenetics in the last decade has radically altered our views in cancer pathogenesis, providing new insights in biomarker development for risk assessment, early detection and therapeutic stratification. DNA methylation and miRNAs have rapidly emerged as potential biomarkers in body fluids showing promise to assist the clinical management of lung cancer. These new developments are exemplified in this review, demonstrating the huge potential of clinical cancer epigenetics, but also critically discussing the necessary validation steps to bring epigenetic biomarkers towards clinical implementation and the weaknesses of current biomarker studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Induction of multiciliated cells from induced pluripotent stem cells

Author: Gomperts, BN (2014) HERO ID: 2347031


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Transcriptomic architecture of the adjacent airway field cancerization in non-small cell lung cancer

Authors: Kadara, H; Fujimoto, J; Yoo, SY; Maki, Y; Gower, AC; Kabbout, M; Garcia, MM; Chow, CW; Chu, Z; Mendoza, G; Shen, L; Kalhor, N; Hong, WK; Moran, C; Wang, J; Spira, A; Coombes, KR; Wistuba, II (2014) HERO ID: 2347032

[Less] BACKGROUND: Earlier work identified specific tumor-promoting abnormalities that are . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Earlier work identified specific tumor-promoting abnormalities that are shared between lung cancers and adjacent normal bronchial epithelia. We sought to characterize the yet unknown global molecular and adjacent airway field cancerization (FC) in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

METHODS: Whole-transcriptome expression profiling of resected early-stage (I-IIIA) NSCLC specimens (n = 20) with matched tumors, multiple cytologically controlled normal airways with varying distances from tumors, and uninvolved normal lung tissues (n = 194 samples) was performed using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST platform. Mixed-effects models were used to identify differentially expressed genes among groups. Ordinal regression analysis was performed to characterize site-dependent airway expression profiles. All statistical tests were two-sided, except where noted.

RESULTS: We identified differentially expressed gene features (n = 1661) between NSCLCs and airways compared with normal lung tissues, a subset of which (n = 299), after gene set enrichment analysis, statistically significantly (P < .001) distinguished large airways in lung cancer patients from airways in cancer-free smokers. In addition, we identified genes (n = 422) statistically significantly and progressively differentially expressed in airways by distance from tumors that were found to be congruently modulated between NSCLCs and normal lung tissues. Furthermore, LAPTM4B, with statistically significantly increased expression (P < .05) in airways with shorter distance from tumors, was upregulated in human immortalized cells compared with normal bronchial epithelial cells (P < .001) and promoted anchorage-dependent and -independent lung cancer cell growth.

CONCLUSIONS: The adjacent airway FC comprises both site-independent profiles as well as gradient and localized airway expression patterns. Profiling of the airway FC may provide new insights into NSCLC oncogenesis and molecular tools for detection of the disease.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Update on immune checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer

Author: Creelan, BC (2014) HERO ID: 2349571

[Less] BACKGROUND: The immune checkpoint proteins, including the B7/CD28 receptor superfamily, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The immune checkpoint proteins, including the B7/CD28 receptor superfamily, have become increasingly important targets for pharmacologic blockade. Several classes of new agents have impressive clinical activity, and their eventual approval for treatment of lung cancer seems likely.

METHODS: This article discusses the current development of these agents, including the CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 inhibitory pathways, killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR ) inhibition, and other checkpoint proteins.

RESULTS: Ipilimumab in combination with chemotherapy has exhibited encouraging results in small-cell and non-small-cell lung cancer alike. Reported phase I trials of the monoclonal antibodies nivolumab, MK-3475, MEDI4736, and MPDL3280A are demonstrating durable overall radiological response rates in the 20% to 25% range in lung cancer. This exceptional activity includes squamous lung cancers, a population historically bereft of significant therapeutic advances. Retrospective examination of tumor PD-L1 expression suggests that PD-L1 may eventually be evaluable as a predictive biomarker. Dual checkpoint blockade strategies, such as those combining anti-CTLA-4, anti-LAG-3, or anti-KIR, are being tested to increase the proportion and durability of tumor responses. Examination of acquired immune resistance and post-immunotherapy relapse strategies are underway.

CONCLUSIONS: These emerging antibodies hold great potential for the systemic control of epithelial cancers such as lung cancer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nonmalignant respiratory disease mortality in styrene-exposed workers

Authors: Cummings, KJ; Mccague, AB; Kreiss, K (2014) Epidemiology 25:160-161. [Letter] HERO ID: 2149383


Journal Article
Journal Article

Enriching the molecular definition of the airway "field of cancerization:" establishing new paradigms for the patient at risk for lung cancer

Authors: Gomperts, BN; Walser, TC; Spira, A; Dubinett, SM (2013) HERO ID: 2347030

[Less] The "field of cancerization" refers to histologically normal-appearing tissue adjacent to . . . [More] The "field of cancerization" refers to histologically normal-appearing tissue adjacent to neoplastic tissue that displays molecular abnormalities, some of which are the same as those of the tumor. Improving our understanding of these molecular events is likely to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis. Kadara and colleagues attempt to characterize the molecular events occurring temporally and spatially within the field of cancerization of patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following definitive surgery. They followed patients with bronchoscopies annually after tumor resection and extracted RNA from the serial brushings from different endobronchial sites. They then conducted microarray analysis to identify gene expression differences over time and in different sites in the airway. Candidate genes were found that may have biologic relevance to the field of cancerization. For example, expression of phosphorylated AKT and ERK1/2 was found to increase in the airway epithelium with time. Although there are limitations in the study design, this investigation demonstrates the utility of identifying molecular changes in histologically normal airway epithelium in lung cancer. In addition to increasing our understanding of lung cancer biology, studying the field of cancerization has the potential to identify biomarkers from samples obtained in a minimally invasive manner.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Characterizing the molecular spatial and temporal field of injury in early-stage smoker non-small cell lung cancer patients after definitive surgery by expression profiling

Authors: Kadara, H; Shen, L; Fujimoto, J; Saintigny, P; Chow, CW; Lang, W; Chu, Z; Garcia, M; Kabbout, M; Fan, YH; Behrens, C; Liu, DA; Mao, L; Lee, JJ; Gold, KA; Wang, J; Coombes, KR; Kim, ES; Hong, WK; Wistuba, II (2013) HERO ID: 2347033

[Less] Gene expression alterations in response to cigarette smoke have been characterized in normal-appearing . . . [More] Gene expression alterations in response to cigarette smoke have been characterized in normal-appearing bronchial epithelium of healthy smokers, and it has been suggested that adjacent histologically normal tissue displays tumor-associated molecular abnormalities. We sought to delineate the spatial and temporal molecular lung field of injury in smoker patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; n = 19) who were accrued into a surveillance clinical trial for annual follow-up and bronchoscopies within 1 year after definitive surgery. Bronchial brushings and biopsies were obtained from six different sites in the lung at the time of inclusion in the study and at 12, 24, and 36 months after the first time point. Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays were used for whole-transcript expression profiling of airways (n = 391). Microarray analysis identified gene features (n = 1,165) that were nonuniform by site and differentially expressed between airways adjacent to tumors relative to more distant samples as well as those (n = 1,395) that were significantly altered with time up to 3 years. In addition, gene interaction networks mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were modulated in adjacent compared with contralateral airways and the latter network with time. Furthermore, phosphorylated AKT and ERK1/2 immunohistochemical expression were significantly increased with time (nuclear pAKT, P = 0.03; cytoplasmic pAKT, P < 0.0001; pERK1/2, P = 0.02) and elevated in adjacent compared with more distant airways (nuclear pAKT, P = 0.04; pERK1/2, P = 0.03). This study highlights spatial and temporal cancer-associated expression alterations in the molecular field of injury of patients with early-stage NSCLCs after definitive surgery that warrant further validation in independent studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cancer statistics, 2013

Authors: Siegel, R; Naishadham, D; Jemal, A (2013) HERO ID: 1600083

[Less] Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths expected . . . [More] Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. A total of 1,660,290 new cancer cases and 580,350 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States in 2013. During the most recent 5 years for which there are data (2005-2009), delay-adjusted cancer incidence rates declined slightly in men (by 0.6% per year) and were stable in women, while cancer death rates decreased by 1.8% per year in men and by 1.5% per year in women. Overall, cancer death rates have declined 20% from their peak in 1991 (215.1 per 100,000 population) to 2009 (173.1 per 100,000 population). Death rates continue to decline for all 4 major cancer sites (lung, colorectum, breast, and prostate). Over the past 10 years of data (2000-2009), the largest annual declines in death rates were for chronic myeloid leukemia (8.4%), cancers of the stomach (3.1%) and colorectum (3.0%), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (3.0%). The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of approximately 1.18 million deaths from cancer, with 152,900 of these deaths averted in 2009 alone. Further progress can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population, with an emphasis on those groups in the lowest socioeconomic bracket and other underserved populations.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Stem cells of the adult lung: their development and role in homeostasis, regeneration, and disease

Authors: Wansleeben, C; Barkauskas, CE; Rock, JR; Hogan, BL (2013) 2:131-148. HERO ID: 1850640

[Less] The lung has vital functions in gas exchange and immune defense. To fulfill these functions the cellular . . . [More] The lung has vital functions in gas exchange and immune defense. To fulfill these functions the cellular composition and complex three-dimensional organization of the organ must be maintained for a lifetime. Cell turnover in the adult lung is normally low. However, in response to cellular injury by agents such as infection, toxic compounds, and irradiation there is rapid proliferation and differentiation of endogenous stem and progenitor cells to repair and regenerate the damaged tissue. In the mouse, different populations of epithelial progenitor cells have been identified in different regions of the respiratory system: basal cells in the proximal tracheobronchial region and submucosal glands, and secretory cells in the conducting airways and bronchioalveolar duct junction. The identification of the long-term stem cells in the alveolar region is still under debate, and little is known about resident stem and progenitor cells for the many mesodermal populations. Within this framework information is provided about the origin of lung progenitor cells during development, the microenvironment in which they reside, the experimental injury and repair systems used to promote their regenerative response, and some of the mechanisms regulating their behavior. WIREs Dev Biol 2013, 2:131-148. doi: 10.1002/wdev.58 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Non-small cell lung cancer treatment (PDQ): Health professional version

Author: NCI (2013) Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. HERO ID: 1600082