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Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Behavior of stable carbon isotope of phthalate acid esters during photolysis under ultraviolet irradiation

Authors: Peng, X; Li, X; Feng, L (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1639220

[Less] The photolysis of three phthalic acid esters (PAEs) (dimethyl (DMP), di-n-butyl (DBP), and di-n-octyl . . . [More] The photolysis of three phthalic acid esters (PAEs) (dimethyl (DMP), di-n-butyl (DBP), and di-n-octyl (DOP) phthalates) under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at 254nm in laboratory experiments was investigated by gas chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry through a combustion interface (GC-C-IRMS). The degradation processes of DMP, DBP and DOP were well described by a first-order kinetic, with rate constants of 0.02636, 0.1005 and 0.958h(-1) for DMP, DBP and DOP, respectively, indicating that the photolysis rate of PAEs is related to the number of carbon atoms in molecule. The results of TOC analysis indicated that PAEs could not be completely mineralized under UV irradiation. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of the three PAEs produced during photolysis was evaluated with compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). Pronounced (13)C-enrichment, with maximum δ(13)C shifts of Δδ(13)CDMP=10.04±0.13‰ (f=0.09), Δδ(13)CDBP=7.4±0.19‰ (f=0.06) and Δδ(13)CDOP=2.9±0.17‰ (f=0.25) in the residual DMP, DBP and DOP, respectively, were clearly a direct evidence for photolysis of three PAEs. The order of stable carbon isotope fractionation of the three PAEs during photolysis, DMP>DBP>DOP, is an inverse function of the number of carbon atoms in molecule. The kinetic isotope effects (KIE) values, from 1.0018 to 1.0045 for the three PAEs, were consistent with the KIE values (1.00-1.03) of the C-O bond cleavage reported in literature.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deproteinized natural rubber film forming polymeric solutions for nicotine transdermal delivery

Authors: Pichayakorn, W; Suksaeree, J; Boonme, P; Amnuaikit, T; Taweepreda, W; Ritthidej, GC (In Press) Pharm Dev Technol. HERO ID: 1332535

[Less] Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with . . . [More] Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with dibutylphthalate or glycerine used as plasticizers. These formulations were easily prepared by simple mixing. In a preliminary step, in situ films were prepared by solvent evaporation in a Petri-dish. Their mechanical and physicochemical properties were determined. The in vitro release and skin permeation of nicotine dissolved in these blended polymers were investigated by a modified Franz diffusion cell. The formulations had a white milky appearance, and were homogeneous and smooth in texture. Their pH was suitable for usage in skin contact. The mechanical property of in situ films depended on the ingredients but all compatible films were in an amorphous phase. The DNRL/PVA was shown to be the most suitable mixture to form completed films. The in vitro release and skin permeation studies demonstrated a biphasic release that provided an initial rapid release followed by a constant release rate that fitted the Higuchi's model. Nicotine loaded DNRL/PVA series were selected for the stability test for 3 months. These formulations needed to be kept at 4°C in tight fitting containers. In conclusion, film forming polymeric solutions could be developed for transdermal nicotine delivery systems.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake

Authors: He, W; Qin, N; Kong, X; Liu, W; He, Q; Ouyang, H; Yang, C; Jiang, Y; Wang, Q; Yang, B; Xu, F (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1639216

[Less] The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake . . . [More] The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (Σ6PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953μgL(-1), with the average value of 4.042±3.929μgL(-1). The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the Σ6PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of Σ6PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and plasticisers in the Selangor River basin and possible pollution sources

Authors: Santhi, VA; Mustafa, AM (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1332544

[Less] A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin . . . [More] A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin from November 2008 to July 2009. Seven sampling sites representing the intake points of water treatment plants in the basin were selected to determine the occurrence and level of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), six phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA). Results indicated OCPs were still detected regularly in 66.1 % of the samples with the Σ(15)OCPs ranging from 0.6-25.2 ng/L. The first data on PAEs contamination in the basin revealed Σ(6)PAEs concentrations were between 39.0 and 1,096.6 ng/L with a median concentration of 186.0 ng/L while BPA concentration ranged from <1.2 to 120.0 ng/L. Although di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in all the samples, concentrations of di-ethyl(hexyl)phthalate were higher. Sampling sites located downstream recorded the highest concentrations, together with samples collected during the dry season. Comparison of the detected contaminants with the Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) showed some agreement between the concentration and the current classification of stream water. While the results suggest that the sites were only slightly polluted and suitable to be used as drinking water source, its presence is cause for concern especially to the fragile firefly "Pteroptyx tener" ecosystem located further downstream.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Use of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework to evaluate species concordance and human relevance of Dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-induced male reproductive toxicity

Authors: Arzuaga, X; Walker, T; Yost, EE; Radke, EG; Hotchkiss, AK (2019) Reproductive Toxicology. [Review] HERO ID: 5432712

[Less] Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a phthalate ester used as a plasticizer, and solvent. Studies using rats . . . [More] Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a phthalate ester used as a plasticizer, and solvent. Studies using rats consistently report that DBP exposure disrupts normal development of the male reproductive system in part via inhibition of androgen synthesis. However, studies using xenograft models report that in human fetal testis DBP exposure is unlikely to impair testosterone synthesis. These results question the validity of the rat model for assessment of male reproductive effects caused by DBP. The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework was used to evaluate the available evidence for DBP-induced toxicity to the male reproductive system. Three relevant biological elements were identified: 1) fetal rats are more sensitive than other rodents and human fetal xenografts to DBP-induced anti-androgenic effects, 2) DBP-induced androgen-independent adverse outcomes are conserved amongst different mammalian models and human fetal testis xenografts, and 3) DBP-induced anti-androgenic effects are conserved in different mammalian species when exposure occurs during postnatal life stages.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nontargeted metabolomic analysis to unravel the impact of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate stress on root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

Authors: Wang, Y; Ren, W; Li, Y; Xu, Y; Teng, Y; Christie, P; Luo, Y (2019) Science of the Total Environment 646:212-219. HERO ID: 4829302

[Less] Root exudates are the main media of information communication and energy transfer between plant roots . . . [More] Root exudates are the main media of information communication and energy transfer between plant roots and the soil. Understanding the response of root exudates to contamination stress is crucial in revealing the rhizoremediation mechanisms. Here, we investigate the response of alfalfa root exudates to bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) stress based on nontargeted metabolomic analysis. Alfalfa root exudates were collected using greenhouse hydroponic culture and analysed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). A total of 314 compounds were identified in alfalfa root exudates of which carbohydrates, acids and lipids accounted for 28.6, 15.58 and 13.87%, respectively. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) shows that DEHP exerted an important influence on the composition and quantity of root exudates. Fifty metabolites were clearly changed even at lower concentrations of DEHP, including common carbohydrates, fatty acids and some special rhizosphere signal materials, such as 4',5-dihyrroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone. DEHP stress significantly suppressed carbohydrate metabolism but promoted fatty acid metabolism. However, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle showed little change in response to DEHP stress.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of aromatic structure and substitution of carboxyl groups of aromatic acids on their sorption to biochars

Authors: Wu, L; Li, B; Liu, M (2018) HERO ID: 4829345

[Less] In order to clarify the influence of aromatic structure and COOH substitution of aromatic acids on their . . . [More] In order to clarify the influence of aromatic structure and COOH substitution of aromatic acids on their sorption to biochars, benzoic acid (BA), phthalic acid (PA), hemimellitic acid (HA), 2-biphenylcarboxylic acid (2-BA), 1-naphthoic acid (1-NA) and naphthalene were selected as model sorbates. Batch experiments on sorption of them to wheat straw-derived biochars at 300 °C (WS300) and 700 °C (WS700) were conducted. Results showed that WS700 with higher specific surface area and pore volume had faster and higher sorption of aromatic acids than WS300. Sorption affinity of aromatic acids decreased with increasing number of aromatic rings (BA > 1-NA > 2-BA), and was weakened by COOH substitution (BA > PA > HA). This was likely due to the π-electron delocalization into additional ring, reduced contact area of nonplanar aromatic structure on biochar surfaces, size exclusion of larger molecules in smaller pores of biochars and decreased hydrophobicity of aromatic acids by COOH substitution that abated the sorption. Dissociation of COOH substitution of aromatic acids also weakened their sorption to biochars due to the lower hydrophobicity of anionic species, and electrostatic repulsion between anionic species and negatively charged surface of biochars.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cost-effectiveness of hydrophilic-coated intermittent catheters compared with uncoated catheters in Canada: a public payer perspective

Authors: Welk, B; Isaranuwatchai, W; Krassioukov, A; Husted Torp, L; Elterman, D (2018) HERO ID: 4728798

[Less] STUDY DESIGN: A Markov model was used to analyze cost-effectiveness over a lifetime . . . [More] STUDY DESIGN: A Markov model was used to analyze cost-effectiveness over a lifetime horizon.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of hydrophilic-coated intermittent catheters (HCICs) compared with uncoated catheters (UCs) among individuals with neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NB) due to spinal cord injury (SCI).

SETTING: A Canadian public payer perspective based on data from Ontario; including a scenario analysis from the societal perspective.

METHODS: A previously published Markov decision model was modified to compare the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for the two interventions. Three renal function and three urinary tract infection (UTI) health states as well as other catheter-related events were included. Scenario analyses, including utility gain from compact catheter and phthalate free catheter use, were performed. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the model.

RESULTS: The model predicted that a 50-year-old patient with SCI would gain an additional 0.72 QALYs if HCICs were used instead of UCs at an incremental cost of $48,016, leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $66,634/QALY. Moreover, using HCICs could reduce the lifetime number of UTI events by 11%. From the societal perspective, HCICs cost less than UCs, while providing superior outcomes in terms of QALYs, life years gained (LYG), and UTIs. The cost per QALY further decreased when health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) gains associated with compact HCICs or catheters not containing phthalates were included.

CONCLUSION: In general, ICERs in the range of CAD$50-100,000 could be considered cost-effective. The ICERs for the base case and sensitivity analyses suggest that HCICs could be cost-effective. From the societal perspective, HCICs were associated with potential cost savings in our model. The results suggest that reimbursement of HCICs should be considered in these settings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites on male reproductive function: A systematic review of human evidence. Supplemental materials

Authors: Høyer, BB; Lenters, V; Giwercman, A; Jönsson, BAG; Toft, G; Hougaard, KS; Bonde, JPE; Specht, IO (2018) Current Environmental Health Reports 5. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 4332908

Abstract: Supplemental materials