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Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deproteinized natural rubber film forming polymeric solutions for nicotine transdermal delivery

Authors: Pichayakorn, W; Suksaeree, J; Boonme, P; Amnuaikit, T; Taweepreda, W; Ritthidej, GC (In Press) Pharm Dev Technol. HERO ID: 1332535

[Less] Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with . . . [More] Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with dibutylphthalate or glycerine used as plasticizers. These formulations were easily prepared by simple mixing. In a preliminary step, in situ films were prepared by solvent evaporation in a Petri-dish. Their mechanical and physicochemical properties were determined. The in vitro release and skin permeation of nicotine dissolved in these blended polymers were investigated by a modified Franz diffusion cell. The formulations had a white milky appearance, and were homogeneous and smooth in texture. Their pH was suitable for usage in skin contact. The mechanical property of in situ films depended on the ingredients but all compatible films were in an amorphous phase. The DNRL/PVA was shown to be the most suitable mixture to form completed films. The in vitro release and skin permeation studies demonstrated a biphasic release that provided an initial rapid release followed by a constant release rate that fitted the Higuchi's model. Nicotine loaded DNRL/PVA series were selected for the stability test for 3 months. These formulations needed to be kept at 4°C in tight fitting containers. In conclusion, film forming polymeric solutions could be developed for transdermal nicotine delivery systems.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake

Authors: He, W; Qin, N; Kong, X; Liu, W; He, Q; Ouyang, H; Yang, C; Jiang, Y; Wang, Q; Yang, B; Xu, F (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1639216

[Less] The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake . . . [More] The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (Σ6PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953μgL(-1), with the average value of 4.042±3.929μgL(-1). The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the Σ6PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of Σ6PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and plasticisers in the Selangor River basin and possible pollution sources

Authors: Santhi, VA; Mustafa, AM (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1332544

[Less] A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin . . . [More] A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin from November 2008 to July 2009. Seven sampling sites representing the intake points of water treatment plants in the basin were selected to determine the occurrence and level of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), six phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA). Results indicated OCPs were still detected regularly in 66.1 % of the samples with the Σ(15)OCPs ranging from 0.6-25.2 ng/L. The first data on PAEs contamination in the basin revealed Σ(6)PAEs concentrations were between 39.0 and 1,096.6 ng/L with a median concentration of 186.0 ng/L while BPA concentration ranged from <1.2 to 120.0 ng/L. Although di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in all the samples, concentrations of di-ethyl(hexyl)phthalate were higher. Sampling sites located downstream recorded the highest concentrations, together with samples collected during the dry season. Comparison of the detected contaminants with the Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) showed some agreement between the concentration and the current classification of stream water. While the results suggest that the sites were only slightly polluted and suitable to be used as drinking water source, its presence is cause for concern especially to the fragile firefly "Pteroptyx tener" ecosystem located further downstream.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

How human activities in commercial areas contribute to phthalate ester pollution in street dust of Taiwan

Authors: Lee, ST; Chi Thanh, V; Lin, C; Kang-Shin, C; Villanueva, MC; Chen, YC (2019) Science of the Total Environment 647:619-626. HERO ID: 5704245

[Less] Exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) poses health risks to humans. Much research has been performed evaluating . . . [More] Exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) poses health risks to humans. Much research has been performed evaluating PAE levels in foodstuffs, river sediment and drinking water, but little attention has been paid to their presence in urban outdoor environments where human activities are highly intense. Here we evaluated PAE presence and distribution in street dust in Kaohsiung, the most industrialized city in Taiwan. Our results showed that PAEs were ubiquitous in fifty-two street-dust samples (levels of total PAEs 5.4–989.2 mg kg−1). Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was the most abundant congener observed and made up 85.0%, 79.7%, and 97.2% of the total PAEs found in industrial, residential and commercial areas, respectively. PAE levels in street dust in commercial areas (night markets) were significantly higher, suggesting a higher risk of contamination on people present in these areas (H value > χU2). In residential and commercial areas, the higher the intensity of human activity, the higher the PAE content observed. PAE content decreased progressively from the center to the outskirts of the Houjing night market, suggesting that the increased human and consumer activities inside this commercial hotspot were the main PAE source in street dust. Children had higher estimated daily intakes (DIs) than adults and dermal absorption contributed more to these levels than oral ingestion. Although all calculated DIs were below referenced danger thresholds, street dust PAEs in the area should remain an environmental concern especially since night markets play an important role in Taiwanese/Asian culture and economy. Contrary to other studies, PAEs in this study were found less related to industrial manufacturing activities but highly linked to commercial activities. These findings are relevant for future pollution prevention efforts dedicated to mitigating public exposure to PAEs.PAE levels in street dust are related to commercial activities. Night markets, an important commercial activity in Taiwan, were found to contribute considerably to PAE contamination in street dust.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of hybrid processes for the removal of volatile organic compounds, plasticizer, and pharmaceutically active compound using sewage sludge, waste scrap tires, and wood chips as sorbents and microbial immobilization matrices

Authors: de Toledo, RA; Hin Chao, U; Shen, T; Lu, Q; Li, X; Shim, H (2019) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26:11591-11604. HERO ID: 5436277

[Less] This study evaluated the reutilization of waste materials (scrap tires, sewage sludge, and wood chips) . . . [More] This study evaluated the reutilization of waste materials (scrap tires, sewage sludge, and wood chips) to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene/toluene/ethylbenzene/xylenes/trichloroethylene/cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (BTEX/TCE/cis-DCE), plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and pharmaceutically active compound carbamazepine from artificially contaminated water. Different hybrid removal processes were developed: (1) 300 mg/L BTEX + 20 mg/L TCE + 10 mg/L cis-DCE + tires + Pseudomonas sp.; (2) 250 mg/L toluene + sewage sludge biochar + Pseudomonas sp.; (3) 100 mg/L DEHP + tires + Acinetobacter sp.; and (4) 20 mg/L carbamazepine + wood chips + Phanerochaete chrysosporium. For the hybrid process (1), the removal of xylenes, TCE, and cis-DCE was enhanced, resulted from the contribution of both physical adsorption and biological immobilization removal. The hybrid process (2) was also superior for the removal of DEHP and required a shorter time (2 days) for the bioremoval. For the process (3), the biochar promoted the microbial immobilization on its surface and substantially enhanced/speed up the bioremoval of toluene. The fungal immobilization on wood chips in the hybrid process (4) also improved the carbamazepine removal considerably (removal efficiencies of 61.3 ± 0.6%) compared to the suspended system without wood chips (removal efficiencies of 34.4 ± 1.8%). These hybrid processes would not only be promising for the bioremediation of environmentally concerned contaminants but also reutilize waste materials as sorbents without any further treatment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Use of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework to evaluate species concordance and human relevance of Dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-induced male reproductive toxicity

Authors: Arzuaga, X; Walker, T; Yost, EE; Radke, EG; Hotchkiss, AK (2019) Reproductive Toxicology. [Review] HERO ID: 5432712

[Less] Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a phthalate ester used as a plasticizer, and solvent. Studies using rats . . . [More] Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a phthalate ester used as a plasticizer, and solvent. Studies using rats consistently report that DBP exposure disrupts normal development of the male reproductive system in part via inhibition of androgen synthesis. However, studies using xenograft models report that in human fetal testis DBP exposure is unlikely to impair testosterone synthesis. These results question the validity of the rat model for assessment of male reproductive effects caused by DBP. The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework was used to evaluate the available evidence for DBP-induced toxicity to the male reproductive system. Three relevant biological elements were identified: 1) fetal rats are more sensitive than other rodents and human fetal xenografts to DBP-induced anti-androgenic effects, 2) DBP-induced androgen-independent adverse outcomes are conserved amongst different mammalian models and human fetal testis xenografts, and 3) DBP-induced anti-androgenic effects are conserved in different mammalian species when exposure occurs during postnatal life stages.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Personal care products use and phthalate exposure levels among pregnant women

Authors: Hsieh, CJ; Chang, YH; Hu, A; Chen, ML; Sun, CW; Situmorang, RF; Wu, MT; Wang, SL; TMICS study group (2019) Science of the Total Environment 648:135-143. HERO ID: 5620298

[Less] Fetuses are susceptible to phthalates, known endocrine disrupting chemicals, within sensitive windows . . . [More] Fetuses are susceptible to phthalates, known endocrine disrupting chemicals, within sensitive windows of development. It is crucial to determine the major sources of phthalates to reduce exposure. This study aims to examine the associations between usage patterns of personal care products (PCPs) and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites across pregnancy in a multi-hospital based birth cohort.During 2012–2015, we conducted a birth cohort study named the Taiwan Mother Infant Cohort Study (TMICS). Usage patterns of PCPs were obtained using structured questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy. Spot urine samples were collected at each trimester, and levels of eleven phthalate metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The association of PCPs use with urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations was assessed using GEE models.Among the 1676 pregnant women participated in TMICS, 281 who provided two or three urine samples across pregnancy were included. The levels of several phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with the use of PCPs, particularly leave-on PCPs. With the increasing use of skin toners (11.7%; 95% CI: 1.5%, 22.9%), lipsticks (13.2%; 95% CI: 4.6%, 22.5%), and essential oils (21.8%; 95% CI: 9.1%, 36.0%), individuals are exposed to higher concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP). Additionally, a positive trend was found regarding the number of leave-on PCPs used and the measured change in MEP concentrations (P for trend = 0.01). Other positive associations included MBzP and body lotions (7.9%; 95% CI: 0.1%, 16.2%). With regard to rinse-off PCPs, we found a positive association between urinary MBzP and shampoo use, and a negative association between urinary MMP and face wash.Leave-on PCPs were found to be a more probable source of phthalate exposure than the use of rinse-off PCPs. We suggest pregnant women reduce the frequency of leave-on PCPs use during pregnancy to avoid such phthalate exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perioperative exposure to suspect neurotoxicants from medical devices in newborns with congenital heart defects

Authors: Gaynor, JW; Ittenbach, RF; Calafat, AM; Burnham, NB; Bradman, A; Bellinger, DC; Henretig, FM; Wehrung, EE; Ward, JL; Russell, WW; Spray, TL (2019) Annals of Thoracic Surgery 107:567-572. HERO ID: 5701707

[Less] BACKGROUND: Industrial chemicals are increasingly recognized as potential developmental neurotoxicants. . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Industrial chemicals are increasingly recognized as potential developmental neurotoxicants. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), used to impart flexibility and temperature tolerance to polyvinylchloride, and bisphenol A (BPA), used to manufacture polycarbonate, are commonly present in medical devices. The magnitude of exposure in neonates during hospitalization for cardiac operations is unknown.

METHODS: We quantified urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites and BPA preoperatively and postoperatively in neonates undergoing cardiac operations and their mothers. Urinary concentrations of these biomarkers reflect recent exposures (half-lives are approximately 6 to 24 hours). Biomarker concentrations in mothers' and infants' preoperative and postoperative samples were compared.

RESULTS: Operations were performed in 18 infants (mean age, 5 ± 4 [SD] days). The maternal sample was obtained on postpartum day 4 ± 4. The preoperative urine sample was obtained on day-of-life 4 ± 2 and the postoperative sample on day-of-life 6 ± 4. Mean maternal concentrations for DEHP metabolites and BPA were at the 50th percentile for females in the United States general population. Infant preoperative concentrations of 1 DEHP metabolite and BPA were significantly higher than maternal concentrations. Postoperative concentrations for all DEHP metabolites were significantly greater than preoperative concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable perioperative exposure to DEHP and BPA for neonates undergoing cardiac operations. Infant concentrations for both BPA and DEHP metabolites were significantly higher than maternal concentrations, consistent with the infant's exposure to medical devices. Further study is needed to determine the potential role of these suspect neurotoxicants in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disability after cardiac operations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nontargeted metabolomic analysis to unravel the impact of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate stress on root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

Authors: Wang, Y; Ren, W; Li, Y; Xu, Y; Teng, Y; Christie, P; Luo, Y (2019) Science of the Total Environment 646:212-219. HERO ID: 4829302

[Less] Root exudates are the main media of information communication and energy transfer between plant roots . . . [More] Root exudates are the main media of information communication and energy transfer between plant roots and the soil. Understanding the response of root exudates to contamination stress is crucial in revealing the rhizoremediation mechanisms. Here, we investigate the response of alfalfa root exudates to bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) stress based on nontargeted metabolomic analysis. Alfalfa root exudates were collected using greenhouse hydroponic culture and analysed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). A total of 314 compounds were identified in alfalfa root exudates of which carbohydrates, acids and lipids accounted for 28.6, 15.58 and 13.87%, respectively. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) shows that DEHP exerted an important influence on the composition and quantity of root exudates. Fifty metabolites were clearly changed even at lower concentrations of DEHP, including common carbohydrates, fatty acids and some special rhizosphere signal materials, such as 4',5-dihyrroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone. DEHP stress significantly suppressed carbohydrate metabolism but promoted fatty acid metabolism. However, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle showed little change in response to DEHP stress.