Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental Boberg data for HERO ID 806135 from email communication

Author: Boberg, J (2016) Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3102218

[Less] This material represents the individual male reproductive data from the journal article (obtained via . . . [More] This material represents the individual male reproductive data from the journal article (obtained via email communication with Dr. Julie Boberg):

Boberg, J; Christiansen, S; Axelstad, M; et al. (2010) Reproductive and behavioral effects of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in perinatally exposed rats. Reproductive Toxicology. 2011 Feb; 31(2):200-9. [HERO ID 806135]

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

DETERMINATION OF PLASTICIZERS IN DRINKING WATER USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY

Authors: Souza, RR; Jardim Martins, EA; Otomo, JI; Furusawa, HA; Faustino Pires, MA (2012) HERO ID: 1322079

[Less] DETERMINATION OF PLASTICIZERS IN DRINKING WATER USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY. This . . . [More] DETERMINATION OF PLASTICIZERS IN DRINKING WATER USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY. This study investigated the levels of plasticizer endocrine disruptors (diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and bisphenol A) in drinking water at Paraiba do Sul River region and release of these compounds from bottled water. An analytical method employing solid phase extraction and GC/MS was optimized and validated. The results showed that the method is selective, linear (r(2) > 0.99), precise (RSD < 12%), accurate (recoveries between 62 and 105%), sensitive and robust. Applying the method, the presence of all studied pollutants in drinking water was observed for the three sampled plasticizers. These plasticizers were not found in mineral bottled water, before or after storage.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Consecutive Online Separation and Determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Phthalate Esters and Bisphenol A in Human Serum by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Shao Min; Chen Yong-Heng; Li Xiao-Yu (2012) Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry / Fen Xi Hua Xue 40:1139-1145. HERO ID: 1341419

[Less] A method was developed for the consecutive online separation of several environmental estrogens, polybrominated . . . [More] A method was developed for the consecutive online separation of several environmental estrogens, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA), in human serum by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After denaturation of protein by concentrated hydrochloride acid, extraction by ether, separation by silica flash chromatograph, several group components including PBDEs, PAEs and BPA in human serum were separated and purified. Then these group components were detected by GC-MS in selected ion monitoring mode. The standard calibration curves of PBDEs, PAEs and BPA were linear over the assayed range with correlation coefficients equal or higher than 0.99. The detection limitations of the targeted compounds ranged from 0.005 to 0.048 mu g L-1 for PBDEs, 0.103-0.833 mu g L-1 for PAEs, and 0.035 mu g L-1 for BPA. In standard duplicated samples, the relative standard deviations were 2.8%-10.9% for PBDEs, 5.6%-9.9% for PAEs, and 3.0% for BPA. The surrogate recoveries in these 7 samples ranged from 74.8% to 88.5% for PCB-209 (polychloride diphenyl ether 209) in PBDEs, from 78.7% to 97.0% for DBP-D4 (dibutyl phthalate-deutorium 4) in PAEs, and from 76.3 % to 93.1% for BPA-D16 (Bisphenol A-Deutorium 16) in BPA, respectively. This method for detecting multiple environmental estrogens in human serum is sensitive, high reproducible with satisfied recoveries.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ovarian development in Wistar rat treated prenatally with single dose diisobutyl phthalate

Authors: Ray, B; D' Souza, AS; Kumar, V; Pugazhandhi, B; D'Souza, MR; Nayak, D; Sushma, RK; Shetty, P; Singh, H; Krishna, L; Bhat, KMR; Rao, ACK; Chakraborti, S; Kumar, N; Saxena, A (2012) Bratislavske Lekarske Listy 113:577-582. HERO ID: 1341533

[Less] Phthalates are a class of industrial compounds with an array of toxicological properties used in day . . . [More] Phthalates are a class of industrial compounds with an array of toxicological properties used in day to day life. Diisobutyl phthalate on (DIBP) is used as an additive to keep the plastics soft or flexible (plasticizer) in nitrocellulose plastic, nail polish, explosives, lacquer manufacturing etc. Although DIBP exposure in humans is generally low, people in adhesive industries and pharmaceutical industries are exposed to higher levels. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single dose of DIBP on developing ovary of Wistar rat. One hundred and eight adult pregnant Wistar rats were divided into control and experimental groups. Rats in experimental group were given DIBP on day 10, 12 and 14 of gestation at 0.375, 0.75 and 1.25 ml/kg body weight dose intraperitoneally in a single dose. Sections of ovaries collected on day 21 of gestation were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined and Masson's trichrome histologically. Sections belonging to the control group showed the presence of oocytes in clusters separated by thin fibrous septa. Degeneration oocytes, empty follicles surrounded by follicular cells without gonocytes in the center were observed in ovarian stroma. Blood vessels in the ovarian stroma were prominent and congested. Around a bunch of follicles total architectural disarray was observed although on special staining fibrosis was not evident. As pregnant women are constantly exposed, effect of DIBP on ovary of a developing fetus would denote the long term consequence in future generations (Fig. 5, Ref. 39).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biodegradation of an endocrine-disrupting chemical di-n-butyl phthalate by Serratia marcescens C9 isolated from activated sludge

Authors: Li, C; Tian, X; Chen, Z; Yu, D; Deng, J; Xu, H (2012) HERO ID: 1341365

[Less] In this study, an aerobic bacterial strain capable of utilizing di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as sole . . . [More] In this study, an aerobic bacterial strain capable of utilizing di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as sole carbon source and energy was isolated from activated sludge collected from a plastic molding plant. Based on its morphology, physiochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence, the strain was identified as Serratia marcescens C9. The Taguchi method was used for determining the optimum condition of DBP degradation from aqueous solution by S. marcescens C9. An orthogonal array experimental design L-9 (3(3)) was chosen to employ the experiment and L-9 (3(3)) is consisted of three control factors (Temperature, pH and initial DBP concentration) and each factor has three different levels. DBP degradation rate was investigated as the quality characteristic to be optimized. In order to determine the optimum levels of the control factors precisely, range analysis and analysis of variance were performed. The optimum condition for DBP degradation was found to be temperature =37 degrees C, pH = 7, C-0 = 50 mg/L. In addition, first-order kinetic model was used to evaluate the degradation process of DBP at different initial concentrations in liquid medium. The results showed that the degradation half-life was about 1.35 d when the concentration of DBP was lower than 100 mg/L. This work suggested that the isolated strain C9 may have potential for use in bioremediation of DBP contaminated water.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparative evaluation of the chemical composition of essential oil from twig, leaf and root of Clerodendrum inerme(L.) Gaertn

Authors: Li, D; Wang, Z; Liang, Z; Yang, X; Xu, J (2012) HERO ID: 1341748

[Less] This study was designed to comparative evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil from . . . [More] This study was designed to comparative evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil from twig, leaf and root parts of Clerodendrum inerme(L.) Gaertn. GC-MS analyses of the oils revealed the presence of 8, 8 and 6 compounds in the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different parts, respectively. Higher amounts of esters were found to compose a major chemotype in diverse parts of the plant. Dibutyl phthalate was the main component of all the essential oils attaining in average 34.22%, 59.28% and 44.27% and the other kind of esters accounted for 38.30%, 17.28% and 10.89% in the twig, leaf and root parts, respectively. In addition, some pharmaceutical components such as stigmasterol, linoleic acid and ferruginol were discovered. The study offers theoretic basis for utilization of the traditional folk herb C. inerme.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The Study of Biodegradation of Butyl Benzyl Phthalate by Phanerochaete Chrysosporium

Authors: Yang, Y; Fang, Wei; Hu, X; Ren, Na; Liang, D (2012) Advanced Materials Research 343-344:513-518. HERO ID: 1341860

[Less] In this study, the microbial degradation characteristics of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were studied . . . [More] In this study, the microbial degradation characteristics of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were studied by using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Results showed Phanerochaete chrysosporium can effectively degrade BBP and the degradation efficiency can reach 90% in 2 days. This strain can use BBP as sole carbon source. The biodegradation of BBP by Phanerochaete chrysosporium fits for first-order kinetics (Inc=-K(b)t+a), which are Inc = - 0.0445x + 4.4235, Inc = -0.0404x + 5.1221, Inc = -0.0389x + 5.6363, respectively, for the concentration of 100mg/L, 300mg/L, 500mg/L. The biodegradation rate constants are 0.0445 d(-1) 0.0404 d(-1), 0.0389 d(-1), respectively. The biodegradation rate constant reduces with the increase of the concentration of BBP, indicating BBP has inhibitory effect on Phanerochaete chrysosporium, especially under high concentration. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile of the metabolites indicated the accumulation of two major products except for phthalic acid (PA). These two products were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBuP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inter-relationship between testicular dysgenesis and Leydig cell function in the masculinization programming window in the rat

Authors: van den Driesche, S; Kolovos, P; Platts, S; Drake, AJ; Sharpe, RM (2012) PLoS ONE 7:e30111. HERO ID: 1249982

[Less] The testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis proposes that maldevelopment of the testis, irrespective . . . [More] The testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis proposes that maldevelopment of the testis, irrespective of cause, leads to malfunction of the somatic (Leydig, Sertoli) cells and consequent downstream TDS disorders. Studies in rats exposed in utero to di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) have strongly supported the TDS concept, but so far no direct evidence has been produced that links dysgenesis per se to somatic cell dysfunction, in particular to androgen production/action during the 'masculinization programming window' (MPW; e15.5-e18.5). Normal reproductive tract development and anogenital distance (AGD) are programmed within the MPW, and TDS disorders arise because of deficiencies in this programming. However, DBP-induced focal testicular dysgenesis (Leydig cell aggregation, ectopic Sertoli cells, malformed seminiferous cords) is not evident until after the MPW. Therefore, we used AGD as a read-out of androgen exposure in the MPW, and investigated if this measure was related to objectively quantified dysgenesis (Leydig cell aggregation) at e21.5 in male fetuses exposed to vehicle, DBP (500 or 750 mg/kg/day) or the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex; alone or plus DBP-500) from e15.5-e18.5 (MPW), e13.5-e20.5 or e19.5-e20.5 (late window). Dysgenesis was found only in animals exposed to DBP during the MPW, and was negatively correlated (R² = -0.5) with AGD at e21.5 and at postnatal day 8, irrespective of treatment period. Dysgenesis was also negatively correlated (R² = -0.5) with intratesticular testosterone (ITT) at e21.5, but only when treatments in short windows (MPW, late window) were excluded; the same was true for correlation between AGD and ITT. We conclude that AGD, reflecting Leydig cell function solely within the MPW, is strongly related to focal dysgenesis. Our results point to this occurring because of a common early mechanism, targeted by DBP that determines both dysgenesis and early (during the MPW) fetal Leydig cell dysfunction. The findings provide strong validation of the TDS hypothesis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Degrading Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals from Wastewater by TiO2 Photocatalysis: A Review

Authors: Sin, JinC; Lam, SzeMun; Mohamed, AR; Lee, KT (2012) HERO ID: 1341424

[Less] Widespread concerns continue to be raised about the impacts of exposure to chemical compounds with . . . [More] Widespread concerns continue to be raised about the impacts of exposure to chemical compounds with endocrine disrupting activities. To date, the percolation of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) effluent into the aquatic system remains an intricate challenge abroad the nations. With the innovation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), there has been a consistent growing interest in this research field. Hence, the aim of this paper is to focus one such method within the AOPs, namely, heterogeneous photocatalysis and how it is used on the abatement of EDCs, phthalates, bisphenol A and chlorophenols in particular, using TiO2-based catalysts. Degradation mechanisms, pathways, and intermediate products of various EDCs for TiO2 photocatalysis are described in detail. The effect of key operational parameters on TiO2 photocatalytic degradation of various EDCs is then specifically covered. Finally, the future prospects together with the challenges for the TiO2 photocatalysis on EDCs degradation are summarized and discussed.