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Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Behavior of stable carbon isotope of phthalate acid esters during photolysis under ultraviolet irradiation

Authors: Peng, X; Li, X; Feng, L (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1639220

[Less] The photolysis of three phthalic acid esters (PAEs) (dimethyl (DMP), di-n-butyl (DBP), and di-n-octyl . . . [More] The photolysis of three phthalic acid esters (PAEs) (dimethyl (DMP), di-n-butyl (DBP), and di-n-octyl (DOP) phthalates) under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at 254nm in laboratory experiments was investigated by gas chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry through a combustion interface (GC-C-IRMS). The degradation processes of DMP, DBP and DOP were well described by a first-order kinetic, with rate constants of 0.02636, 0.1005 and 0.958h(-1) for DMP, DBP and DOP, respectively, indicating that the photolysis rate of PAEs is related to the number of carbon atoms in molecule. The results of TOC analysis indicated that PAEs could not be completely mineralized under UV irradiation. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of the three PAEs produced during photolysis was evaluated with compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). Pronounced (13)C-enrichment, with maximum δ(13)C shifts of Δδ(13)CDMP=10.04±0.13‰ (f=0.09), Δδ(13)CDBP=7.4±0.19‰ (f=0.06) and Δδ(13)CDOP=2.9±0.17‰ (f=0.25) in the residual DMP, DBP and DOP, respectively, were clearly a direct evidence for photolysis of three PAEs. The order of stable carbon isotope fractionation of the three PAEs during photolysis, DMP>DBP>DOP, is an inverse function of the number of carbon atoms in molecule. The kinetic isotope effects (KIE) values, from 1.0018 to 1.0045 for the three PAEs, were consistent with the KIE values (1.00-1.03) of the C-O bond cleavage reported in literature.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake

Authors: He, W; Qin, N; Kong, X; Liu, W; He, Q; Ouyang, H; Yang, C; Jiang, Y; Wang, Q; Yang, B; Xu, F (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1639216

[Less] The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake . . . [More] The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (Σ6PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953μgL(-1), with the average value of 4.042±3.929μgL(-1). The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the Σ6PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of Σ6PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and plasticisers in the Selangor River basin and possible pollution sources

Authors: Santhi, VA; Mustafa, AM (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1332544

[Less] A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin . . . [More] A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin from November 2008 to July 2009. Seven sampling sites representing the intake points of water treatment plants in the basin were selected to determine the occurrence and level of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), six phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA). Results indicated OCPs were still detected regularly in 66.1 % of the samples with the Σ(15)OCPs ranging from 0.6-25.2 ng/L. The first data on PAEs contamination in the basin revealed Σ(6)PAEs concentrations were between 39.0 and 1,096.6 ng/L with a median concentration of 186.0 ng/L while BPA concentration ranged from <1.2 to 120.0 ng/L. Although di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in all the samples, concentrations of di-ethyl(hexyl)phthalate were higher. Sampling sites located downstream recorded the highest concentrations, together with samples collected during the dry season. Comparison of the detected contaminants with the Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) showed some agreement between the concentration and the current classification of stream water. While the results suggest that the sites were only slightly polluted and suitable to be used as drinking water source, its presence is cause for concern especially to the fragile firefly "Pteroptyx tener" ecosystem located further downstream.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in urine samples from Danish children and correlations with phthalates in dust samples from their homes and daycare centers

Authors: Langer, S; Bekö, G; Weschler, CJ; Brive, LM; Toftum, J; Callesen, M; Clausen, G (2014) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 217:78-87. HERO ID: 1600114

[Less] Around the world humans use products that contain phthalates, and human exposure to certain of these . . . [More] Around the world humans use products that contain phthalates, and human exposure to certain of these phthalates has been associated with various adverse health effects. The aim of the present study has been to determine the concentrations of the metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(iso-butyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in urine samples from 441 Danish children (3-6 years old). These children were subjects in the Danish Indoor Environment and Children's Health study. As part of each child's medical examination, a sample from his or her first morning urination was collected. These samples were subsequently analyzed for metabolites of the targeted phthalates. The measured concentrations of each metabolite were approximately log-normally distributed, and the metabolite concentrations significantly correlated with one another. Additionally, the mass fractions of DEP, DnBP, DiBP and BBzP in dust collected from the children's bedrooms and daycare centers significantly correlated with the concentrations of these phthalates' metabolites (monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), respectively) in the children's urine. Such correlations indicate that indoor exposures meaningfully contributed to the Danish children's intake of DEP, DnBP, DiBP and BBzP. This was not the case for DEHP. The urine concentrations of the phthalate metabolites measured in the present study were remarkably similar to those measured in urine samples from children living in countries distributed over four continents. These similarities reflect the globalization of children's exposure to phthalate containing products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of oily vehicles on fetal testis and lipid profile of rats exposed to di-butyl phthalate

Authors: Lourenço, A; Gomes, C; Boareto, A; Mueller, R; Nihi, F; Andrade, L; Trindade, E; Coelho, I; Naliwaiko, K; Morais, R; Martino-Andrade, A (2014) Human & Experimental Toxicology 33:54-63. HERO ID: 1639202

[Less] It has been hypothesized that oils containing high levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such . . . [More] It has been hypothesized that oils containing high levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as canola and fish oil, could counteract some of the adverse effects induced by phthalates. In the present study, the influence of different oily vehicles on di-butyl phthalate (DBP)-induced testicular toxicity and lipid profile was investigated. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated by oral gavage from gestation days 13 to 20 with DBP (500 mg/kg/day) diluted in three different vehicles: corn, canola or fish oil. Male fetuses were analyzed on gestation day 20. DBP exposure lowered intratesticular testosterone levels and anogenital distance, regardless of the vehicle used. The percentage of seminiferous cords containing multinucleated gonocytes and cord diameter was increased in DBP-exposed groups, compared with vehicle controls, with no difference between the three DBP-exposed groups. Clustering of Leydig cells was seen in all DBP groups. Lipid profile indicated that administration of canola and fish oil can increase the content of omega-3 fatty acids in rat testis. However, content of omega-3 was diminished in DBP-treated groups. Overall, our results indicate that different oily vehicles did not alter fetal rat testicular toxicity induced by a high DBP dose.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inverse Emulsion Polymerization of Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride and Acrylamide for Water Treatment

Authors: Zhang, P; Ren, B (2013) HERO ID: 1639275


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations : Supplemental materials

Authors: Manikkam, M; Tracey, R; Guerrero-Bosagna, C; Skinner, MK (2013) PLoS ONE 8:e55387. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3229882

[Less] Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset . . . [More] Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perinatal germ cell development and differentiation in the male marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): similarities with the human and differences from the rat

Authors: Mckinnell, C; Mitchell, R; Morris, K; Anderson, RA; Kelnar, CJH; Wallace, WH; Sharpe, RM (2013) Human Reproduction 28:886-896. HERO ID: 1598230

[Less] Is perinatal germ cell (GC) differentiation in the marmoset similar to that in the human?

In . . .
[More] Is perinatal germ cell (GC) differentiation in the marmoset similar to that in the human?

In a process comparable with the human, marmoset GC differentiate rapidly after birth, losing OCT4 expression after 57 weeks of age during mini-puberty.

Most of our understanding about perinatal GC development derives from rodents, in which all gonocytes (undifferentiated GC) co-ordinately lose expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4 and stop proliferating in late gestation. Then after birth these differentiated GC migrate to the basal lamina and resume proliferation prior to the onset of spermatogenesis. In humans, fetal GC differentiation occurs gradually and asynchronously and OCT4 GC persist into perinatal life. Failure to switch off OCT4 in GC perinatally can lead to development of carcinoma in situ (CIS), the precursor of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC), for which there is no animal model. Marmosets show similarities to the human, but systematic evaluation of perinatal GC development in this species is lacking. Similarity, especially for loss of OCT4 expression, would support use of the marmoset as a model for the human and for studying CIS origins.

Testis tissues were obtained from marmosets (n 410 per age) at 1217 weeks gestation and post-natal weeks 0.5, 2.5, 57, 14 and 22 weeks, humans at 1518 weeks gestation (n 5) and 45 weeks of age (n 4) and rats at embryonic day 21.5 (e21.5) (n 3) and post-natal days 4, 6 and 8 (n 4 each).

Testis sections from fetal and post-natal marmosets, humans and rats were collected and immunostained for OCT4 and VASA to identify undifferentiated and differentiated GC, respectively, and for Ki67, to identify proliferating GC. Stereological quantification of GC numbers, differentiation ( OCT4 GC) and proliferation were performed in perinatal marmosets and humans. Quantification of GC position within seminiferous cords was performed in marmosets, humans and rats.

The total GC number increased 17-fold from birth to 22 post-natal weeks in marmosets; OCT4 and VASA GC proliferated equally in late gestation and early post-natal life. The percentage of OCT4 GC fell from 54 in late fetal life to 0.5 at 2.5 weeks of age and none were detected after 57 weeks in marmosets. In humans, the percentage of OCT4 GC also declined markedly during the equivalent period. In marmosets, GC had begun migrating to the base of seminiferous cords at 22 weeks of age, after the loss of GC OCT4 expression.

There is considerable individual variation between marmosets. Although GC development in marmosets and humans was similar, there are differences with respect to proliferation during fetal life. The number of human samples was limited.

The similarities in testicular GC differentiation between marmosets and humans during the perinatal period, and their differences from rodents, suggest that the marmoset may be a useful model for studying the origins of CIS, with relevance for the study of TGCC.

This work was supported by Grant G33253 from the Medical Research Council, UK. No external funding was sought and there are no competing interests.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Identification of transcription factors and coactivators affected by dibutylphthalate interactions in fetal rat testes

Authors: Plummer, SM; Dan, D; Quinney, J; Hallmark, N; Phillips, RD; Millar, M; Macpherson, S; Elcombe, CR (2013) Toxicological Sciences 132:443-457. HERO ID: 1639208

[Less] Previous analysis of in utero dibutylphthalate (DBP)-exposed fetal rat testes indicated that DBP's antiandrogenic . . . [More] Previous analysis of in utero dibutylphthalate (DBP)-exposed fetal rat testes indicated that DBP's antiandrogenic effects were mediated, in part, by indirect inhibition of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), suggesting that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) might be involved through coactivator (CREB-binding protein [CBP]) sequestration. To test this hypothesis, we have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) microarray analysis to assess the DNA binding of PPARα, SF1, CBP, and RNA polymerase II in DBP-induced testicular maldevelopment target genes. Pathway analysis of expression array data in fetal rat testes examined at gestational day (GD) 15, 17, or 19 indicated that lipid metabolism genes regulated by SF1 and PPARα, respectively, were overrepresented, and the time dependency of changes to PPARα-regulated lipid metabolism genes correlated with DBP-mediated repression of SF1-regulated steroidogenesis genes. ChIP microarrays were used to investigate whether DBP-mediated repression of SF1-regulated genes was associated with changes in SF1 binding to genes involved in DBP-induced testicular maldevelopment. DBP treatment caused reductions in SF1 binding in CYP11a, StAR, and CYP17a. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), regulated by SF1 but unaffected by DBP-treatment, also contained SF1-binding peaks, but DBP did not change this compared with control. GD15 and GD19 fetal testes contained PPARα protein-binding peaks in CYP11a, StAR, and CYP17a regulatory regions. In contrast to its repressive effect on SF1, DBP treatment caused increases in these peaks compared with control. PPARα-binding peaks in the FSHR promoter were not detected in GD15 samples. Hence, the repressive effect of DBP on SF1-regulated steroidogenic genes correlates with inhibition of SF1-DNA binding and increased PPARα-DNA binding. The data indicate that PPARα may act as an indirect transrepressor of SF1 on steroidogenic genes in fetal rat testes in response to DBP treatment.