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Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and plasticisers in the Selangor River basin and possible pollution sources

Authors: Santhi, VA; Mustafa, AM (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1332544

[Less] A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin . . . [More] A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin from November 2008 to July 2009. Seven sampling sites representing the intake points of water treatment plants in the basin were selected to determine the occurrence and level of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), six phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA). Results indicated OCPs were still detected regularly in 66.1 % of the samples with the Σ(15)OCPs ranging from 0.6-25.2 ng/L. The first data on PAEs contamination in the basin revealed Σ(6)PAEs concentrations were between 39.0 and 1,096.6 ng/L with a median concentration of 186.0 ng/L while BPA concentration ranged from <1.2 to 120.0 ng/L. Although di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in all the samples, concentrations of di-ethyl(hexyl)phthalate were higher. Sampling sites located downstream recorded the highest concentrations, together with samples collected during the dry season. Comparison of the detected contaminants with the Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) showed some agreement between the concentration and the current classification of stream water. While the results suggest that the sites were only slightly polluted and suitable to be used as drinking water source, its presence is cause for concern especially to the fragile firefly "Pteroptyx tener" ecosystem located further downstream.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inverse Emulsion Polymerization of Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride and Acrylamide for Water Treatment

Authors: Zhang, P; Ren, B (2013) HERO ID: 1639275


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations : Supplemental materials

Authors: Manikkam, M; Tracey, R; Guerrero-Bosagna, C; Skinner, MK (2013) PLoS ONE 8:e55387. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3229882

[Less] Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset . . . [More] Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perinatal germ cell development and differentiation in the male marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): similarities with the human and differences from the rat

Authors: Mckinnell, C; Mitchell, R; Morris, K; Anderson, RA; Kelnar, CJH; Wallace, WH; Sharpe, RM (2013) Human Reproduction 28:886-896. HERO ID: 1598230

[Less] Is perinatal germ cell (GC) differentiation in the marmoset similar to that in the human?

In . . .
[More] Is perinatal germ cell (GC) differentiation in the marmoset similar to that in the human?

In a process comparable with the human, marmoset GC differentiate rapidly after birth, losing OCT4 expression after 57 weeks of age during mini-puberty.

Most of our understanding about perinatal GC development derives from rodents, in which all gonocytes (undifferentiated GC) co-ordinately lose expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4 and stop proliferating in late gestation. Then after birth these differentiated GC migrate to the basal lamina and resume proliferation prior to the onset of spermatogenesis. In humans, fetal GC differentiation occurs gradually and asynchronously and OCT4 GC persist into perinatal life. Failure to switch off OCT4 in GC perinatally can lead to development of carcinoma in situ (CIS), the precursor of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC), for which there is no animal model. Marmosets show similarities to the human, but systematic evaluation of perinatal GC development in this species is lacking. Similarity, especially for loss of OCT4 expression, would support use of the marmoset as a model for the human and for studying CIS origins.

Testis tissues were obtained from marmosets (n 410 per age) at 1217 weeks gestation and post-natal weeks 0.5, 2.5, 57, 14 and 22 weeks, humans at 1518 weeks gestation (n 5) and 45 weeks of age (n 4) and rats at embryonic day 21.5 (e21.5) (n 3) and post-natal days 4, 6 and 8 (n 4 each).

Testis sections from fetal and post-natal marmosets, humans and rats were collected and immunostained for OCT4 and VASA to identify undifferentiated and differentiated GC, respectively, and for Ki67, to identify proliferating GC. Stereological quantification of GC numbers, differentiation ( OCT4 GC) and proliferation were performed in perinatal marmosets and humans. Quantification of GC position within seminiferous cords was performed in marmosets, humans and rats.

The total GC number increased 17-fold from birth to 22 post-natal weeks in marmosets; OCT4 and VASA GC proliferated equally in late gestation and early post-natal life. The percentage of OCT4 GC fell from 54 in late fetal life to 0.5 at 2.5 weeks of age and none were detected after 57 weeks in marmosets. In humans, the percentage of OCT4 GC also declined markedly during the equivalent period. In marmosets, GC had begun migrating to the base of seminiferous cords at 22 weeks of age, after the loss of GC OCT4 expression.

There is considerable individual variation between marmosets. Although GC development in marmosets and humans was similar, there are differences with respect to proliferation during fetal life. The number of human samples was limited.

The similarities in testicular GC differentiation between marmosets and humans during the perinatal period, and their differences from rodents, suggest that the marmoset may be a useful model for studying the origins of CIS, with relevance for the study of TGCC.

This work was supported by Grant G33253 from the Medical Research Council, UK. No external funding was sought and there are no competing interests.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Identification of transcription factors and coactivators affected by dibutylphthalate interactions in fetal rat testes

Authors: Plummer, SM; Dan, D; Quinney, J; Hallmark, N; Phillips, RD; Millar, M; Macpherson, S; Elcombe, CR (2013) Toxicological Sciences 132:443-457. HERO ID: 1639208

[Less] Previous analysis of in utero dibutylphthalate (DBP)-exposed fetal rat testes indicated that DBP's antiandrogenic . . . [More] Previous analysis of in utero dibutylphthalate (DBP)-exposed fetal rat testes indicated that DBP's antiandrogenic effects were mediated, in part, by indirect inhibition of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), suggesting that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) might be involved through coactivator (CREB-binding protein [CBP]) sequestration. To test this hypothesis, we have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) microarray analysis to assess the DNA binding of PPARα, SF1, CBP, and RNA polymerase II in DBP-induced testicular maldevelopment target genes. Pathway analysis of expression array data in fetal rat testes examined at gestational day (GD) 15, 17, or 19 indicated that lipid metabolism genes regulated by SF1 and PPARα, respectively, were overrepresented, and the time dependency of changes to PPARα-regulated lipid metabolism genes correlated with DBP-mediated repression of SF1-regulated steroidogenesis genes. ChIP microarrays were used to investigate whether DBP-mediated repression of SF1-regulated genes was associated with changes in SF1 binding to genes involved in DBP-induced testicular maldevelopment. DBP treatment caused reductions in SF1 binding in CYP11a, StAR, and CYP17a. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), regulated by SF1 but unaffected by DBP-treatment, also contained SF1-binding peaks, but DBP did not change this compared with control. GD15 and GD19 fetal testes contained PPARα protein-binding peaks in CYP11a, StAR, and CYP17a regulatory regions. In contrast to its repressive effect on SF1, DBP treatment caused increases in these peaks compared with control. PPARα-binding peaks in the FSHR promoter were not detected in GD15 samples. Hence, the repressive effect of DBP on SF1-regulated steroidogenic genes correlates with inhibition of SF1-DNA binding and increased PPARα-DNA binding. The data indicate that PPARα may act as an indirect transrepressor of SF1 on steroidogenic genes in fetal rat testes in response to DBP treatment.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Acute sensitivity of the prepubertal mouse testis to di-n-butyl phthalate identifies a hierarchy of effects in the developing testis

Authors: Itman, C; Moody, S; Loveland, K (2013) 1:86. [Abstract] HERO ID: 1639261


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The influence of endocrine disruptors on growth and development of children

Author: Divall, SA (2013) Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity 20:50-55. [Review] HERO ID: 1400695

[Less] PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the most recent data about the effects of . . . [More] PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the most recent data about the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on infant and early childhood growth and reproductive tract development as well as controversies in the field.

RECENT FINDINGS: EDCs are present in pregnant women, young children and adolescents. Whether the level of exposure contributes to disease is an ongoing debate. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between prenatal EDC exposure and disease outcome, but animal studies using controlled EDC exposure have varying results with underlying mechanisms largely unknown.

SUMMARY: Human exposure to EDCs is widespread; bisphenol A, phthalates and persistent organic pollutants are detectable in all age groups and geographical locations in the USA. Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that phthalates and bisphenol A have adverse effects on birth weight, promote development of childhood obesity and adversely affect male reproductive tract development. Differences in the interpretation of available studies underlie the disparate conclusions of scientific and regulatory body's panels on potential toxicological effects of EDCs at current levels of human exposure.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Occurrence and Removal Characteristics of Phthalate Esters from Typical Water Sources in Northeast China

Authors: Liu, Yu; Chen, Z; Shen, J (2013) 2013:419349. HERO ID: 1598198

[Less] The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to . . . [More] The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study reports the first data on the occurrence of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir-the new and important water source of Harbin city in Northeast China. As drinking water is a major source for human exposure to PAEs, the fate of target PAEs in the two waterworks (Mopanshan Waterworks and Seven Waterworks) was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the total concentrations of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir were relatively moderate, ranging from 355.8 to 9226.5 ng/L, with the mean value of 2943.1 ng/L. DBP and DEHP dominated the PAE concentrations, which ranged from 52.5 to 4498.2 ng/L and 128.9 to 6570.9 ng/L, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were heavily spatially dependent. Meanwhile, the results on the waterworks samples suggested no significant differences in PAE levels with the input of the raw waters. Without effective and stable removal of PAEs after the conventional drinking water treatment in the waterworks (25.8% to 76.5%), the risks posed by PAEs through drinking water ingestion were still existing, which should be paid special attention to the source control in the Mopanshan Reservoir and some advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) exposure through diet in hospital patients

Authors: Cirillo, T; Fasano, E; Esposito, F; Montuori, P; Amodio Cocchieri, R (2013) Food and Chemical Toxicology. HERO ID: 1332531

[Less] Ready-to-eat packed meals intended to hospital patients were studied over a two-weeks period to measure . . . [More] Ready-to-eat packed meals intended to hospital patients were studied over a two-weeks period to measure the contents of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and to evaluate their daily intake by total diet. The packaging consisted of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) dishes sealed with polypropylene (PP) foil. The DEHP mean concentrations in total meals varied from 0.061±0.028 to 0.307±0.138μg/gwetweight (wet wt.); the DBP mean levels varied from 0.025±0.018 to 0.174±0.091μg/gwetwt. Highest levels of concentration for DEHP and DBP were found in bread with mean values of 0.307±0.138μg/gwetwt. and 0.174±0.091μg/gwetwt. for DEHP and DBP, respectively. The daily intake for DEHP was 3.1±0.9μg/kgbw and 1.5±0.5μg/kgbw for DBP. The mean±sd incidence of DEHP and DBP intake via hospital meals on the respective EFSA TDI was 6±2% (range 4-11%), and 15±5% (range 8-24%), respectively. Even if for hospital patients the major route of exposure may be represented by medical devices, the influence of the diet could have a significant value on TDI.